Induction of Adaptive CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Response in Autoimmune Disease
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent one of the most critical regulatory components of the immune system. They are vitally important for homeostasis of the immune system and adequate immune responses. Tregs contain heterogeneous populations that share common markers and regulatory function but differ in the origin of differentiation or conversion. Deficiencies either in the number of Tregs or the expression of Foxp3 lead to various autoimmune pathologies in both humans and experimental animals. Here the role of adaptive Tregs that are converted from CD4+CD25– T cells in the periphery is reviewed in relationship to their induction by cytokines, such as gamma-interferon, and therapeutic modalities, including T cell vaccination and Copolymer-I currently being used or tested in multiple sclerosis. In particular, important issues related to the potential therapeutic application of adaptive Tregs in autoimmune disease are discussed.
KeywordsMultiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Patient Foxp3 Expression Cell Vaccination Cytokine Milieu
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