Advertisement

Improving the Intensive Care Unit

  • Allan Garland

Abstract

Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are a major component of modern healthcare systems. This, coupled with evidence demonstrating numerous problems with ICUs, mandate serious and sustained efforts to improve their performance.

Keywords

Standardize Mortality Ratio Continue Medical Education Simplify Acute Physiology Score Total Quality Management Quality Circle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

This chapter is a modified and updated version of the following articles:

Garland A. Improving the Intensive Care Unit. Part 1. Chest 127(6):2151–2164, 2005.

Garland A. Improving the Intensive Care Unit. Part 2. Chest 12(6):2165–2179, 2005.

References

  1. 1.
    Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences Staff. The Dartmouth atlas of healthcare 1999. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing; 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnato AE, McClellan MB, Kagay CR, et al. Trends in inpatient treatment intensity among medicare beneficiaries at the end of life. Health Serv Res. 2004;39:363–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control. Deaths by place of death, age, race, and sex: United States, 1999-2002. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/mortfinal2002_work309.pdf. Accessed February 21, 2002.
  4. 4.
    Angus DC, Barnato AE, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. Use of intensive care at the end of life in the united states: an epidemiologic study. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:638–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The SUPPORT Principal Investigators. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients. JAMA. 1995;274:1591–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, et al. Meeting the needs of intensive care unit patient families: a multicenter study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abbott KA, Sago JG, Breen CM, et al. Families looking back: one year after discussion of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining support. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luce JM, Rubenfeld GD. Can healthcare costs be reduced by limiting intensive care at the end of life? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:750–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Norris C, Jacobs P, Rapoport J, et al. ICU and non-ICU cost per day. Can J Anaesth. 1995;42:192–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Halpern NA, Bettes L, Greenstein R. Federal and nationwide intensive care units and healthcare costs: 1986–1992. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:2001–2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Halpern N, Pastores S, Greenstein R. Critical care medicine in the united states 1985–2000: an analysis of bed numbers, use, and costs. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:1254–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reis-Miranda D, Schaufeli WB, VanRossum W, et al. Intensive care units in de landen van de europese gemeenschap. Med Contact. 1997;29/30:921–925.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacobs P, Noseworthy TW. National estimates of intensive care utilization and costs: Canada and the united states. Crit Care Med. 1990;18:1282–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sirio CA, Tajimi K, Taenaka N, et al. A cross-cultural comparison of critical care delivery: Japan and the united states. Chest. 2002;121:539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thompson LA, Goodman DC, Little GA. Is more neonatal intensive care always better? Insights from a cross-national comparison of reproductive care. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1036–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Health, United States, 2003. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, 2003Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    World Health Staff. The world health report 2000 – health systems: Improving performance: World Health Organization; 2000Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Starfield B. Is us health really the best in the world? JAMA. 2000;284:483–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dubois RW, Rogers WH, Moxley JH, et al. Hospital inpatient mortality. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1674–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ashton CM, Kuykendall DH, Johnson ML, et al. The association between the quality of inpatient care and early readmission. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:415–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schuster MA, McGlynn EA, Brook RH. How good is the quality of healthcare in the united states? Milbank Q. 1998;76:517–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA. 2003;290:1868–1874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, editors. To err is human. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Valentin A, Capuzzo M, Guidet B, et al. Patient safety in intensive care: results from the multinational sentinel events evaluation (see) study. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1591–1598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sexton JB, Thomas EJ, Helmreich RL. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys. BMJ. 2000;320:745–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thomas E, Sexton J, Helmreich R. Discrepant attitudes about teamwork among critical care nurses and physicians. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:956–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pronovost P, Berenholtz S, Dorman T, et al. Improving communication in the icu using daily goals. J Crit Care. 2003;18:71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shortell SM, Zimmerman JE, Rousseau DM, et al. The performance of intensive care units: does good management make a difference? Med Care. 1994;32:508–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burns LR, Wholey DR. The effects of patient, hospital, and physician characteristics on length of stay and mortality. Med Care. 1991;29:251–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Zubkoff M, et al. Variations in resource utilization among medical specialties and systems of care: results from the medical outcomes study. JAMA. 1992;267:1624–1630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Feinglass J, Martin GJ, Sen A. The financial effect of physician practice style on hospital resource use. Health Sci Res. 1991;26:183–205.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Canto JG, Rogers WJ, French WJ, et al. Payer status and the utilization of hospital resources in acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:817–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ferrand E, Robert R, Ingrand P, et al. Withholding and withdrawal of life support in intensive-care units in France: a prospective survey. Lancet. 2001;357:9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rapoport J, Gehlbach S, Lemeshow S, et al. Resource utilization among intensive care patients: managed care vs. Traditional insurance. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:2207–2222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garland A, Connors AF Jr. Physicians’ influence over decisions to forego life support. J Palliat Med. 2007;10:1298–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garland A, Shaman Z, Baron J, et al. Physician-attributable differences in intensive care unit costs: a single-center study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:1206–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rothen H, Stricker K, Einfalt J, et al. Variability in outcome and resource use in intensive care units. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:1329–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chen E, Naylor CD. Variation in hospital length of stay for acute myocardial infarction in Ontario, Canada. Med Care. 1994;32:420–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Teno JM, Fischer E, Hamel MB, et al. Decision-making and outcomes of prolonged icu stays in seriously ill patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:S70–S74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Azoulay E, Chevret S, Leleu G, et al. Half the families of intensive care unit patients experience inadequate communication with physicians. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:3044–3049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nelson JE, Danis M. End-of-life care in the intensive care unit: where are we now? Crit Care Med. 2001;29:N2–N9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Prendergast TJ, Claessens MT, Luce JM. A national survey of end-of-life care for critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:1163–1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Davis DA, Mazmanian PE, Fordis M, et al. Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;296:1094–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ebell MH, Smith MA, Seifert DK, et al. The do-not-resuscitate order: outpatient experience and decision-making preferences. J Fam Pract. 1990;31:630–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fried TR, Bradley EH, Towle VR, et al. Understanding the treatment preferences of seriously ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1061–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baker DW, Einstadter D, Thomas CL, et al. Mortality trends during a program that publicly reported hospital performance. Med Care. 2002;40:879–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldfrad C, Rowan K. Consequences of discharges from intensive care at night. Lancet. 2000;355:1138–1142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Daly K, Beale R, Chang RWS. Reduction in mortality after inappropriate early discharge from intensive care unit: logistic regression triage model. BMJ. 2001;322:1274–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Angus DC, Carlet J. Surviving intensive care: a report from the 2002 brussels roundtable. Intensive Care Med. 2002;29:368–377.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Heyland DK, Hopman W, Coo H, et al. Long-term health-related quality of life in survivors of sepsis. Short form 36: a valid and reliable measure of health-related quality of life. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:3599–3605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hofhuis JGM, Spronk PE, van Stel HF, et al. The impact of critical illness on perceived health-related quality of life during ICU treatment, hospital stay, and after hospital discharge: a long-term follow-up study. Chest. 2008;133:377–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schelling G, Stoll C, Haller M, et al. Health-related quality of life and posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:651–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Khanna D, Tsevat J. Health-related quality of life – an introduction. Am J Manag Care. 2007;13:S218–S223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rivera-Fernandez R, Sanchez-Cruz JJ, Vazques-Mata G. Validation of a quality of life questionnaire for critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22:1034–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Heyland DK, Guyatt G, Cook DJ, et al. Frequency and methodologic rigor of quality-of-life assessments in the critical care literature. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:591–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kerridge RK, Glasziou PP, Hillman KM. The use of “quality-adjusted life years” (QALYs) to evaluate treatment in intensive care. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1995;23:322–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Giraud T, Dhainaut J, Vaxelaire J, et al. Iatrogenic complications in adult intensive care units: a prospective two-center study. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:40–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Haywood RA, Hofer TP. Estimating hospital deaths due to medical errors. JAMA. 2001;286:415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mehta RH, Alexander JH, Van de Werf F, et al. Relationship of incorrect dosing of fibrinolytic therapy and clinical outcomes. JAMA. 2005;293:1746–1750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Assessing the efficacy and safety of medical technologies. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment; 1978Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brown University Center for Gerontology and Healthcare Research. Toolkit of instruments to measure end of life. Available at: http://www.chcr.brown.edu/pcoc/toolkit.htm. Accessed March 11, 2003.
  62. 62.
    Stevens L, Cook D, Guyatt G, et al. Education, ethics, and end-of-life decisions in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:290–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shwartz M, Young DW, Siegrist R. The ratio of costs to charges: how good a basis for estimating costs? Inquiry. 1995;32:476–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Alzola C, Lynn J, Wagner D, et al. Length of stay and therapeutic intervention allow estimation of in-hospital resource use independent of site and inflation. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:S162–S167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weinstein MC, Stason WB. Foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis for health and medical practices. N Engl J Med. 1977;296:716–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rapoport J, Teres D, Lemeshow S, et al. A method for assessing the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of intensive care units: a multicenter inception cohort study. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:1385–1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kalb PE, Miller DH. Utilization strategies for intensive care units. JAMA. 1989;261:2389–2395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Task Force on Guidelines. Society of Critical Care Medicine. Recommendations for intensive care unit admission and discharge criteria. Crit Care Med 1988;16:807–808.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Truog R, DW B, Cook D, et al. Rationing in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:958–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blatchford O, Murray WR, Blatchford M. A risk score to predict need for treatment for upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet. 2000;356:1318–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Strauss MJ, LoGerfo MP, Yaltatzie JA, et al. Rationing of intensive care services: an everyday occurrence. JAMA. 1986;255:1143–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rosenthal GE, Sirio CA, Shepardson LB, et al. Use of intensive care units for patients with low severity of illness. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1144–1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wall RJ, Engelberg RA, Downey L, et al. Refinement, scoring, and validation of the family satisfaction in the intensive care unit (FS-ICU) survey. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leske JL. Internal psychometric properties of the critical care family needs inventory. Heart Lung. 1991;20:236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Steel RP, Ovalle NK. A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. J Appl Psychol. 1984;69:673–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jones C. The costs of nurse turnover, part 2: application of the nursing turnover cost calculation methodology. J Nurs Adm. 2005;35:41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Morrison AL, Beckmann U, Durie M, et al. The effects of nursing staff inexperience (NSI) on the occurrence of adverse patient experiences in ICUs. Aust Crit Care. 2001;14:116–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wheelan SA, Burchill CN, Tilin F. The link between teamwork and patients’ outcomes in intensive care units. Am J Crit Care. 2003;12:527–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chen SM, McMurray A. “Burnout” in intensive care nurses. J Nurs Res. 2001;9:152–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shelledy DC, Mikles SP, May DF, et al. Analysis of job satisfaction, burnout, and intent of respiratory care practitioners to leave the field or the job. Respir Care. 1992;37:46–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guntupalli KK, Fromm RE. Burnout in the internist-intensivist. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22:625–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buerhaus PI, Staiger DO, Auerbach DI. Why are shortages of hospital RNs concentrated in specialty care units? Nurs Econ. 2000;18:111–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    The AARC respiratory therapist human resources study-2000. Dallas: American Association of Respiratory Care; 2000Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Angus DC, Kelley MA, Schmitz RJ, et al. Current and projected workforce requirements for care of the critically ill and patients with pulmonary disease. JAMA. 2000;284:2762–2770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Buerhaus PI, Stainger DO, Auerbach DI. Implications of an aging registered nurse workforce. JAMA. 2000;283:2948–2954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    van Saane N, Sluiter J, Verbeek J, et al. Reliability and validity of instruments measuring job satisfaction – a systematic review. Occup Med. 2003;53:191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linn LS, Yager J, Cope D, et al. Health status, job satisfaction, job stress, and life satisfaction among academic and clinical faculty. JAMA. 1985;254:2775–2782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    LeBlanc PM, deJonge J, deRijk AE, et al. Well-being of intensive care nurses (WEBIC): a job analytic approach. J Adv Nurs. 2001;36:460–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:397–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rosenberg AL, Watts C. Patients readmitted to ICUs: a systematic review of risk factors and outcomes. Chest. 2000;118:492–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Angus DC. Grappling with intensive care unit quality – does the readmission rate tell us anything? Crit Care Med. 1998;26:1779–1780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Garland A, Connors AF Jr. Optimal timing of transfer out of ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; (Abstract. Accepted for the American Thoracic Society 2008 International Conference, Toronto, ON)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fleming TR, DeMets DL. Surrogate end points in clinical trials: are we being misled? Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:605–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    American Thoracic Society, infections Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:388–416.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dellinger RP, Zimmerman JL, Taylor RW, et al. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a randomized phase ii trial. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rothschild J, Landrigan C, Cronin J, et al. The critical care safety study: the incidence and nature of adverse events and serious medical errors in intensive care. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1694–1700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Thomas EJ, Studdert DM, Brennan TA. The reliability of medical record review for estimating adverse event rates. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:812–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Localio AR, Weaver SL, Landis JR, et al. Identifying adverse events caused by medical care: degree of physician agreement in a retrospective chart review. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:457–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Randolph AG, Guyatt GH, Carlet J. Understanding articles comparing outcomes among intensive care units to rate quality of care. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:773–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Morton V, Torgerson DJ. Effect of regression to the mean on decision making in healthcare. BMJ. 2003;326:1083–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Leveck JL, Jones CB. The nursing practice environment, staff retention, and quality of care. Res Nurs Health. 1996;19: 331–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kawai K, Nonaka K, Suzuki H, et al. Differential effects of activity and climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wu AW. The measure and mismeasure of hospital quality: appropriate risk-adjustment methods in comparing hospitals. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Glance LG, Osler T, Shinozaki T. Effect of varying the case mortality mix on the standardized mortality ratio and W statistic. Chest. 2000;117:1112–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE, et al. Variations in mortality and length of stay in intensive care units. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:753–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Render ML, Kim HM, Welsh DE, et al. Automated intensive care unit risk adjustment: results from a national veterans affairs study. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1638–1646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Escarce JJ, Kelley MA. Admission source to the medical intensive care unit predicts hospital death independent of apache ii score. JAMA. 1990;264:2389–2394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Combes A, Luyt C, Trouillet J, et al. Adverse effect on a referral intensive care unit’s performance of accepting patients transferred from another intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:705–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rosenberg AL. Recent innovations in intensive care unit risk-prediction models. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002;8:321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Freeman HE, Corey CR. Insurance status and access to health services among poor persons. Health Serv Res. 1993;28:531–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weissman J, Epstein AM. Case mix and resource utilization by uninsured hospital patients in the Boston metropolitan area. JAMA. 1989;261:3572–3576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cook SF, Visscher WA, Hobbs CL, et al. Project impact: results from a pilot validity study of a new observational database. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:2765–2770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Clermont G, Angus DC, DiRusso SM, et al. Predicting hospital mortality for patients in the intensive care unit: a comparison of artificial neural networks with logistic regression models. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pollack MM, Ruttimann UE, Getson PR. Pediatric risk of mortality score. Crit Care Med. 1988;16:1110–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    O’Connor GT, Plume SK, Olmstead EM, et al. Multivariate prediction of in-hospital mortality associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 1992;85:2110–2118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Champion HR, Copes WS, Sacco WJ, et al. A new characterization of injury severity. J Trauma. 1990;30:539–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Schafer JH, Maurer A, Jochimsen F, et al. Outcome prediction models on admission in a medical intensive care unit: do they predict individual outcome? Crit Care Med. 1990;18:1111–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Beck DH, Smith BG, Pappachan JV, et al. External validation of the saps ii, apache ii and apache iii prognostic models in South England: a multicentre study. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:249–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ruttimann UE, Pollack MM. Variability in duration of stay in pediatric intensive care units: a multiinstitutional study. J Pediatr. 1996;128:35–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Teres D, Lemeshow S. As American as apple pie and APACHE. Crit Care Med. 1988;26:1297–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dart R, Patel B, Perez-Alard J, et al. Prognosis of oncology patients receiving intensive care using the apache ii system. Md Med J. 1991;40:273–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pappachan JV, Millar B, Bennett ED, et al. Comparison of outcome from intensive care admission after adjustment for case mix by the apache iii prognostic system. Chest. 1999;115:802–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kahn JM, Kramer AA, Rubenfeld GD. Transferring critically ill patients out of hospital improves the standardized mortality ratio: a simulation study. Chest. 2007;131:68–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Castella X, Artigas A, Bion J, et al. A comparison of severity of illness scoring systems for intensive care unit patients: results of a multicenter, multinational study. The European/North American severity study group. Crit Care Med. 1995;23:1327–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Barie PS, Hydo LJ, Fischer E. Comparison of apache ii and iii scoring systems for mortality prediction in critical surgical illness. Arch Surg. 1995;130:77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Markgraf R, Deutschinoff G, Pientka L, et al. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluations ii and iii and simplified acute physiology score ii: a prospective cohort study evaluating these methods to predict outcome in a German interdisciplinary intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Iezzoni LI. Assessing quality using administrative data. Ann Intern Med. 1997;128:666–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Angus DC. Scoring system fatigue...And the search for a way forward. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:2145–2146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Richardson D, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Lee SK. Risk adjustment for quality improvement. Pediatrics. 1999;103:255–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sirio CA, Shepardson LB, Rotondi AJ, et al. Community-wide assessment of intensive care outcomes using a physiologically based prognostic measure: implications for critical care delivery from Cleveland health quality choice. Chest. 1999;115:793–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hsia CD. Diagnosis related group coding accuracy of the peer review organizations. J AHIMA. 1992;63:56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sivak ED, Perez-Trepichio A. Quality assessment in the medical intensive care unit: evolution of a data model. Cleve Clin J Med. 1990;57:273–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    University healthsystem consortium. Available at: http://www.uhc.edu/. Accessed February 28, 2008.
  134. 134.
    Institute for healthcare improvement. Available at: http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Topics/CriticalCare/. Accessed February 29, 2008.
  135. 135.
    Berwick DM. Developing and testing changes in delivery of care. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:651–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Berwick DM. Health services research and quality of care. Med Care. 1989;27:763–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ioannidis JPA. Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine. 2005;2(8):e124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ioannidis JPA. Contradicted and initially stronger effects in highly cited clinical research. JAMA. 2005;294:218–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Topol EJ. Nesiritide – not verified. N Engl J Med. 2005;353: 113–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Windish DM, Huot SJ, Green ML. Medicine residents’ understanding of the biostatistics and results in the medical literature. JAMA. 2007;298:1010–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Berwick DM, Fineberg HV, Weinstein MC. When doctors meet numbers. Am J Med. 1981;71:991–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Chassin MR, Galvin RW. The urgent need to improve healthcare quality. Institute of medicine national roundtable on healthcare quality. JAMA. 1998;280:1000–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    McGlynn EA, Brook RH. Keeping quality on the policy agenda. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001;20:82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chen J, Radford MJ, Wang Y, et al. Do “America’s best hospitals” perform better for acute myocardial infarction? N Engl J Med. 1999;340:286–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Weinert CR, Gross CR, Marinelli WA. Impact of randomized trial results on acute lung injury ventilator therapy in teaching hospitals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1304–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kassirer JP. Pseudoaccountability. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134: 587–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Nolan TW. Understanding medical systems. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Deming WE. Out of crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1986.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Juran JM, Godfrey AB. Juran’s quality handbook. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Berwick DM. Continuous improvement as an ideal in healthcare. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:53–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Buccini EP. Total quality management in the critical care environment. Crit Care Unit Manage. 1993;9:455–463.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    McLaughlin CP, Kaluzny AD. Total quality management in health: making it work. Healthcare Manage Rev. 1990;15:7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    O’Connor GT, Plume SK, Olmstead EM, et al. A regional intervention to improve the hospital mortality associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JAMA. 1996;275:841–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Joint commission requirements: Hospitals. Available at: http://www.jcrinc.com/26813/newsletters/28192/. Accessed March 5, 2009.
  155. 155.
    Fritz DJ, Cheeseman S. Blueprint for integrating nurse extenders in critical care. Nurs Econ. 1994;12:327–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ely EW, Bennett PA, Bowton DL, et al. Large scale implementation of a respiratory therapist-driven protocol for ventilator weaning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:439–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lellouche F, Mancebo J, Jolliet P, et al. A multicenter randomized trial of computer-driven protocolized weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:894–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Evans RS, Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, et al. Improving empiric antibiotic selection using computer decision support. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:878–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Leape LL, Cullen DJ, Clapp MD, et al. Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care units. JAMA. 1999;282:267–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bernstein M. Wrong-side surgery: systems for prevention. Can J Surg. 2003;46:144–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shortell SM, Singer SJ. Improving patient safety by taking systems seriously. JAMA. 2008;299:445–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Amalberti R, Auroy Y, Berwick D, et al. Five system barriers to achieving ultrasafe healthcare. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142: 756–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Pierluissi E, Fischer MA, Campbell AR, et al. Discussion of medical errors in morbidity and mortality conferences. JAMA. 2003;290:2838–2842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Caplan RA, Posner KL, Cheney FW. Effect of outcome on physician judgments of appropriateness of care. JAMA. 1991;265:1957–1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Donchin Y, Gopher D, Olin M, et al. A look into the nature and causes of human errors in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 1995;23:294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rhodes M, Sacco W, Smith S, et al. Cost effectiveness of trauma quality assurance audit filters. J Trauma. 1990;30:724–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Copes WS, Staz CF, Konvolinka CW, et al. American college of surgeons audit filters: associations with patient outcome and resource utilization. J Trauma. 1995;38:432–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Berwick DM. Errors today and errors tomorrow. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2570–2572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Wu AW, Lipshutz AKM, Pronovost PJ. Effectiveness and efficiency of root cause analysis in medicine. JAMA. 2008;299: 685–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Chassin MR. Quality of healthcare part 3: improving the quality of care. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1060–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Spencer FC. Human error in hospitals and industrial accidents: current concepts. J Am Coll Surg. 2000;191:410–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Helmreich RL, Merritt AC, Wilhelm JA. The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Int J Aviat Psychol. 1999;9:19–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Statistical summary of commercial jet airplane accidents worldwide operations 1959–2004. Seattle, Washington: Boeing Commercial Airplanes, 2005Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Weingart SN. House officer education and organizational obstacles to quality improvement. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1996;22:640–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cooper JB. No myth: anesthesia is a model for addressing patient safety. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:1335–1338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Babcock HM, Zack JE, Garrison T, et al. An educational intervention to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia in an integrated health system: a comparison of effects. Chest. 2004;125:2224–2231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pronovost P, Needham D, Berenholtz S, et al. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the icu. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2725–2732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Reinersten JL. Physicians as leaders in the improvement of healthcare systems. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128:833–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rosenthal GE, Harper DL. Cleveland health quality choice: a model for collaborative community-based outcomes assessment. Jt comm J Qual Improv. 1994;20:425–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Williams SC, Schmaltz SP, Morton DJ, et al. Quality of care in U.S. Hospitals as reflected by standardized measures, 2002-2004. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:255–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Asch SM, McGlynn EA, Hogan MM, et al. Comparison of quality of care for patients in the veterans health administration and patients in a national sample. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141: 938–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cassell J, Buchman TG, Streat S, et al. Surgeons, intensivists, and the covenant of care: administrative models and values affecting care at the end of life. Crit Care Med. 2003;31: 1263–1270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pronovost PJ, Angus DC, Dorman T, et al. Physician staffing patterns and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: a systematic review. JAMA. 2002;288:2151–2162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Young MP, Birkmeyer JD. Potential reduction in mortality rates using an intensivist model to manage intensive care units. Eff Clin Pract. 2000;6:284–289.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Haut E, Sicoutris C, Meredith D, et al. Improved nurse job satisfaction and job retention with the transition from a “mandatory consultation” model to a “semiclosed” surgical intensive care unit: a 1-year prospective evaluation. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:387–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Blunt MC, Burchett KR. Out-of-hours consultant cover and case-mix-adjusted mortality in intensive care. Lancet. 2000;356:735–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gajic O, Afessa B, Hanson AC, et al. Effect of 24-hour mandatory versus on-demand critical care specialist presence on quality of care and family and provider satisfaction in the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Rosenfeld BA, Dorman T, Breslow MJ, et al. Intensive care unit telemedicine: alternative paradigm for providing continuous intensivist care. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:3925–3931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Breslow M, Rosenfeld B, Doerfler M, et al. Effect of a multiple-site intensive care unit telemedicine program on clinical and economic outcomes: an alternative paradigm for intensivist staffing. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Baggs JG, Schmitt JH, Mushlin AI, et al. Association between nurse-physician collaboration and patient outcomes in three intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:1991–1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kane RL, Shamliyan TA, Mueller C, et al. The association of registered nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Care. 2007;45:1195–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Numata Y, Schulzer M, van der Wal R, et al. Nurse staffing levels and hospital mortality in critical care settings: literature review and meta-analysis. J Adv Nurs. 2006;55:435–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Bellomo R, Goldsmith D, Uchino S, et al. A prospective before-and-after trial of a medical emergency team. Med J Aust. 2003;179:283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Hillman K, Chen J, Cretikos M, et al. Introduction of the medical emergency team (met) system: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:2091–2097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Byrick RJ, Mazer CD, Caskennette GM. Closure of an intermediate care unit: impact on critical care utilization. Chest. 1993;104:876–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Franklin CM, Rackow EC, Mamdani B, et al. Decreases in mortality in a large urban medical service by facilitating access to critical care. An alternative to rationing. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1403–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Pronovost PJ, Rinke ML, Emery K, et al. Interventions to reduce mortality among patients treated in intensive care units. J Crit Care. 2004;19:158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Woolf SH. The meaning of translational research and why it matters. JAMA. 2008;299:211–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gray BH, Gusmano MK, Collins S. Ahcpr and the changing politics of health services research. Available at: http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/abstract/hlthaff.w3.283v1.
  200. 200.
    Davis D, O’Brien MA, Freemantle N, et al. Impact of formal continuing medical education: do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician behavior or healthcare outcomes? JAMA. 1999;282:867–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Getting evidence into practice. Eff Healthcare. 1999;5:1–16.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Onion CW, Bartzokas CA. Changing attitudes to infection management in primary care: a controlled trial of active versus passive guideline implementation strategies. Fam Pract. 1998;15:99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, et al. Changing physician performance. A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. JAMA. 1995;274:700–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Bradley EH, Holmboe ES, Mattera JA, et al. Data feedback efforts in quality improvement: lessons learned from us hospitals. Qual Saf Healthcare. 2004;13:26–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Thomson-O’Brien MA, Oxman AD, Davis DA, et al. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;2:CD000259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Balas EA, Boren SA, Brown GD, et al. Effect of physician profiling on utilization. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Gen Intern Med. 1996;11:584–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Eagle KA, Mulley AG, Skates SJ, et al. Length of stay in the intensive care unit. Effects of practice guidelines and feedback. JAMA. 1990;264:992–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Selker HP. Criteria for adoption in practice of medical practice guidelines. Am J Cardiol. 1993;71:339–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Boyd CM, Darer J, Boult C, et al. Clinical practice guidelines and quality of care for older patients with multiple comorbid diseases: implications for pay for performance. JAMA. 2005;294:716–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tunis SR, Hayward RS, Wilson MC, et al. Internists’ attitudes about clinical practice guidelines. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:956–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Gundersen L. The effect of clinical practice guidelines on variations in care. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:317–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, et al. Why don’t physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA. 1999;282:1458–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, et al. Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of Southern Florida; 2008.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Philbin EF, Rocco TA, Lindenmuth NW, et al. The results of a randomized trial of a quality improvement intervention in the care of patients with heart failure. The MISCHF study investigators. Am J Med. 2000;109:443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Davis DA, Taylor-Vaisey A. Translating guidelines into practice. A systematic review of the theoretic concepts, practical experience and research evidence in the adoption of clinical practice guidelines. Can Med Assoc J. 1997;157:408–416.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Hay JA, Maldonado L, Weingarten SR, et al. Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline recommending hospital length of stay in upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. JAMA. 1997;278:2151–2156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Implement the ventilator bundle. Available at: http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Topics/CriticalCare/IntensiveCare/Changes/ImplementtheVentilatorBundle.htm. Accessed March 1, 2008.
  218. 218.
    Helman DL, Sherner JH, Fitzpatrick TM, et al. Effect of standardized orders and provider education on head-of-bed positioning in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:2285–2290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Chapman G, Curtas S, Meguid MM. Standardized enteral orders attain caloric goals sooner: a prospective study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992;16:149–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Schedler PA, Neely S. Standardized trauma admission orders, a pilot project. Int J Trauma Nurs. 1996;2:13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Dexter PR, Perkins SM, Maharry KS, et al. Inpatient computer-based standing orders vs physician reminders to increase influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292:2366–2371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Wilson R, Runciman W, Gibberd R, et al. The quality in Australian healthcare study. Med J Aust. 1995;163:458–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    National Quality Forum. Welcome to the national quality forum. Available at: http://www.qualityforum.org/. Accessed March 2, 2008.
  224. 224.
    Cook DJ, Meade MO, Hand LE, et al. Toward understanding evidence uptake: semirecumbency for pneumonia prevention. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:1472–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Redfern RO, Kundel HL, Polansky M, et al. A picture archival and communication system shortens delays in obtaining radiographic information in a medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:1006–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Watkins J, Weatherburn G, Bryan S. The impact of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) upon an intensive care unit. Eur J Radiol. 2000;34:3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Reiner BI, Siegel EL, Hooper F, et al. Impact of filmless imaging on the frequency of clinician review of radiology images. J Digit Imaging. 1998;11:149–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Murphy M, Kay J. Barcode identification for transfusion safety. Curr Opin Hematol. 2004;11:334–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Poon EG, Cina JL, Churchill W, et al. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:426–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Imhoff M. Acquisition of ICU data: concepts and demands. Int J Clin Monit Comput. 1992;9:229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Bates DW, Gawande AA. Improving safety with information technology. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2526–2534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Gillingham W, Holt A, Gillies J. Hand-held computers in healthcare: what software programs are available? N Z Med J. 2002;115:U185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Mekhjian MS, Kumar RR, Kuehn L, et al. Immediate benefits realized following implementation of physician order entry at an academic medical center. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002;9:529–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Shamliyan TA, Duval S, Du J, et al. Just what the doctor ordered. Review of the evidence of the impact of computerized physician order entry system on medication errors. Health Serv Res. 2008;43:32–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Tierney WM, Miller ME, Overhage M, et al. Physician inpatient order writing on microcomputer workstations. JAMA. 1993;269:379–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Koppel R, Metlay SP, Cohen A, et al. Role of computerized physician order entry systems in facilitating medication errors. JAMA. 2005;293:1197–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Bates DW, Cohen M, Leape LL, Overhage JM, et al. Reducing the frequency of errors in medicine using information technology. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2001;8:299–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Shabot MM. Ten commandments for implementing clinical information systems. Bayl Univ Med Cent Proc. 2004;17:265–269.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Overhage JM, Tierney WM, Zhou XH, et al. A randomized trial of “corollary orders” to prevent errors of omission. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1997;4:364–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Chertow GM, Lee J, Kuperman GJ, et al. Guided medication dosing for inpatients with renal insufficiency. JAMA. 2001;286:2839–2844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Walton R, Dovey S, Harvey E, et al. Computer support for determining drug dose: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 1999;318:984–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Kucher N, Koo S, Quiroz R, et al. Electronic alerts to prevent venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:969–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Kawamoto K, Houlihan C, Balas E, et al. Improving clinical practice using clinical decision support systems: a systematic review of trials to identify features critical to success. BMJ. 2005;330:765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, et al. Computerized surveillance of adverse drug events in hospital patients. JAMA. 1991;266:2847–2851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Evans RS, Pestotnik ST, Burke JP, et al. Reducing the duration of prophylactic antibiotic use through computer monitoring of surgical patients. DICP. 1990;24:351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Moser SA, Jones WT, Brossette SE. Application of data mining to intensive care unit microbiologic data. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:454–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Brossette SE, Sprague AP, Jones WT, et al. A data mining system for infection control surveillance. Methods Inf Med. 2000;39:303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Roberts DE, Bell DD, Ostryzniuk T, et al. Eliminating needless testing in intensive care – an information-based team management approach. Crit Care Med. 1993;21:1452–1458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Kaushal R, Blumenthal D, Poon EG, et al. The costs of a national health information network. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:165–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Lapinsky SE, Holt D, Hallett D, et al. Survey of information technology in intensive care units in Ontario, Canada. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8:5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan Garland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of ManitobaManitobaCanada

Personalised recommendations