• Larry M. Jones
  • Alain C. Corcos
  • Amarjit D. Peter


It has been estimated that over 1.2 million people in the United States suffer burn injuries every year.1 Most are treated as outpatients, yet nearly 60,000 require hospitalization. Approximately 5,000 of these patients die. Advances in resuscitation and monitoring techniques, wound management, nutritional support, and strict use of tissue culture-directed antibiotics have all contributed to decreases in morbidity, mortality, and long-term disability for these patients.


Heterotopic Ossification Base Deficit Total Body Surface Area Electrical Injury Early Enteral Feeding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Wolf SE, Herndon DN. General considerations. In: Wolf SE, Herndon DN, editors. Burn Care. Austin, TX: Landes Bioscience; 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Advanced Trauma Life Support for Doctors, Sixth Ed. American College of Surgeons, Chicago, 1997.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1301–1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cortiella J, Mlcak R, Herndon D. High frequency percussive ventilation in pediatric patients with inhalation injury. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1999;20:232–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cioffi WG, Rue LR, Graves TA, et al. Prophylactic use of high-frequency percussive ventilation in patients with inhalation injury. Ann Surg. 1991;213:575–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall JJ, Hunt JL, Arnoldo BD, et al. Use of high-frequency percussive ventilation in inhalation injuries. J Burn Care Res. 2007;28:396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edelman DA, White MT, Tyburski JG, et al. Factors affecting prognosis of inhalation injury. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27:848–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edelman DA, Khan N, Kempf K, et al. Pneumonia after inhalation injury. J Burn Care Res. 2007;28:241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weaver LK, Hopkins RO, Chan KJ, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1057–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cope O, Moore FD. The redistribution of body water and the fluid therapy of the burned patient. Ann Surg. 1947;126:1010–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baxter CR, Shires T. Physiologic response to crystalloid resuscitation of severe burns. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1968;150:974–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baxter CR. Fluid volume and electrolyte changes of the early postburn period. Clin Plast Surg. 1974;I:693–703.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dries DJ, Waxman K. Adequate resuscitation of burn patients may not be measured by urine output and vital signs. Crit Care Med. 1991;19:327–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schiller WR, Bay RC, Mclachlan JG, Sagraves SG. Survival in major burn injuries is predicted by early response to Swan-Ganz-guided resuscitation. Am J Surg. 1995;170:696–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rutherford EJ, Morris JA Jr, Reed GW, Hall KS. Base deficit stratifies mortality and determines therapy. J Trauma. 1992;33:417–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abramson D, Scalea TM, Hitchcock R, Trooskin SZ, Henry SM, Greenspan J. Lactate clearance and survival following injury. J Trauma. 1993;35:584–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barton RG, Saffle JR, Morris SE, Mone M, Davis B, Shelby J. Resuscitation of thermally injured patients with oxygen transport criteria as goals of therapy. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeng JC, Lee K, Jablonki K, Jordan MH. Serum lactate and base deficit suggest inadequate resuscitation of patients with burn injuries: application of a point-of-care laboratory instrument. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18:402–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jeng JC, Jablonski K, Bridgeman A, et al. Serum lactate, not base deficit, rapidly predicts survival after major burns. Burns. 2002;28:161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaups KL, Davis JW, Dominic WJ. Base deficit as an indicator of resuscitation needs in patients with burn injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1998;19:346–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitchell AT, Milner SM, Kinsky MP, et al. Base deficit: Evaluation as a guide to volume resuscitation in burn injury. Proc Amer Burn Assoc, 28th Annual Meeting. Nashville, TN. March 1996. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1996;28:S75.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cartotto R, Choi J, Gomez M, et al. A prospective study on the implication of a base deficit during fluid resuscitation. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003;24:75–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jones LM. The Biobrane™ stent. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1998;19(4):352–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ward CM, Diamond AW. An appraisal of ketamine in the dressing pf burns. Postgrad Med J. 1976;52:222–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Slogoff S, Allen GW, Wessels JV, Cheney DH. Ketamine hydrochloride for pediatric premedication. I. Comparison with pentasocine. Anesth Analg. 1974;53:354–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Demling RH, Ellerbe S, Jarrett F. Ketamine anesthesia for tangential excision of burn eschar: a burn unit procedure. J Trauma. 1978;18:269–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown RL, Henke A, Greenhalgh DG, Warden GD. The use of haloperidol in the agitated, critically ill pediatric patient with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1996;17:34–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Humphries Y, Melson M, Gore D. Superiority of oral ketamine as an analgesic and sedative for wound care procedures in the pediatric patient with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18:34–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hutchens DW. Pain management in the adult burn patient. Probl Gen Surg. 1994;11:688–697.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ulmer JF. Burn pain management: a guideline-based approach. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1998;19:151–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sheridan RL, Hinson M, Nakel A, et al. Development of a pediatric burn pain and anxiety management program. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18:455–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cope O, Nardi GL, Quijano M, Rovit RL, Stanbury JB, Wight A. Metabolic rate and thyroid function following acute thermal trauma in man. Ann Surg. 1953;137:165–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wallace BH, Caldwell FT, Cone JB. Ibuprofen lowers body temperature and metabolic rate of humans with burn injury. J Trauma. 1992;32:154–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Waxman K, Rebello T, Pinderski L, et al. Protein loss across burn wounds. J Trauma. 1987;27:136–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cone JB, Wallace BH, Caldwell FT Jr. The effect of staged burn wound closure on the rates of heat production and heat loss of burned children and young adults. J Trauma. 1988;28:968–972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wallace BH, Cone JB, Caldwell FT. Energy balance studies and plasma catecholamine values for patients with healed burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1991;12:505–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jones LM, Thompson DR. Burns. In: Parrillo JE, editor. Current therapy in critical care medicine. St. Louis: Mosby; 1997.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hart DW, Wolfe SE, Chinkes DL, et al. Determinants of skeletal muscle catabolism after severe burn. Ann Surg. 2000;232(4):455–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hart DW, Wolfe SE, Chinkes DL, et al. Effects of early excision and aggressive enteral feeding on hypermetabolism, catabolism, and sepsis after severe burn. J Trauma. 2003;54:755–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gottschlich MM, Warden GD. Vitamin supplementation in the patient with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1990;11:275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wolf SE, Edelman LS, Kemalyan N, et al. Effects of oxandrolone on outcome measures in the severely burned: A multicenter prospective randomized double-blind trial. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27:131–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hart DW, Wolfe SE, Ramzy PI, et al. Anabolic effects of oxandrolone after severe burn. Ann Surg. 2001;233:556–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferrando AA, Chinkes DL, Wolfe SE, et al. A submaximal dose of insulin promotes net skeletal muscle protein synthesis in patients with severe burns. Ann Surg. 1999;229:11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hart DW, Wolfe SE, Chinkes DL, et al. Beta-blockade and growth hormone after burn. Ann Surg. 2002;236:450–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Herndon DN, Hart DW, Wolfe SE, et al. Reversal of catabolism by beta blockade after severe burns. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1223–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peng X, Yan H, You Z, et al. Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients. Burns. 2005;31:342–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Garrel D, Patenaude J, Nedelec B, et al. Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: a prospective controlled, randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(10):2444–2449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wischmeyer PE, Lynch J, Liedel J, et al. Glutamine administration reduces gram-negative bacteremia in severely burned patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial vs. isonitrogenious control. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(11):2075–2080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Buescher T, Cioffi WG, Becker W, et al. Perioperative enteral feedings. Proc Am Burn Assoc. 1990;22:162.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jenkins M, Gottschlich MM, Baumer T, et al. Enteral feeding during operative procedures. Proc Am Burn Assoc. 1990;22:64.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rockwell WB, Ehrlich HP. Reversible burn injury. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1992;13:403–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curling TB. On acute ulceration of the duodenum in cases of burn. Med Chir Trans. 1842;25:260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rigdon EE. Vascular complications of the burn injury. Probl Gen Surg. 1994;11:778–785.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Czaja AJ, McAlhany JC, Pruitt BA Jr. Acute gastroduodenal disease after thermal injury. An endoscopic evaluation of incidence and natural history. N Engl J Med. 1974;291:925–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elledge ES, Smith AA, McManus WF, Pruit BA Jr. Heterotopic bone formation in burned patients. J Trauma. 1988;28:684–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Munster AM, Bruck HM, Johns LA, Von Prince K, Kirkman EM, Remig RL. Heterotopic calcification following burns: a prospective study. J Trauma. 1972;12:1071–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Evans EB. Heterotopic bone formation in thermal burns. Clin Orthop. 1991;263:94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McDonald WS, Deitch EA. Hypertrophic skin grafts in burned patients: a prospective analysis of variables. J Trauma. 1987;27:147–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lattari V, Jones LM, Varcelotti JR, Latenser BA, Sherman HF, Barrette RR. The use of a permanent dermal allograft in full-thickness burns of the hand and foot: a report of three cases. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18:147–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Buescher TM, Pruitt BA. Burn scar contracture. Probl Gen Surg. 1994;11:804–815.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ivy ME, Possenti PP, Kepros J, et al. Abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1999;20:351–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Corcos AC, Sherman HF. Percutaneous treatment of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. J Trauma. 2001;51(6)):1062–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Thomae KR. Chemical burns. Probl Gen Surg. 1994;11:639.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Latenser BA, Lucktong TA. Anhydrous ammonia burns: case presentation and literature review. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000;21:40–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Demling RH. Electrical injury. In: Wilmore DW, editor. Scientific American surgery. New York: Scientific.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry M. Jones
    • 1
  • Alain C. Corcos
    • 2
  • Amarjit D. Peter
    • 3
  1. 1.Burn CenterThe Western Pennsylvania HospitalPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Trauma ServicesTrauma and Burn Services, UPMC MercyPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUPMC MercyPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations