Postoperative Care of the Heart Transplant Patient

  • Nicholas R. Banner
  • Iman Hamour
  • Haifa Lyster
  • Margaret Burke
  • Michael J. Boscoe
  • Gilles D. Dreyfus


Heart transplantation has become established as a highly successful therapy for selected patients with advanced cardiac failure.Long-term survival rates after transplantation far exceed those achieved by medical therapy for this condition.


Right Ventricle Acute Rejection Heart Transplantation Brain Death Mechanical Circulatory Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Banner N. Heart transplantation and the current management of advanced heart failure. In: Pusey C, editor. Horizons in medicine. London: Royal College of Physicians; 1999. p. 359–371.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taylor DO, Edwards LB, Boucek MM, et al. Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: twenty-third official adult heart transplantation report – 2006. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(8):869–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anguita M, Arizon JM, Valles F, et al. Influence on survival after heart transplantation of contraindications seen in transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1992;11(4 Pt 1):708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mehra MR, Kobashigawa J, Starling R, et al. Listing criteria for heart transplantation: International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines for the care of cardiac transplant candidates – 2006. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(9):1024–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jessup M, Banner N, Brozena S, et al. Optimal pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of cardiac transplant candidates: approaches to be considered prior to transplant evaluation: International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines for the care of cardiac transplant candidates – 2006. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(9):1003–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gronda E, Bourge RC, Costanzo MR, et al. Heart rhythm considerations in heart transplant candidates and considerations for ventricular assist devices: International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines for the care of cardiac transplant candidates – 2006. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(9):1043–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ho KK, Anderson KM, Kannel WB, et al. Survival after the onset of congestive heart failure in Framingham Heart Study subjects. Circulation. 1993;88(1):107–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gheorghiade M, Cody RJ, Francis GS, et al. Current medical therapy for advanced heart failure. Am Heart J. 1998;135(6 Pt 2): S231–S248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schultz C, Bonser RS, Lyster H, et al. Heart failure and transplantation. Card Surg Today. 2007;3(3):110–128.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shah PJ, Hare DL, Raman JS, et al. Survival after myocardial revascularization for ischemic cardiomyopathy: a prospective ten-year follow-up study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(5):1320–1327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Di Donato M, Sabatier M, Dor V, et al. Effects of the Dor procedure on left ventricular dimension and shape and geometric correlates of mitral regurgitation one year after surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;121(1):91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bach DS, Bolling SF. Improvement following correction of secondary mitral regurgitation in end-stage cardiomyopathy with mitral annuloplasty. Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(8):966–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu AH, Aaronson KD, Bolling SF, et al. Impact of mitral valve annuloplasty on mortality risk in patients with mitral ­regurgitation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45(3):381–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mancini DM, Eisen H, Kussmaul W, et al. Value of peak exercise oxygen consumption for optimal timing of cardiac transplantation in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Circulation. 1991;83(3):778–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM, et al. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. Circulation. 1997;95(12):2660–2667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koelling TM, Joseph S, Aaronson KD. Heart failure survival score continues to predict clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure receiving beta-blockers. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(12):1414–1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mudge GH, Goldstein S, Addonizio LJ, et al. 24th Bethesda conference: cardiac transplantation. Task Force 3: recipient guidelines/prioritization. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22(1):21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Costanzo MR, Augustine S, Bourge R, et al. Selection and treatment of candidates for heart transplantation. A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1995;92(12): 3593–3612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith JD, Danskine AJ, Laylor RM, et al. The effect of panel reactive antibodies and the donor specific crossmatch on graft survival after heart and heart-lung transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 1993;1(1):60–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirklin JK, Naftel DC, Kirklin JW, et al. Pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk of heart transplantation. J Heart Transplant. 1988;7(5):331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen JM, Levin HR, Michler RE, et al. Reevaluating the significance of pulmonary hypertension before cardiac transplantation: determination of optimal thresholds and quantification of the effect of reversibility on perioperative mortality. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;114(4):627–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weed LL. Medical records that guide and teach. N Engl J Med. 1968;278(11):593–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kantrowitz A, Tjonneland S, Krakauer JS, et al. Mechanical intraaortic cardiac assistance in cardiogenic shock. Hemodynamic effects. Arch Surg. 1968;97(6):1000–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldberg MJ, Rubenfire M, Kantrowitz A, et al. Intraaortic balloon pump insertion: a randomized study comparing percutaneous and surgical techniques. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987;9(3):515–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Torchiana DF, Hirsch G, Buckley MJ, et al. Intraaortic balloon pumping for cardiac support: trends in practice and outcome, 1968 to 1995. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;113(4):758–764. discussion 64–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodigas PC, Finnegan JO. Technique for removal of percutaneously placed intraaortic balloons. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985;40(1):80–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alle KM, White GH, Harris JP, et al. Iatrogenic vascular trauma associated with intra-aortic balloon pumping: identification of risk factors. Am Surg. 1993;59(12):813–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frazier OH, Macris MP, Myers TJ, et al. Improved survival after extended bridge to cardiac transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(6):1416–1422. discussion 21–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Deng MC, Edwards LB, Hertz MI, et al. Mechanical circulatory support device database of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: third annual report – 2005. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(9):1182–1187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Portner PM, Oyer PE, Pennington DG, et al. Implantable ­electrical left ventricular assist system: bridge to transplantation and the future. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;47(1):142–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oz MC, Argenziano M, Catanese KA, et al. Bridge experience with long-term implantable left ventricular assist devices. Are they an alternative to transplantation? Circulation. 1997;95(7):1844–1852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frazier OH, Rose EA, Oz MC, et al. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the HeartMate vented electric left ventricular assist system in patients awaiting heart transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;122(6):1186–1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farrar DJ, Hill JD. Univentricular and biventricular Thoratec VAD support as a bridge to transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;55(1):276–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Champsaur G, Ninet J, Vigneron M, et al. Use of the Abiomed BVS System 5000 as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;100(1):122–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frazier OH, Delgado RM 3rd, Kar B, et al. First clinical use of the redesigned HeartMate II left ventricular assist system in the United States: a case report. Tex Heart Inst J. 2004;31(2):157–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frazier OH, Myers TJ, Westaby S, et al. Use of the Jarvik 2000 left ventricular assist system as a bridge to heart transplantation or as destination therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. Ann Surg. 2003;237(5):631–636. discussion 6–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salzberg S, Lachat M, Zund G, et al. Left ventricular assist device as bridge to heart transplantation – lessons learned with the MicroMed DeBakey axial blood flow pump. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;24(1):113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fraser CD Jr, Carberry KE, Owens WR, et al. Preliminary experience with the MicroMed DeBakey pediatric ventricular assist device. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2006;109–114.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Copeland JG, Arabia FA, Tsau PH, et al. Total artificial hearts: bridge to transplantation. Cardiol Clin. 2003;21(1):101–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Copeland JG, Smith RG, Arabia FA, et al. Total artificial heart bridge to transplantation: a 9-year experience with 62 patients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(7):823–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Copeland JG, Smith RG, Arabia FA, et al. Cardiac replacement with a total artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(9):859–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Long-term mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(20):1435–1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Birks EJ, Tansley PD, Hardy J, et al. Left ventricular assist device and drug therapy for the reversal of heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(18):1873–1884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Oz MC, Goldstein DJ, Pepino P, et al. Screening scale predicts patients successfully receiving long-term implantable left ventricular assist devices. Circulation. 1995;92(9 Suppl):II169–II173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farrar DJ. Preoperative predictors of survival in patients with Thoratec ventricular assist devices as a bridge to heart transplantation. Thoratec Ventricular Assist Device Principal Investigators. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13(1 Pt 1):93–100. discussion 100-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rao V, Oz MC, Flannery MA, et al. Revised screening scale to predict survival after insertion of a left ventricular assist device. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;125(4):855–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Swartz MT, Votapka TV, McBride LR, et al. Risk stratification in patients bridged to cardiac transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(4):1142–1145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kormos RL, Gasior TA, Kawai A, et al. Transplant candidate’s clinical status rather than right ventricular function defines need for univentricular versus biventricular support. J Thorac ­Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;111(4):773–782. discussion 82–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dang NC, Topkara VK, Mercando M, et al. Right heart failure after left ventricular assist device implantation in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(1):1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Argenziano M, Choudhri AF, Moazami N, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of inhaled nitric oxide in LVAD recipients with pulmonary hypertension. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65(2):340–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldstein DJ, Seldomridge JA, Chen JM, et al. Use of aprotinin in LVAD recipients reduces blood loss, blood use, and perioperative mortality. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;59(5):1063–1067. discussion 8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    UNOS Thoracic organ transplant policy. May 2007 [cited; Available from:
  53. 53.
    Pagani FD, Lynch W, Swaniker F, et al. Extracorporeal life support to left ventricular assist device bridge to heart transplant: a strategy to optimize survival and resource utilization. Circulation. 1999;100(19 Suppl):II206–II210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    De Robertis F, Birks EJ, Rogers P, et al. Clinical performance with the Levitronix Centrimag short-term ventricular assist device. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(2):181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sharples LD, Cafferty F, Demitis N, et al. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of the Ventricular Assist Device Program in the United Kingdom (EVAD UK). J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(1):9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sharples LD, Dyer M, Cafferty F, et al. Cost-effectiveness of ventricular assist device use in the United Kingdom: results from the evaluation of ventricular assist device programme in the UK (EVAD-UK). J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(11):1336–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ganesh JS, Rogers CA, Meulen JVD, et al. Predicting death due to primary graft dysfunction in adult heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(2 Suppl):S183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smith M. Management of the multiple organ donor. Surgery. 1998;16:180–183.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Buell JF, Trofe J, Hanaway MJ, et al. Transmission of donor cancer into cardiothoracic transplant recipients. Surgery. 2001;130(4):660–666. discussion 6–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baldwin JC, Anderson JL, Boucek MM, et al. 24th Bethesda conference: Cardiac transplantation. Task Force 2: donor guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22(1):15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zaroff JG, Rosengard BR, Armstrong WF, et al. Consensus conference report: maximizing use of organs recovered from the cadaver donor: cardiac recommendations, March 28–29, 2001, Crystal City, Va. Circulation. 2002;106(7):836–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shemie SD, Baker AJ, Knoll G, et al. National recommendations for donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada: donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada. CMAJ. 2006;175(8):S1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hauptman P, Mudge G. Evaluation and management of potential heart donors for transplantation. Cardiol Rev. 1998;6:100–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bittner HB, Kendall SW, Chen EP, et al. The combined effects of brain death and cardiac graft preservation on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and function before and after subsequent heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1996;15(8):764–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zaroff J. Echocardiographic evaluation of the potential cardiac donor. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(9 Suppl):S250–S252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zaroff JG, Babcock WD, Shiboski SC, et al. Temporal changes in left ventricular systolic function in heart donors: results of serial echocardiography. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22(4): 383–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wheeldon D. Early physiologic measurements in the donor heart. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(9 Suppl):S247–S249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wheeldon DR, Potter CD, Jonas M, et al. Using “unsuitable” hearts for transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1994;8(1): 7–9. discussion 10–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wheeldon DR, Potter CD, Oduro A, et al. Transforming the “unacceptable” donor: outcomes from the adoption of a standardized donor management technique. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1995;14(4):734–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rosendale JD, Chabalewski FL, McBride MA, et al. Increased transplanted organs from the use of a standardized donor management protocol. Am J Transplant. 2002;2(8):761–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rosendale JD, Kauffman HM, McBride MA, et al. Hormonal resuscitation yields more transplanted hearts, with improved early function. Transplantation. 2003;75(8):1336–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wu A, Buhler LH, Cooper DK. ABO-incompatible organ and bone marrow transplantation: current status. Transpl Int. 2003;16(5):291–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Havel M, Owen AN, Simon P. Basic principles of cardioplegic management in donor heart preservation. Clin Ther. 1991;13(2): 289–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mendler N. The meta-physiology of organ preservation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1992;11(4 Pt 2):S192–S195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jahania MS, Sanchez JA, Narayan P, et al. Heart preservation for transplantation: principles and strategies. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68(5):1983–1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Young JB, Naftel DC, Bourge RC, et al. Matching the heart donor and heart transplant recipient. Clues for successful expansion of the donor pool: a multivariable, multiinstitutional report. The Cardiac Transplant Research Database Group. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13(3):353–364. discussion 64–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hassanein WH, Zellos L, Tyrrell TA, et al. Continuous perfusion of donor hearts in the beating state extends preservation time and improves recovery of function. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116(5):821–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tenderich G, El-Banayosy A, Rosengard B, et al. Prospective multi-center European trial to evaluate the safety and performance of the Organ Care System for heart transplants (PROTECT). J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(2 Suppl):S64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bielmann D, Honger G, Lutz D, et al. Pretransplant risk assessment in renal allograft recipients using virtual crossmatching. Am J Transplant. 2007;7(3):626–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dietrich W, Dilthey G, Spannagl M, et al. Warfarin pretreatment does not lead to increased bleeding tendency during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(3):250–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lower RR, Shumway NE. Studies on orthotopic homotransplantation of the canine heart. Surg Forum. 1960;11:18–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dreyfus G, Jebara V, Mihaileanu S, et al. Total orthotopic heart transplantation: an alternative to the standard technique. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;52(5):1181–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sarsam MA, Campbell CS, Yonan NA, et al. An alternative surgical technique in orthotopic cardiac transplantation. J Card Surg. 1993;8(3):344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mitropoulos FA, Odim J, Marelli D, et al. Outcome of hearts with cold ischemic time greater than 300 minutes. A case-matched study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28(1):143–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bleasdale RA, Partridge J, Banner NR. Obstruction of the inferior vena cava following total heart lung transplantation: successful treatment by balloon angioplasty. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2000;19(5):488–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wolfsohn AL, Walley VM, Masters RG, et al. The surgical anastomoses after orthotopic heart transplantation: clinical complications and morphologic observations. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13(3):455–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ardehali A, Hughes K, Sadeghi A, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension after heart transplantation. Transplantation. 2001;72(4):638–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kieler-Jensen N, Lundin S, Ricksten SE. Vasodilator therapy after heart transplantation: effects of inhaled nitric oxide and intravenous prostacyclin, prostaglandin E1, and sodium nitroprusside. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1995;14(3):436–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hosseinpour AR, Cullen S, Tsang VT. Transplantation for adults with congenital heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;30(3):508–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mallett SV, Cox DJ. Thrombelastography. Br J Anaesth. 1992;69(3):307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Prendergast TW, Furukawa S, Beyer AJ 3rd, et al. Defining the role of aprotinin in heart transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(3):670–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Propst JW, Siegel LC, Feeley TW. Effect of aprotinin on transfusion requirements during repeat sternotomy for cardiac transplantation surgery. Transplant Proc. 1994;26(6):3719–3721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cooper JR Jr, Abrams J, Frazier OH, et al. Fatal pulmonary microthrombi during surgical therapy for end-stage heart failure: possible association with antifibrinolytic therapy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131(5):963–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mangano DT, Tudor IC, Dietzel C. The risk associated with aprotinin in cardiac surgery. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(4): 353–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Robin E, Costecalde M, Lebuffe G, et al. Clinical relevance of data from the pulmonary artery catheter. Crit Care 2006;10 Suppl 3:S3.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ulstad V, Braunlin E, Bass J, et al. Hemodynamically significant suture line obstruction immediately after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1992;11(4 Pt 1):834–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jacobsohn E, Avidan MS, Hantler CB, et al. Case report: inferior vena-cava right atrial anastomotic stenosis after bicaval orthotopic heart transplantation. Can J Anaesth. 2006;53(10):1039–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taylor DO, Edwards LB, Boucek MM, et al. Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: twenty-second official adult heart transplant report – 2005. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(8):945–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Banner NR, David OJ, Leaver N, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oral cyclosporine (Neoral) in heart transplant recipients during the immediate period after surgery. Transpl Int. 2002;15(12):649–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Eisen HJ, Hobbs RE, Davis SF, et al. Safety, tolerability and efficacy of cyclosporine microemulsion in heart transplant recipients: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind comparison with the oil based formulation of cyclosporine – results at six months after transplantation. Transplantation. 1999;68(5):663–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Reichart B, Meiser B, Vigano M, et al. European Multicenter Tacrolimus (FK506) Heart Pilot Study: one-year results – European Tacrolimus Multicenter Heart Study Group. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1998;17(8):775–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Portela D, Patel R, Larson-Keller JJ, et al. OKT3 treatment for allograft rejection is a risk factor for cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplantation. J Infect Dis. 1995;171(4):1014–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Opelz G, Henderson R. Incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in kidney and heart transplant recipients. Lancet. 1993;342(8886–8887):1514–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Swinnen LJ, Costanzo-Nordin MR, Fisher SG, et al. Increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorder after immunosuppression with the monoclonal antibody OKT3 in cardiac-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 1990;323(25):1723–1728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Frist WH, Merrill WH, Eastburn TE, et al. Unique antithymocyte serum versus OKT3 for induction immunotherapy after heart transplantation. J Heart Transplant. 1990;9(5):489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kirklin JK, Bourge RC, White-Williams C, et al. Prophylactic therapy for rejection after cardiac transplantation. A comparison of rabbit antithymocyte globulin and OKT3. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;99(4):716–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Macdonald PS, Mundy J, Keogh AM, et al. A prospective randomized study of prophylactic OKT3 versus equine antithymocyte globulin after heart transplantation – increased morbidity with OKT3. Transplantation. 1993;55(1):110–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nashan B, Moore R, Amlot P, et al. Randomised trial of basiliximab versus placebo for control of acute cellular rejection in renal allograft recipients. CHIB 201 International Study Group. Lancet. 1997;350(9086):1193–1198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vincenti F, Kirkman R, Light S, et al. Interleukin-2-receptor blockade with daclizumab to prevent acute rejection in renal transplantation. Daclizumab Triple Therapy Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(3):161–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mehra MR, Zucker MJ, Wagoner L, et al. A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of basiliximab in heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(9):1297–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Flaman F, Zieroth S, Rao V, et al. Basiliximab versus rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for induction therapy in patients after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(11): 1358–1362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hershberger RE, Starling RC, Eisen HJ, et al. Daclizumab to prevent rejection after cardiac transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(26):2705–2713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Banner NR, Lyster H. Pharmacological immunosuppression. In: Banner NR, Polak JM, Yacoub MH, editors. Lung transplantation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003. p. 205–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Banner NR, Yacoub MH. Cyclosporine in thoracic organ transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(2 Suppl):302S–308S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Banner NR, Lyster H, Yacoub MH. Clinical immunosuppression using the calcineurin-inhibitors ciclosporin and tacrolimus. In: Pinna LA, Cohen P, editors. Inhibitors of protein kinases and protein phophatases, handbook of experimental pharmacology. Berlin: Springer; 2005. p. 321–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Grimm M, Rinaldi M, Yonan NA, et al. Superior prevention of acute rejection by tacrolimus vs. cyclosporine in heart transplant recipients – a large European trial. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(6):1387–1397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kobashigawa JA, Miller LW, Russell SD, et al. Tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or sirolimus vs. cyclosporine with MMF in cardiac transplant patients: 1-year report. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(6):1377–1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Taylor DO, Barr ML, Radovancevic B, et al. A randomized, multicenter comparison of tacrolimus and cyclosporine immunosuppressive regimens in cardiac transplantation: decreased hyperlipidemia and hypertension with tacrolimus. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1999;18(4):336–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Christians U, Jacobsen W, Benet LZ, et al. Mechanisms of clinically relevant drug interactions associated with tacrolimus. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(11):813–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kobashigawa J, Miller L, Renlund D, et al. A randomized active-controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil in heart transplant recipients. Mycophenolate Mofetil Investigators. Transplantation. 1998;66(4):507–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Eisen HJ, Kobashigawa J, Keogh A, et al. Three-year results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine in cardiac transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(5):517–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hamour IM, Lyster HS, Burke MM, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil may allow cyclosporine and steroid sparing in de novo heart transplant patients. Transplantation. 2007;83(5):570–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Taylor DO, Edwards LB, Boucek MM, et al. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: twenty-first official adult heart transplant report – 2004. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004;23(7):796–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Eisen HJ, Tuzcu EM, Dorent R, et al. Everolimus for the prevention of allograft rejection and vasculopathy in cardiac-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(9):847–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Keogh A, Richardson M, Ruygrok P, et al. Sirolimus in de novo heart transplant recipients reduces acute rejection and prevents coronary artery disease at 2 years: a randomized clinical trial. Circulation. 2004;110(17):2694–2700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mancini D, Pinney S, Burkhoff D, et al. Use of rapamycin slows progression of cardiac transplantation vasculopathy. Circulation. 2003;108(1):48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kobashigawa JA, Tobis JM, Mentzer RM, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil reduces intimal thickness by intravascular ultrasound after heart transplant: reanalysis of the multicenter trial. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(5 Pt 1):993–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Groetzner J, Kaczmarek I, Landwehr P, et al. Renal recovery after conversion to a calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression in late cardiac transplant recipients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25(3):333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lyster H, Panicker G, Leaver N, et al. Initial experience with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for renal rescue from cyclosporine nephrotoxicity after heart transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(10):3167–3170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Snell GI, Levvey B, Chin W, et al. Sirolimus(rapamycin) allows renal recovery in lung and heart transplant recipients with chronic renal impairment. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001;20(2):163–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hunt J, Bedánová H, Starling RC, et al. Premature termination of a prospective, open label, randomized, multicenter study of sirolimus to replace calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) in a standard care regimen of CNI, MMF and corticosteroids early after heart transplantation [abstract]. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(2 Suppl):S203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kobashigawa JA. Statins as immunosuppressive agents. Liver Transpl. 2001;7(6):559–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kobashigawa JA. Statins and cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation. Semin Vasc Med. 2004;4(4):401–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kobashigawa JA, Katznelson S, Laks H, et al. Effect of pravastatin on outcomes after cardiac transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(10):621–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wenke K, Meiser B, Thiery J, et al. Simvastatin initiated early after heart transplantation: 8-year prospective experience. Circulation. 2003;107(1):93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wenke K, Meiser B, Thiery J, et al. Simvastatin reduces graft vessel disease and mortality after heart transplantation: a four-year randomized trial. Circulation. 1997;96(5):1398–1402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Randall R, Gibbs P. Transplantation immunology. In: Forsythe J, editor. Transplantation surgery: current dilemmas. London: WB Saunders; 2001. p. 65–100.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Caves PK, Billingham ME, Schulz WP, et al. Transvenous biopsy from canine orthotopic heart allografts. Am Heart J. 1973;85 (4):525–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Caves PK, Stinson EB, Billingham ME, et al. Serial transvenous biopsy of the transplanted human heart. Improved management of acute rejection episodes. Lancet. 1974;1(7862):821–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Billingham ME, Cary NR, Hammond ME, et al. A working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart and lung rejection: Heart Rejection Study Group. The International Society for Heart Transplantation. J Heart Transplant. 1990;9(6):587–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Stewart S, Winters GL, Fishbein MC, et al. Revision of the 1990 working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart rejection. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(11):1710–1720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mehra MR, Uber PA, Uber WE, et al. Anything but a biopsy: noninvasive monitoring for cardiac allograft rejection. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2002;17(2):131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Deng MC, Eisen HJ, Mehra MR, et al. Noninvasive discrimination of rejection in cardiac allograft recipients using gene expression profiling. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(1):150–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hamour IM, Rose ML, Burke MM, et al. The clinicopathological approach to acute cardiac allograft rejection. Br J Transplant. 2006;1(2):4–9.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Wang SS, Chou NK, Ko WJ, et al. Effect of plasmapheresis for acute humoral rejection after heart transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2006;38(10):3692–3694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Michaels PJ, Espejo ML, Kobashigawa J, et al. Humoral rejection in cardiac transplantation: risk factors, hemodynamic consequences and relationship to transplant coronary artery disease. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22(1):58–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brunner-La Rocca HP, Schneider J, Kunzli A, et al. Cardiac allograft rejection late after transplantation is a risk factor for graft coronary artery disease. Transplantation. 1998;65(4):538–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rose EA, Smith CR, Petrossian GA, et al. Humoral immune responses after cardiac transplantation: correlation with fatal rejection and graft atherosclerosis. Surgery. 1989;106(2):203–207. discussion 7–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Radovancevic B, McGiffin DC, Kobashigawa JA, et al. Retransplantation in 7, 290 primary transplant patients: a 10-year multi-institutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22(8): 862–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ouseph R, Brier ME, Jacobs AA, et al. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemodialysis after orthotopic heart transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;32(2):290–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Thadhani R, Pascual M, Bonventre JV. Acute renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(22):1448–1460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lewis RM, Verani RR, Vo C, et al. Evaluation of chronic renal disease in heart transplant recipients: importance of pretransplantation native kidney histologic evaluation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994;13(3):376–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Forni LG, Hilton PJ. Continuous hemofiltration in the treatment of acute renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(18):1303–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Myers BD, Moran SM. Hemodynamically mediated acute renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(2):97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Scott CD, Dark JH, McComb JM. Sinus node function after cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24(5):1334–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Redmond JM, Zehr KJ, Gillinov MA, et al. Use of theophylline for treatment of prolonged sinus node dysfunction in human orthotopic heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1993;12(1 Pt 1):133–138. discussion 8–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Scott CD, McComb JM, Dark JH, et al. Permanent pacing after cardiac transplantation. Br Heart J. 1993;69(5):399–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Holt ND, Parry G, Tynan MM, et al. Permanent pacemaker implantation after cardiac transplantation: extra cost of a conservative policy. Heart. 1996;76(5):439–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pavri BB, O’Nunain SS, Newell JB, et al. Prevalence and prognostic significance of atrial arrhythmias after orthotopic cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25(7):1673–1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ellenbogen KA, Thames MD, DiMarco JP, et al. Electrophysiological effects of adenosine in the transplanted human heart. Evidence of supersensitivity. Circulation. 1990;81(3):821–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Banner NR, Yacoub MH. Physiology of the orthotopic cardiac transplant recipient. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;2(3):259–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Farrell TG, Camm AJ. Action of drugs in the denervated heart. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;2(3):279–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Smart FW, Naftel DC, Costanzo MR, et al. Risk factors for early, cumulative, and fatal infections after heart transplantation: a multiinstitutional study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1996;15(4):329–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Fishman JA, Rubin RH. Infection in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(24):1741–1751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Walsh TR, Guttendorf J, Dummer S, et al. The value of protective isolation procedures in cardiac allograft recipients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;47(4):539–544. discussion 44–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Torre-Cisneros J, de la Mata M, Lopez-Cillero P, et al. Effectiveness of daily low-dose cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in liver transplantation – an open clinical trial. Transplantation. 1996;62(10):1519–1521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Fishman JA. Prevention of infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(8): 1397–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wreghitt TG, Gray JJ, Balfour AH. Problems with serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections in heart transplant recipients. J Clin Pathol. 1986;39(10):1135–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, et al. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2004;4(4):611–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas R. Banner
    • 1
  • Iman Hamour
    • 2
  • Haifa Lyster
    • 3
  • Margaret Burke
    • 4
  • Michael J. Boscoe
    • 5
  • Gilles D. Dreyfus
    • 6
  1. 1.Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust,Cardiology and Transplant MedicineImperial College University of LondonMiddlesexUK
  2. 2.Department of Cardiology and Transplant MedicineThe Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust,Harefield HospitalMiddlesexUK
  3. 3.Transplantation, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, Pharmacy DepartmentHarefield HospitalMiddlesexUK
  4. 4.Department of HistopathologyRoyal Brompton and Harefield NHS TrustMiddlesexUK
  5. 5.Department of AnaestheticsRoyal Brompton and Harefield NHS TrustMiddlesexUK
  6. 6.NHLI,Department of Cardiac SurgeryImperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations