The Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

  • Manu L. Malbrain
  • Michael Cheatham
  • Michael Sugrue
  • Rao Ivatury


A compartment syndrome exists when increased pressure in a closed anatomic space threatens the viability of surrounding tissue. When this occurs in the abdominal cavity, the impact on end-organ function within and outside the cavity can be devastating. The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is not a disease, but a clinic syndrome that has many causes and develops within many disease processes. Unlike many commonly encountered disease processes, which remain within the purview of a given discipline, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the ACS readily cross the usual barriers and may occur in any patient population regardless of age, illness, or injury. As a result, no one specific specialty can represent the wide variety of physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other allied healthcare personnel who might encounter patients with IAH and/or ACS in their daily practice. The IAH is a graded phenomenon that can be acute or chronic, primary or secondary, and localized or generalized in character. The ACS on the contrary is not graded but rather considered as an “all or none” phenomenon. Recent animal and human data suggest that the adverse effects of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can occur at lower levels than previously thought and even before the development of clinically overt ACS. This chapter will present a concise overview of the historic background, epidemiologic data, definitions, pathophysiologic implications, and treatment options for ACS.


Mean Arterial Pressure Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Open Abdomen Pulmonary Artery Occlusion Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Schein M. Abdominal compartment syndrome: historical background. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 1–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fietsam R Jr, Villalba M, Glover JL, Clark K. Intra-abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. AmSurg. 1989;55(6):396–402.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malbrain ML, Cheatham ML, Kirkpatrick A, Sugrue M, Parr M, De Waele J, et al. Results from the international conference of experts on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. I. Definitions. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(11):1722–1732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malbrain ML. Different techniques to measure intra-abdominal pressure (IAP): time for a critical re-appraisal. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(3):357–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malbrain M, Jones F. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement techniques. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 19–68.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheatham ML, White MW, Sagraves SG, Johnson JL, Block EF. Abdominal perfusion pressure: a superior parameter in the assessment of intra-abdominal hypertension. J Trauma. 2000;49(4):621–626. discussion 6–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Malbrain ML. Abdominal perfusion pressure as a prognostic marker in intra-abdominal hypertension. In: Vincent JL, editor. Yearbook of intensive care and emergency medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2002. p. 792–814.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deeren D, Dits H, Malbrain MLNG. Correlation between intra-abdominal and intracranial pressure in nontraumatic brain injury. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(11):1577–1581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheatham M, Malbrain M. Abdominal perfusion pressure. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 69–81.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sugrue M, Hallal A, D’Amours S. Intra-abdominal pressure hypertension and the kidney. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 119–128.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sugrue M, Jones F, Deane SA, Bishop G, Bauman A, Hillman K. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an independent cause of postoperative renal impairment. ArchSurg. 1999;134(10):1082–1085.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sanchez NC, Tenofsky PL, Dort JM, Shen LY, Helmer SD, Smith RS. What is normal intra-abdominal pressure? Am Surg. 2001;67(3):243–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davis PJ, Koottayi S, Taylor A, Butt WW. Comparison of indirect methods of measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(3):471–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eddy V, Nunn C, Morris JA Jr. Abdominal compartment syndrome. The Nashville experience. Surg Clin North Am. 1997;77(4):801–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eddy VA, Key SP, Morris JA Jr. Abdominal compartment syndrome: etiology, detection, and management. J Tenn Med Assoc. 1994;87(2):55–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ivatury RR, Cheatham ML, Malbrain ML, Sugrue M. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balogh Z, Moore FA. Postinjury secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 170–177.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ivy ME. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in burns. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 178–186.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maxwell RA, Fabian TC, Croce MA, Davis KA. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: an underappreciated manifestation of severe hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 1999;47(6):995–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Holcomb JB, Ware DN, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation. Am J Surg. 2002;184(6):538–543. discussion 543–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Holcomb JB, Miller CC, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, et al. Both primary and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome can be predicted early and are harbingers of multiple organ failure. J Trauma. 2003;54(5):848–859. discussion 59–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirkpatrick AW, Balogh Z, Ball CG, Ahmed N, Chun R, McBeth P, et al. The secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: iatrogenic or unavoidable? J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202(4):668–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Biffl WL, Moore EE, Burch JM, Offner PJ, Franciose RJ, Johnson JL. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a highly lethal event. Am J Surg. 2001;182(6):645–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malbrain ML. Is it wise not to think about intraabdominal hypertension in the ICU? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2004;10(2):132–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Malbrain ML, Deeren D, De Potter TJ. Intra-abdominal hypertension in the critically ill: it is time to pay attention. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11(2):156–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sugrue M. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11(4):333–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gracias VH, Braslow B, Johnson J, Pryor J, Gupta R, Reilly P, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome in the open abdomen. Arch Surg. 2002;137(11):1298–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheatham ML, Safcsak K, Llerena LE, Morrow CE Jr, Block EF. Long-term physical, mental, and functional consequences of abdominal decompression. J Trauma. 2004;56(2):237–241. discussion 41–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malbrain ML, Cheatham ML, Kirkpatrick A, Sugrue M, De Waele J, Ivatury R. Abdominal compartment syndrome: it’s time to pay attention!. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(11):1912–1914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ivatury RR. Abdominal compartment syndrome: a century later, isn’t it time to accept and promulgate? Crit Care Med. 2006;34(9):2494–2495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saggi B, Ivatury R, Sugerman HJ. Surgical critical care issues: abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Holzheimer RG, Mannick JA, editors. Surgical treatment evidence-based and problem-oriented. München: W. Zuckschwerdt Verlag München; 2001.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kirkpatrick AW, Brenneman FD, McLean RF, Rapanos T, Boulanger BR. Is clinical examination an accurate indicator of raised intra-abdominal pressure in critically injured patients? Can J Surg. 2000;43(3):207–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sugrue M, Bauman A, Jones F, Bishop G, Flabouris A, Parr M, et al. Clinical examination is an inaccurate predictor of intraabdominal pressure. World J Surg. 2002;26(12):1428–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    De Potter TJ, Dits H, Malbrain ML. Intra- and interobserver variability during in vitro validation of two novel methods for intra-abdominal pressure monitoring. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(5):747–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Waele J, Pletinckx P, Blot S, Hoste E. Saline volume in transvesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement: enough is enough. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(3):455–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Malbrain ML, Deeren DH. Effect of bladder volume on measured intravesical pressure: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2006;10(4):R98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schachtrupp A, Henzler D, Orfao S, Schaefer W, Schwab R, Becker P, et al. Evaluation of a modified piezoresistive technique and a water-capsule technique for direct and continuous measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in a porcine model. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(3):745–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schachtrupp A, Tons C, Fackeldey V, Hoer J, Reinges M, Schumpelick V. Evaluation of two novel methods for the direct and continuous measurement of the intra-abdominal pressure in a porcine model. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(9):1605–1608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Balogh Z, Jones F, D’Amours S, Parr M, Sugrue M. Continuous intra-abdominal pressure measurement technique. Am J Surg. 2004;188(6):679–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Citerio G, Berra L. Central nervous system. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 144–156.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Citerio G, Vascotto E, Villa F, Celotti S, Pesenti A. Induced abdominal compartment syndrome increases intracranial pressure in neurotrauma patients: a prospective study. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(7):1466–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bloomfield G, Saggi B, Blocher C, Sugerman H. Physiologic effects of externally applied continuous negative abdominal pressure for intra-abdominal hypertension. J Trauma. 1999;46(6):1009–1014. discussion 14–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bloomfield GL, Dalton JM, Sugerman HJ, Ridings PC, DeMaria EJ, Bullock R. Treatment of increasing intracranial pressure secondary to the acute abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient with combined abdominal and head trauma. J Trauma. 1995;39(6):1168–1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bloomfield GL, Ridings PC, Blocher CR, Marmarou A, Sugerman HJ. Effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure upon intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure before and after volume expansion. J Trauma. 1996;40(6):936–941. discussion 41–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bloomfield GL, Ridings PC, Blocher CR, Marmarou A, Sugerman HJ. A proposed relationship between increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and intracranial pressure. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(3):496–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saggi BH, Bloomfield GL, Sugerman HJ, Blocher CR, Hull JP, Marmarou AP, et al. Treatment of intracranial hypertension using nonsurgical abdominal decompression. J Trauma. 1999;46(4):646–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Irgau I, Koyfman Y, Tikellis JI. Elective intraoperative intracranial pressure monitoring during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg. 1995;130(9):1011–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Joseph DK, Dutton RP, Aarabi B, Scalea TM. Decompressive laparotomy to treat intractable intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2004;57(4):687–693. discussion 93–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Josephs LG, Este-McDonald JR, Birkett DH, Hirsch EF. Diagnostic laparoscopy increases intracranial pressure. J Trauma. 1994;36(6):815–818. discussion 8–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sugerman HJ, DeMaria EJ, Felton WL III, Nakatsuka M, Sismanis A. Increased intra-abdominal pressure and cardiac filling pressures in obesity-associated pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1997;49(2):507–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sugerman HJ, Felton WL III, Sismanis A, Saggi BH, Doty JM, Blocher C, et al. Continuous negative abdominal pressure device to treat pseudotumor cerebri. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(4):486–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sugerman H, Windsor A, Bessos M, Kellum J, Reines H, DeMaria E. Effects of surgically induced weight loss on urinary bladder pressure, sagittal abdominal diameter and obesity co-morbidity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(3):230–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kashtan J, Green JF, Parsons EQ, Holcroft JW. Hemodynamic effect of increased abdominal pressure. J Surg Res. 1981;30(3):249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ridings PC, Bloomfield GL, Blocher CR, Sugerman HJ. Cardiopulmonary effects of raised intra-abdominal pressure before and after intravascular volume expansion. J Trauma. 1995;39(6):1071–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Richardson JD, Trinkle JK. Hemodynamic and respiratory alterations with increased intra-abdominal pressure. J Surg Res. 1976;20(5):401–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Malbrain ML, Cheatham ML. Cardiovascular effects and optimal preload markers in intra-abdominal hypertension. In: Vincent J-L, editor. Yearbook of intensive care and emergency medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2004. p. 519–543.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cheatham M, Malbrain M. Cardiovascular implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 89–104.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H, Gerlach H, Calandra T, Cohen J, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(4):536–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cheatham ML, Block EF, Nelson LD, Safcsak K. Superior predictor of the hemodynamic response to fluid challenge in critically ill patients. Chest. 1998;114(4):1226–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cheatham ML, Nelson LD, Chang MC, Safcsak K. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume index as a predictor of preload status in patients on positive end-expiratory pressure. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(11):1801–1806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schachtrupp A, Graf J, Tons C, Hoer J, Fackeldey V, Schumpelick V. Intravascular volume depletion in a 24-hour porcine model of intra-abdominal hypertension. J Trauma. 2003;55(4):734–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Michard F, Alaya S, Zarka V, Bahloul M, Richard C, Teboul JL. Global end-diastolic volume as an indicator of cardiac preload in patients with septic shock. Chest. 2003;124(5):1900–1908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Michard F, Teboul JL. Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients: a critical analysis of the evidence. Chest. 2002;121(6):2000–2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Borg IR Mertens zur, Verbrugge SJ, Olvera C. Pathophysiology: respiratory. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 105–118.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ranieri VM, Brienza N, Santostasi S, Puntillo F, Mascia L, Vitale N, et al. Impairment of lung and chest wall mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: role of abdominal distension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(4 Pt 1):1082–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gattinoni L, Pelosi P, Suter PM, Pedoto A, Vercesi P, Lissoni A. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Different syndromes? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(1):3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mutoh T, Lamm WJ, Embree LJ, Hildebrandt J, Albert RK. Abdominal distension alters regional pleural pressures and chest wall mechanics in pigs in vivo. J Appl Physiol. 1991;70(6):2611–2618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mutoh T, Lamm WJ, Embree LJ, Hildebrandt J, Albert RK. Volume infusion produces abdominal distension, lung compression, and chest wall stiffening in pigs. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72(2):575–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Quintel M, Pelosi P, Caironi P, Meinhardt JP, Luecke T, Herrmann P, et al. An increase of abdominal pressure increases pulmonary edema in oleic acid-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169(4):534–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    De Keulenaer BL, De Backer A, Schepens DR, Daelemans R, Wilmer A, Malbrain ML. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(7):1177–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hering R, Wrigge H, Vorwerk R, Brensing KA, Schroder S, Zinserling J, et al. The effects of prone positioning on intraabdominal pressure and cardiovascular and renal function in patients with acute lung injury. Anesth Analg. 2001;92(5):1226–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    De Waele JJ, Benoit D, Hoste E, Colardyn F. A role for muscle relaxation in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome? Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Biancofiore G, Bindi ML, Romanelli AM, Bisa M, Boldrini A, Consani G, et al. Postoperative intra-abdominal pressure and renal function after liver transplantation. Arch Surg. 2003;138(7):703–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sugrue M, Buist MD, Hourihan F, Deane S, Bauman A, Hillman K. Prospective study of intra-abdominal hypertension and renal function after laparotomy. Br J Surg. 1995;82(2):235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Luca A, Feu F, Garcia-Pagan JC, Jimenez W, Arroyo V, Bosch J, et al. Favorable effects of total paracentesis on splanchnic hemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites. Hepatology. 1994;20(1 Pt 1):30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stothert JC. Evaluation of decapsulation of the canine kidney on renal function following acute ischemia. J Surg Res. 1979;26(5):560–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gewertz BL, Krupski W, Wheeler HT, Brink BE, Fry WJ. Effect of renal decapsulation on cortical hemodynamics in the postischemic kidney. J Surg Res. 1980;28(3):252–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kirkpatrick AW, Colistro R, Laupland KB, Fox DL, Konkin DE, Kock V, et al. Renal arterial resistive index response to intraabdominal hypertension in a porcine model. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(1):207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bradley SE, Mudge GH, Blake WD, Alphonse P. The effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on the renal excretion of water and electrolytes in normal human subjects and in patients with diabetes insipidus. Acta Clin Belg. 1955;10(3):209–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Harman PK, Kron IL, McLachlan HD, Freedlender AE, Nolan SP. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure and renal function. Ann Surg. 1982;196(5):594–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Diebel LN, Wilson RF, Dulchavsky SA, Saxe J. Effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on hepatic arterial, portal venous, and hepatic microcirculatory blood flow. J Trauma. 1992;33(2):279–discussion 82–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wendon J, Biancofiore G, Auzinger G. Intra-abdominal hypertension and the liver. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 138–143.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Biancofiore G, Bindi ML, Boldrini A, Consani G, Bisa M, Esposito M, et al. Intraabdominal pressure in liver transplant recipients: incidence and clinical significance. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(3):547–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Biancofiore G, Bindi ML, Romanelli AM, Boldrini A, Consani G, Bisa M, et al. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in liver transplant recipients: a prospective study. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(1):30–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Michelet P, Roch A, Gainnier M, Sainty JM, Auffray JP, Papazian L. Influence of support on intra-abdominal pressure, hepatic kinetics of indocyanine green and extravascular lung water during prone positioning in patients with ARDS: a randomized crossover study. Crit Care. 2005;9(3):R251–R257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ivatury R, Diebel L. Intra-abdominal hypertension and the splanchnic bed. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 129–137.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Diebel LN, Dulchavsky SA, Brown WJ. Splanchnic ischemia and bacterial translocation in the abdominal compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 1997;43(5):852–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Diebel LN, Dulchavsky SA, Wilson RF. Effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on mesenteric arterial and intestinal mucosal blood flow. J Trauma. 1992;33(1):45–48. discussion 8–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sugrue M, Jones F, Lee A, Buist MD, Deane S, Bauman A, et al. Intraabdominal pressure and gastric intramucosal pH: is there an association? World J Surg. 1996;20(8):988–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ivatury RR, Porter JM, Simon RJ, Islam S, John R, Stahl WM. Intra-abdominal hypertension after life-threatening penetrating abdominal trauma: prophylaxis, incidence, and clinical relevance to gastric mucosal pH and abdominal compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 1998;44(6):1016–1021. discussion 21–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, et al. Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome. Arch Surg. 2003;138(6):637–642. discussion 642–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cox CS Jr, Allen SJ, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome: the cause or effect of postinjury multiple organ failure. Shock. 2003;20(6):483–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Moore FA. The role of the gastrointestinal tract in postinjury multiple organ failure. Am J Surg. 1999;178(6):449–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Eleftheriadis E, Kotzampassi K, Papanotas K, Heliadis N, Sarris K. Gut ischemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial translocation in elevated abdominal pressure in rats. World J Surg. 1996;20(1):11–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Diebel L, Saxe J, Dulchavsky S. Effect of intra-abdominal pressure on abdominal wall blood flow. Am Surg. 1992;58(9):573–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Raeburn CD, Moore EE. Abdominal compartment syndrome provokes multiple organ failure: animal and human supporting evidence. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 157–169.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lattuada M, Hedenstierna G. Abdominal lymph flow in an endotoxin sepsis model: influence of spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(11):2792–2798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Malbrain M, Pelosi P. Open up and keep the lymphatics open: they are the hydraulics of the body!. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(11):2860–2862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wesley JR, Drongowski R, Coran AG. Intragastric pressure measurement: a guide for reduction and closure of the silastic chimney in omphalocele and gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg. 1981;16(3):264–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rizzo A, Davis PC, Hamm CR, Powell RW. Tntraoperative vesical pressure measurements as a guide in the closure of ­abdominal wall defects. Am Surg. 1996;62(3):192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kuhn MA, Tuggle DW. Abdominal compartment syndrome in the pediatric patient. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 217–222.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Demling RH, Crawford G, Lind L, Read T. Restrictive pulmonary dysfunction caused by the grafted chest and abdominal burn. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(8):743–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Greenhalgh DG, Warden GD. The importance of intra-abdominal pressure measurements in burned children. J Trauma. 1994;36(5):685–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hobson KG, Young KM, Ciraulo A, Palmieri TL, Greenhalgh DG. Release of abdominal compartment syndrome improves survival in patients with burn injury. J Trauma. 2002;53(6):1129–1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ivy ME, Atweh NA, Palmer J, Possenti PP, Pineau M, D’Aiuto M. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burn patients. J Trauma. 2000;49(3):387–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ivy ME, Possenti PP, Kepros J, Atweh NA, D’Aiuto M, Palmer J, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1999;20(5):351–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Latenser BA, Kowal-Vern A, Kimball D, Chakrin A, Dujovny N, Latenser BA, et al. A pilot study comparing percutaneous decompression with decompressive laparotomy for acute abdominal compartment syndrome in thermal injury. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2002;23:190–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ziakas PD, Voulgarelis M, Felekouras E, Anagnostou D, Tzelepis GE. Myelofibrosis-associated massive splenomegaly: a cause of increased intra-abdominal pressure, pulmonary hypertension, and positional dyspnea. Am J Hematol. 2005;80(2):128–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ueland K, Novy MJ, Peterson EN, Metcalfe J. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. IV. The influence of gestational age on the maternal cardiovascular response to posture and exercise. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969;104(6):856–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lemaire BM, van Erp WF. Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Surg Endosc. 1997;11(1):15–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    O’Rourke N, Kodali BS. Laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006;19(3):254–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hamad GG, Peitzman AB. Morbid obesity and chronic intra-abdominal hypertension. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 187–194.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sugerman HJ. Effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in severe obesity. Surg Clin North Am. 2001;81(5):1063–1075, vi.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sugerman HJ. Increased intra-abdominal pressure in obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(11):1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mayberry JC. Prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 221–229.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Parr M, Olvera C. Medical management of abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 230–237.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Macalino JU, Goldman RK, Mayberry JC. Medical management of abdominal compartment syndrome: case report and a caution. Asian J Surg. 2002;25(3):244–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kimball EJ, Mone M. Influence of neuromuscular blockade on intra-abdominal pressure. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(Suppl 1):A38.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kimball WR, Loring SH, Basta SJ, De Troyer A, Mead J. Effects of paralysis with pancuronium on chest wall statics in awake humans. J Appl Physiol. 1985;58(5):1638–1645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Drummond GB, Duncan MK. Abdominal pressure during laparoscopy: effects of fentanyl. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88(3):384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hering R, Vorwerk R, Wrigge H, Zinserling J, Schroder S, von Spiegel T, et al. Prone positioning, systemic hemodynamics, hepatic indocyanine green kinetics, and gastric intramucosal energy balance in patients with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28(1):53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bauer JJ, Gelernt IM, Salky BA, Kreel I. Is routine postoperative nasogastric decompression really necessary? Ann Surg. 1985;201(2):233–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cheatham ML, Chapman WC, Key SP, Sawyers JL. A meta-analysis of selective versus routine nasogastric decompression after elective laparotomy. Ann Surg. 1995;221(5):469–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Moss G, Friedman RC. Abdominal decompression: increased efficiency by esophageal aspiration utilizing a new nasogastric tube. Am J Surg. 1977;133(2):225–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Savassi-Rocha PR, Conceicao SA, Ferreira JT, Diniz MT, Campos IC, Fernandes VA, et al. Evaluation of the routine use of the nasogastric tube in digestive operation by a prospective controlled study. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992;174(4):317–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ponec RJ, Saunders MD, Kimmey MB. Neostigmine for the treatment of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(3):137–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wilmer A, Dits H, Malbrain ML, Frans E, Tack J. Gastric emptying in the critically ill – the way forward. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(8):928–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Madl C, Druml W. Gastrointestinal disorders of the critically ill. Systemic consequences of ileus. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;17(3):445–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Malbrain ML. Abdominal pressure in the critically ill. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2000;6:17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gorecki PJ, Kessler E, Schein M. Abdominal compartment syndrome from intractable constipation. J Am Coll Surg. 2000;190(3):371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    van der Spoel JI, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, Stoutenbeek CP, Bosman RJ, Zandstra DF. Neostigmine resolves critical illness-related colonic ileus in intensive care patients with multiple organ failure – a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(5):822–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Corcos AC, Sherman HF. Percutaneous treatment of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 2001;51(6):1062–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cabrera J, Falcon L, Gorriz E, Pardo MD, Granados R, Quinones A, et al. Abdominal decompression plays a major role in early postparacentesis haemodynamic changes in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites. Gut. 2001;48(3):384–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Reckard JM, Chung MH, Varma MK, Zagorski SM. Management of intraabdominal hypertension by percutaneous catheter drainage. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005;16(7):1019–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Escorsell A, Gines A, Llach J, Garcia-Pagan JC, Bordas JM, Bosch J, et al. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure increases pressure, volume, and wall tension in esophageal varices. Hepatology. 2002;36(4 Pt 1):936–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gotlieb WH, Feldman B, Feldman-Moran O, Zmira N, Kreizer D, Segal Y, et al. Intraperitoneal pressures and clinical parameters of total paracentesis for palliation of symptomatic ascites in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;71(3):381–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Navarro-Rodriguez T, Hashimoto CL, Carrilho FJ, Strauss E, Laudanna AA, Moraes-Filho JP. Reduction of abdominal pressure in patients with ascites reduces gastroesophageal reflux. Dis Esophagus. 2003;16(2):77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Voss M, Pinheiro J, Reynolds J, Greene R, Dewhirst M, Vaslef SN, et al. Endoscopic components separation for abdominal compartment syndrome. Am J Surg. 2003;186(2):158–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Friedlander MH, Simon RJ, Ivatury R, DiRaimo R, Machiedo GW. Effect of hemorrhage on superior mesenteric artery flow during increased intra-abdominal pressures. J Trauma. 1998;45(3):433–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gargiulo NJ 3 rd, Simon RJ, Leon W, Machiedo GW. Hemorrhage exacerbates bacterial translocation at low levels of intra-abdominal pressure. Arch Surg. 1998;133(12):1351–1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Simon RJ, Friedlander MH, Ivatury RR, DiRaimo R, Machiedo GW. Hemorrhage lowers the threshold for intra-abdominal hypertension-induced pulmonary dysfunction. J Trauma. 1997;42(3):398–403. discussion 4–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Burchard KW, Ciombor DM, McLeod MK, Slothman GJ, Gann DS. Positive end expiratory pressure with increased intra-abdominal pressure. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1985;161(4):313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pelosi P, Ravagnan I, Giurati G, Panigada M, Bottino N, Tredici S, et al. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves respiratory function in obese but not in normal subjects during anesthesia and paralysis. Anesthesiology. 1999;91(5):1221–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sugrue M, D’Amours S. The problems with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in association with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). J Trauma. 2001;51(2):419–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sussman AM, Boyd CR, Williams JS, DiBenedetto RJ. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on intra-abdominal pressure. South Med J. 1991;84(6):697–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Agusti M, Elizalde JI, Adalia R, Cifuentes A, Fontanals J, Taura P. Dobutamine restores intestinal mucosal blood flow in a porcine model of intra-abdominal hyperpressure. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(2):467–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    O’Mara MS, Slater H, Goldfarb IW, Caushaj PF. A prospective, randomized evaluation of intra-abdominal pressures with crystalloid and colloid resuscitation in burn patients. J Trauma. 2005;58(5):1011–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    The SAFE Study Investigators. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2247–2256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Matsuda T, Tanaka H, Williams S, Hanumadass M, Abcarian H, Reyes H. Reduced fluid volume requirement for resuscitation of third-degree burns with high-dose vitamin C. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1991;12(6):525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tanaka H, Matsuda T, Miyagantani Y, Yukioka T, Matsuda H, Shimazaki S. Reduction of resuscitation fluid volumes in severely burned patients using ascorbic acid administration: a randomized, prospective study. Arch Surg. 2000;135(3):326–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Oda S, Hirasawa H, Shiga H, Matsuda K, Nakamura M, Watanabe E, et al. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with continuous hemodiafiltration using a polymethyl methacrylate membrane hemofilter. Ther Apher Dial. 2005;9(4):355–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kula R, Szturz P, Sklienka P, Neiser J, Jahoda J. A role for negative fluid balance in septic patients with abdominal compartment syndrome? Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(11):2138–2139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vachharajani V, Scott LK, Grier L, Conrad S. Medical management of severe intra-abdominal hypertension with aggressive diuresis and continuous ultra-filtration. Internet J Emerg Intensive Care Med. 2003;6(2):54.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Valenza F, Irace M, Guglielmi M, Gatti S, Bottino N, Tedesco C, et al. Effects of continuous negative extra-abdominal pressure on cardiorespiratory function during abdominal hypertension: an experimental study. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(1):105–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Valenza F, Bottino N, Canavesi K, Lissoni A, Alongi S, Losappio S, et al. Intra-abdominal pressure may be decreased non-invasively by continuous negative extra-abdominal pressure (NEXAP). Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(11):2063–2067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Valenza F, Gattinoni L. Continuous negative abdominal pressure. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 238–251.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(19):1368–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kacmaz A, Polat A, User Y, Tilki M, Ozkan S, Sener G. Octreotide improves reperfusion-induced oxidative injury in acute abdominal hypertension in rats. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8(1):113–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sener G, Kacmaz A, User Y, Ozkan S, Tilki M, Yegen BC. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative organ damage induced by acute intra-abdominal compartment syndrome in rats. J Pineal Res. 2003;35(3):163–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Mertens zur Borg IR, Verbrugge SJ, Kolkman KA. Anesthetic considerations in abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 252–263.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Balogh Z, Moore FA, Goettler CE, Rotondo MF, Schwab CW, Kaplan MJ. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 264–294.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ivatury RR, Sugerman HJ. Abdominal compartment syndrome: a century later, isn’t it time to pay attention? Crit Care Med. 2000;28:2137–2138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sugrue M. Intra-abdominal pressure: time for clinical practice guidelines? Intensive Care Med. 2002;28(4):389–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Malbrain ML. For the Critically Ill and Abdominal Hypertension (CIAH) Study Group. Incidence of intraabdominal hypertension in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(9):2150–2153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Malbrain ML, Chiumello D, Pelosi P, Bihari D, Innes R, Ranieri VM, et al. Incidence and prognosis of intraabdominal hypertension in a mixed population of critically ill patients: a multiple-center epidemiological study. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(2):315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Malbrain ML, Chiumello D, Pelosi P, Wilmer A, Brienza N, Malcangi V, et al. Prevalence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients: a multicentre epidemiological study. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(5):822–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Stringfield JT III, Graham JP, Watts CM, Bentz RR, Weg JG, Stringfield JT III, et al. Pneumoperitoneum. A complication of mechanical ventilation. JAMA. 1976;235(7):744–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Turner WW, Fry WJ. Pneumoperitoneum complicating mechanical ventilator therapy. Arch Surg. 1977;112(6):723–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ali J, Qi W. The effects of positive airway pressure and intra-abdominal pressure in diaphragmatic rupture. World J Surg. 1992;16(6):1120–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Luce JM, Huseby JS, Kirk W, Butler J. Mechanism by which positive end-expiratory pressure increases cerebrospinal fluid pressure in dogs. J Appl Physiol. 1982;52(1):231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sugerman H, Windsor A, Bessos M, Wolfe L. Intra-abdominal pressure, sagittal abdominal diameter and obesity comorbidity. J Intern Med. 1997;241(1):71–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Sullivan KM, Battey PM, Miller JS, McKinnon WM, Skardasis GM. Abdominal compartment syndrome after mesenteric revascularization. J Vasc Surg. 2001;34(3):559–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Leppaniemi A, Kirkpatrick AW, Salazar A, Elliot D, Nicolaou S, Björck M. Miscellaneous conditions and abdominal compartment syndrome. In: Ivatury R, Cheatham M, Malbrain M, Sugrue M, editors. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 195–214.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    McSwain NE Jr. Pneumatic anti-shock garment: state of the art 1988. Ann Emerg Med. 1988;17(5):506–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gaffney FA, Thal ER, Taylor WF, Bastian BC, Weigelt JA, Atkins JM, et al. Hemodynamic effects of Medical Anti-Shock Trousers (MAST garment). J Trauma. 1981;21(11):931–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Malbrain MLNG, Deeren DH, De Potter T, Libeer C, Dits H. Abdominal compartment syndrome following rectus sheath hematoma: bladder-to-gastric pressure difference as a guide to treatment. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75(4):A8.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    O’Mara MS, Semins H, Hathaway D, Caushaj PF. Abdominal compartment syndrome as a consequence of rectus sheath hematoma. Am Surg. 2003;69(11):975–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Lacey SR, Carris LA, Beyer AJ III, Azizkhan RG. Bladder pressure monitoring significantly enhances care of infants with abdominal wall defects: a prospective clinical study. J Pediatr Surg. 1993;28(10):1370–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lohlun J, Margolis M, Gorecki P, Schein M. Fecal impaction causing megarectum-producing colorectal catastrophes. A report of two cases. Dig Surg. 2000;17(2):196–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Katz R, Meretyk S, Gimmon Z. Abdominal compartment syndrome due to delayed identification of a ureteral perforation following abdomino-perineal resection for rectal carcinoma. Int J Urol. 1997;4(6):615–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ogihara Y, Isshiki A, Kindscher JD, Goto H. Abdominal wall lift versus carbon dioxide insufflation for laparoscopic resection of ovarian tumors. J Clin Anesth. 1999;11(5):406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Dabney A, Bastani B. Enoxaparin-associated severe retroperitoneal bleeding and abdominal compartment syndrome: a report of two cases. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(12):1954–1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Etzion Y, Barski L, Almog Y. Malignant ascites presenting as abdominal compartment syndrome. Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22(5):430–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hunter JD, Damani Z. Intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome. Anaesthesia. 2004;59(9):899–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Pupelis G, Austrums E, Snippe K, Berzins M. Clinical significance of increased intraabdominal pressure in severe acute pancreatitis. Acta Chir Belg. 2002;102(2):71–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    De Waele JJ, Hesse UJ. Life saving abdominal decompression in a patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(1):96–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    De Waele JJ, Hoste E, Blot SI, Decruyenaere J, Colardyn F. Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Crit Care. 2005;9(4):R452–R457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Leppaniemi A, Kemppainen E. Recent advances in the surgical management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11(4):349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ferrera PC, Chan L. Tension pneumoperitoneum caused by blunt trauma. Am J Emerg Med. 1999;17(4):351–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Olinde AJ, Carpenter D, Maher JM. Tension pneumoperitoneum. A cause of acute aortic occlusion. Arch Surg. 1983;118(11):1347–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Fraipont V, Lambermont B, Ghaye B, Moonen M, Edzang L, D’Orio V, et al. Unusual complication after percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: pneumoperitoneum with abdominal compartment syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(11):1334–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ali SZ, Freeman BD, Coopersmith CM. Abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient resulting from pneumothorax. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(9):1614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Burch JM, Moore EE, Moore FA, Franciose R. The abdominal compartment syndrome. Surg Clin North Am. 1996;76(4):833–842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ivatury RR, Sugerman HJ, Peitzman AB. Abdominal compartment syndrome: recognition and management. Adv Surg. 2001;35:251–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Offner PJ, de Souza AL, Moore EE, Biffl WL, Franciose RJ, Johnson JL, et al. Avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome in damage-control laparotomy after trauma. Arch Surg. 2001;136(6):676–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bone RC, Sibbald WJ, Sprung CL. The ACCP-SCCM consensus conference on sepsis and organ failure. Chest. 1992;101(6):1481–1483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Hernandez G, Requiera T, Cornejo R. Intra-abdominal hypertension in septic shock patients. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(Suppl 1):S91.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Efstathiou E, Zaka M, Farmakis M. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in septic patients. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31(Suppl 1):S183.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pusajo JF, Bumaschny E, Doglio GR, Cherjovsky MR, Lipinszki AI, Hernandez MS, et al. Postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis requiring reoperation. Value of a predictive index. Arch Surg. 1993;128(2):218–222. discussion 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Cox CS, Moore FA. Patients with impending abdominal compartment syndrome do not respond to early volume loading. Am J Surg. 2003;186(6):602–607. discussion 7–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Daugherty EL, Liang H, Taichman D, Hansen-Flaschen J, Fuchs BD. Abdominal compartment syndrome is common in medical ICU patients receiving large volume resuscitation. Crit Care Med. 2005;32(Suppl 1):A84.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ertel W, Oberholzer A, Platz A, Stocker R, Trentz O. Incidence and clinical pattern of the abdominal compartment syndrome after “damage-control” laparotomy in 311 patients with severe abdominal and/or pelvic trauma. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(6):1747–1753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    McNelis J, Marini CP, Jurkiewicz A, Fields S, Caplin D, Stein D, et al. Predictive factors associated with the development of abdominal compartment syndrome in the surgical intensive care unit. Arch Surg. 2002;137(2):133–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    McNelis J, Marini CP, Simms HH. Abdominal compartment syndrome: clinical manifestations and predictive factors. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2003;9(2):133–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Tsoutsos D, Rodopoulou S, Keramidas E, Lagios M, Stamatopoulos K, Ioannovich J. Early escharotomy as a measure to reduce intraabdominal hypertension in full-thickness burns of the thoracic and abdominal area. World J Surg. 2003;27(12):1323–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pruitt BA Jr. Protection from excessive resuscitation: “pushing the pendulum back”. J Trauma. 2000;49(3):567–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manu L. Malbrain
    • 1
  • Michael Cheatham
    • 2
  • Michael Sugrue
    • 3
  • Rao Ivatury
    • 4
  1. 1.Intensive Care Unit, ZNA Stuivenberg, Intensive Care UnitAntwerpenBelgium
  2. 2.Surgical Intensive Care Units, Department of Surgical EducationOrlando Regional Medical CenterOrlandoUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryLetterkenny General and Galway University Hospitals, Letterkenny General HospitalLetterkennyIreland
  4. 4.Division of Trauma, Critical Care and Emergency General SurgeryVirginia Commonwealth University Medical CenterRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations