Land Restitution and Restitution Valuation in South Africa

Part of the Research Issues in Real Estate book series (RIRE, volume 10)


This study provides a broad overview of the land restitution process in South Africa and the associated valuation implications. The historical and legal basis of land restitution is described, followed by a brief review of progress with the implementation of this policy. Recommendations on how the land restitution process may be improved are provided. A discussion of valuation problems and the available guidelines on valuation for land restitution follows. The valuation approaches employed in three land restitution cases are described and analyzed. The study concludes that, despite problems, the restitution process is progressing well and that administrators, legal professionals and valuers are contributing to its success.


Consumer Price Index Land Tenure Land Reform Limpopo Province Land Claim 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author would like to thank Mr Frank Belling, Professional Valuer registered in terms of the Property Valuers Profession Act, 2000, for providing access to cases and for his ongoing contribution. Thanks are also due to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive and detailed input.


  1. African Eye, Grond dalk eers oor 90 jaar reg verdeel [Land perhaps only correctly divided in 90 years], Beeld, June 14, 2005, 12.Google Scholar
  2. Anon, Indigenous Peoples' Right to Restitution, Joint submission to the sixty-second session of the working group established in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1995/32, Geneva, December, 2005, 5–16.Google Scholar
  3. Anon, “III. Control: 1910–1948”, A land dispossession history, Document found at, 2006a.
  4. Anon, Righting the wrongs of apartheid, The Economist: A survey of South Africa, April 8, 2006b, 8.Google Scholar
  5. Anon, The Xhosa people, South Africa online travel guide, Document found at, 2006c.
  6. Belling, F.E.A., The farm Kinde Estate: Valuation report, Unpublished business report prepared for the Department of Land Affairs, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. Belling, F.E.A., The farm Sebele 931 KP: Valuation report, Unpublished business report prepared for the Department of Land Affairs, 2003.Google Scholar
  8. Belling, F.E.A. and V.G. Ghyoot, Historical market value of Portion 1 of the Farm Schilpadnest 385 KQ and recommendations on compensation, Unpublished business report for the Department of Land Affairs, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, A., Grondbom tik [Land bomb is ticking], Beeld, May 25, 2005, 21.Google Scholar
  10. Boyle, B., Land put on the fast track, Sunday Times, September 25, 2005, 13.Google Scholar
  11. Bromley, D.W. n.d., Land rights movements, Unpublished paper, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  12. Carey Miller, D.L. and A. Pope, South African land reform, Journal of African Law, 2000, 44, 167–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coetzee, G., Gekul met eise vir grond [Cheating with land claims], Beeld, March 11, 2005a, 1.Google Scholar
  14. Coetzee, G., Verdeling van grond sal teiken nie haal [Redistribution of land will not reach target], Beeld, February 9, 2005b, 3.Google Scholar
  15. Coetzee, G., Waarde van grond dalk irrelevant [Value of land perhaps irrelevant], Naweek-Beeld, October 1, 2005c, 2.Google Scholar
  16. Cotula, L., C. Toulmin and J. Quan, Policies and practices for securing and improving access to land, Issue Paper No.1, prepared by the International Institute for Environment and Development for the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ICARRD), January 2006.Google Scholar
  17. De Bruin, P., Groot grondeis-saak begin [Large land claim case commences], Beeld, April 26, 2005a, 21.Google Scholar
  18. De Bruin, P., Richtersveld se grondeis gaan lank voortsleep [Richtersveld case will drag on for long], Beeld, December 11, 2005b, 8.Google Scholar
  19. De Bruin, P., Richtersvelders soek vergoeding [Richtersvelders want compensation], Beeld, n.d., 2005c, 1.Google Scholar
  20. De Janvry, A. and E. Sadoulet, Land reforms in Latin America: ten lessons toward a contemporary agenda, Presentation to the World Bank's Latin American land policy workshop, Pachuca, Mexico, June 14, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. De Lange, L., J.-J. Joubert and G. Coetzee, Mbeki: Boere se voorland is laer pryse [Mbeki: Lower prices in store for farmers], Beeld, February 4, 2006, 1.Google Scholar
  22. De Soto, H. The mystery of capital, Reading: Black Swan, 2001.Google Scholar
  23. Donaldson, A., Putting the spin into land reform, Sunday Times, December 4, 2005, 33.Google Scholar
  24. Du Plessis, C., Grondverdeling se hinkepink ‘staat se skuld' [Slow progress with land redistribution ‘state's fault'], Beeld, October 20, 2005a, 27.Google Scholar
  25. Du Plessis, C., R5 per hektaar al wat tussen dié boere, hul plase staan [R5 per hectare ($0.29 per acre) all that keeps these new farmers from their farms], Beeld, September 7, 2005b, 15.Google Scholar
  26. Du Plessis, C., SA val rond met grond [SA inconsistent with land], Beeld, September 7, 2005c, 15.Google Scholar
  27. Du Plessis, C., Grond: op pad na 'n lekker baklei [Land: en route to a big fight], Beeld, July 29, 2005d, 6.Google Scholar
  28. Du Toit, P., The great South African land scandal, Centurion: Legacy, 2004.Google Scholar
  29. Du Toit, Z.B., Boere afgedreig oor grond, sê AgriSA se leier [Farmers threatened over land, says leader of AgriSA], Rapport, April 23, 2006, 2.Google Scholar
  30. Duvenage, H., Genoeg plase is nog te koop [Sufficient farms are still available for sale], SakeRapport, July 31, 2005, 15.Google Scholar
  31. Flores-Bórquez, M. and R. Grover, Restitution in land markets and social exclusion of indigenous peoples, Paper presented at the FIG conference “From Pharaohs to Geoinformatics” in Cairo, Egypt, April, 2005, 16–21.Google Scholar
  32. Fortes, R., Compensation models for native title, Paper presented at the eleventh annual conference of the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, Melbourne, Australia, January, 2005, 23–27.Google Scholar
  33. Gildenhuys, A. and G. Grobler, “Expropriation”, In W.A. Joubert, (ed.), The law of South Africa, Vol. 10, Durban: Butterworths, 1980, 1–144.Google Scholar
  34. Govender, P., Land summit rejects claim cut-off, Sunday Times, July 31, 2005, 13.Google Scholar
  35. Greyling, F., In 1993 is klaar oor grondeise besluit [Land claims decisions were already taken in 1993], Beeld, August 3, 2005, 12.Google Scholar
  36. Griffiths, T. Indigenous peoples, land tenure and land policy in Latin America. FAO corporate document depository. Electronic document accessed on 27 July 2006, at, 2006.
  37. Grobler, G., Onteiening van grond: opweging van die belange van die publiek by vasstelling van vergoeding [Expropriation of land: weighing up the interests of the public in determining compensation], Text of a lecture delivered to the South African Institute of Valuers in 2002.Google Scholar
  38. Gwanya, T., Land restitution in South Africa: our achievements and challenges, Pretoria: Commission on Restitution of Land Rights, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. Hall, R. and E. Lahiff, Budgeting for land reform, Debating land reform and rural development: Policy brief no.13, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town. Electronic document accessed on August 9, 2006, at
  40. Helfrich, K., Most land claims are settled peacefully, The Citizen, April 26, 2006, 18.Google Scholar
  41. Hosios, A.J. and L.B. Smith, Valuing first nation land claims and other historical damages. The Appraisal Journal, Winter, 2006, 43–52.Google Scholar
  42. International Land Coalition, Partners profiles & activities. Electronic document accessed on July 27, 2006, at, 2006.
  43. International Valuation Standards Committee. International valuation standards, seventh edition, London: IVSC, 2005.Google Scholar
  44. Jacobs, S., Land reform: still a goal worth pursuing for rural women? Paper presented to the Development Studies Association: Different Poverties, Different Policies, at the University of Manchester, September 10–12, 2001.Google Scholar
  45. Janse van Vuuren, A., ‘Ideologie is 'n bankrot boer' [‘Ideology is a bankrupt farmer'], SakeBeeld, July 13, 2005, 17.Google Scholar
  46. Joubert, J.-J., Jong kommuniste se grondvoorstel verwerp [Land proposal by young communists rejected], Beeld, April 11, 2005, 5.Google Scholar
  47. Kloppers, E., ‘Oorhaastige verdeling jaag grondryse op' [‘Over-hasty distribution drives land prices up'], SakeBeeld, December 8, 2005, 33.Google Scholar
  48. Kloppers, E., Buitelanders soek sekerheid oor koop van eiendom in SA [Foreigners want certainty over purchase of land in SA], Beeld, March 28, 2006, 17.Google Scholar
  49. Leuvennink, J., 22 Miljoen ha grond nog gesoek vir bemagtiging [22 Million ha (54 million acres) land still sought for empowerment], Beeld, May 24, 2005, 23.Google Scholar
  50. León, Á.D.C., Analysis and possible improvements of the land restitution process in Guatemala, Unpublished thesis, Enschede, The Netherlands: International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation, 2005.Google Scholar
  51. Louw, M., Grondprojekte mors R100 m. in Limpopo [Land projects waste R100 m. in Limpopo], Beeld, November 2, 2005, 9.Google Scholar
  52. Margolius, J., The procedures to be followed by valuers when dealing with valuation for land restitution purposes, Document found at, 1999.
  53. Mkhabela, M., Gewillige koper, verkoper word eersdaags afgeskaf [Willing buyer, seller will soon be dropped], Rapport, July 24, 2005, 14.Google Scholar
  54. Mulder, N., Buitelanders se grondbesit ‘kolonialisme' [Foreign land ownership is ‘colonialism'], Beeld, July 29, 2005a, 6.Google Scholar
  55. Mulder, N., ‘Heroorweeg dié grondbeginsel' [‘Reconsider this groundrule'], Beeld, July 28, 2005b, 1.Google Scholar
  56. Mulder, N., Grond-stap ‘bedreig die ekonomie [‘Land action ‘;threatens the economy'], Beeld, October 18, 2005c, 9.Google Scholar
  57. Mulder, N., Koopbeginsel gaan te gronde [Purchase principle comes to an end], Beeld, August 3, 2005d, 13.Google Scholar
  58. Mulder, N., Lollery met grondbeginsels tas vrye mark aan, sê TLU SA [Messing with basic principles affects free market, says TAU SA], Beeld, July 29, 2005e, 6.Google Scholar
  59. Mulder, N., Trae grondhervorming sal uitgedaag word [Slow land reform will be challenged], Beeld, July 29, 2005f, 6.Google Scholar
  60. Myers, M.S. and K. Shah, Why native lands are worth less than freehold, Paper presented at the tenth annual conference of the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, Bangkok, Thailand, January 25–28, 2004.Google Scholar
  61. National African Farmers Union, NAFU presentation, Paper presented to the National Land Summit on Land Reform, Johannesburg, July 27, 2005.Google Scholar
  62. Patterson, S., Land restitution and the prospects of aboriginal title in South Africa, Australian Indigenous Law Reporter, 2003, 8(3), 13, Electronic copy accessed on July 27, 2006, at
  63. Pelser, W., Mugabe nié held, sê SA swartes – opname [Mugabe not a hero, say SA blacks -- survey], Beeld, May 20, 2005, 5.Google Scholar
  64. Pienaar, J., “Racially discriminatory law or practice” for purposes of the Restitution of Land Rights Act 22 of 1994: recent developments in case law, De Jure, 2005, 195–208.Google Scholar
  65. Rams, E.M., Investment mechanics v. investment analysis, The Appraisal Journal, January, 1974, reproduced as Chapter 11 in American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers, Readings in Real Estate Investment Analysis, Volume 1, Chicago: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  66. Ratcliff, R.U., Appraisal: Is it measurement or prediction?, The Appraisal Journal, September, 1972a, reproduced in Ratcliff Readings on Real Estate Appraisal and its Foundation Economics, edited by J.A. Graaskamp, Madison: Landmark Research, 1979.Google Scholar
  67. Ratcliff, R.U., Valuation for real estate decisions, Santa Cruz: Democrat Press, 1972b, reproduced in Ratcliff Readings on Real Estate Appraisal and its Foundation Economics, edited by J.A. Graaskamp, Madison: Landmark Research, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. Ratcliff, R.U., Appraisal is market analysis, The Appraisal Journal, October, 1975, reproduced in Ratcliff Readings on Real Estate Appraisal and its Foundation Economics, edited by J.A. Graaskamp, Madison: Landmark Research, 1979.Google Scholar
  69. Roth, M., Integrating Land Issues and Land Policy with Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Southern Africa, Unpublished paper, 2002.Google Scholar
  70. RSG News Item, Most land reform projects in Limpopo [Province] have failed, Radio sonder grense, 6:00 a.m. news, November 2, 2005.Google Scholar
  71. SA Tourism Strategic Research Unit, 2004 Annual Tourism Report, 2005.Google Scholar
  72. Sheehan, J., Towards compensation for the compulsory acquisition of native title rights and interests in Australia, Paper presented at the FAO/USP/RICS Foundation South Pacific land tenure conflict symposium, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji, 10–12 April, 2002, Quoted in Fortes, R. 2005, 10.Google Scholar
  73. South Africa (Republic), Restitution of Land Rights Act, 1994, (Act 22 of 1994, as amended), 1994.Google Scholar
  74. South Africa (Republic), The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, (Act 108 of 1996), 1996.Google Scholar
  75. South Africa (Republic), Policy and procedures for expropriation of land in terms of Act 126 and ESTA (PC.DOC. 48/1999), Land Reform Policy Committee, Department of Land Affairs, 1999.Google Scholar
  76. South Africa (Republic), DLA handbook on property valuation, Version 1, Document found at, 2000.
  77. South African Broadcasting Corporation, “Land reform fails”, SABC2: Afrikaans news, 6:00 p.m., April 8, 2006a.Google Scholar
  78. South African Broadcasting Corporation, SABC2: Afrikaans news, 7:00 p.m., 20 April, 2006b.Google Scholar
  79. Staff Reporters and Sapa, PAC warns that more land invasions could follow soon, The Star, July 6, 2001.Google Scholar
  80. Terblanché, N.S., The challenges to valuers with regard to compensation for expropriation and restitution in South African statutes, Paper presented at the tenth annual conference of the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, Bangkok, Thailand, January 25–28, 2004.Google Scholar
  81. Van der Westhuizen, C., Onrustig slaap ... tensy SA mense grondkwessie saam pak [Uneasy sleep ... unless SA people tackle land issue together], Beeld, November 7, 2001.Google Scholar
  82. Van Eeden, J., Vat grondhervorming stede toe ! [Take land reform to the cities !], Rapport, June 5, 2005, 17.Google Scholar
  83. Van Rooyen, D., Swak waardasies jaag plaaspryse verder op [Poor valuations chase farm prices up further], Beeld, n.d., 2005.Google Scholar
  84. Van Vuuren, A.J., ‘Grond-gesprek moet aangaan' [‘Land conversation must continue'], Beeld, July 15, 2005a, 18.Google Scholar
  85. Van Vuuren, A.J., Staat stippel grondberaad se agenda uit [State sketches land summit agenda], Beeld, July 22, 2005b, 19.Google Scholar
  86. Van Wyk, A., Eiendomsreg: die debat het nog net begin [Property ownership: the debate has only just started], Beeld, September 15, 2005, 35.Google Scholar
  87. Venter, L., A land crisis to dwarf Zim[babwe] – PAC, The Citizen, July 6, 2001, 1.Google Scholar
  88. Wyngaard, H., Grondhervorming kan rigting kry met databasis [Land reform can be given direction with database], Rapport, December 4, 2005, 13.Google Scholar
  89. Zimmerman, J., Property on the line: is an expropriation-centered land reform constitutionally possible? The South African Law Journal, 2005, 122(2), 378–418.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Finance, Risk Management and BankingUniversity of South AfricaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations