• Alexandra Chroneou
  • Nikolaos Zias
  • Anthony Gray
  • Anthony Gray
  • Donald E. Craven
  • Donald E. Craven


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is usually caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens that occur ≥48 h after hospital admission.1,2 Overall, more than 80% of HAP episodes are related to invasive airway management (in patients with endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy) with mechanical ventilation, which is known as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).3 VAP is defined as pneumonia developing more than 48 h after intubation and mechanical ventilation. Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is part of the continuum of pneumonia, which includes patients who were hospitalized in an acute-care hospital for ≥2 days within 90 days of the infection; resided in a long-term care facility; received recent intravenous antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, or wound care within the past 30 days of the current infection; or attended a hospital or hemodialysis clinic.1,2 Although this document focuses more on HAP and VAP, many of the principles are also relevant to the management of HCAP. HAP, VAP, and HCAP are the second most common nosocomial infections after urinary tract infection, but are the leading causes of mortality due to hospital-acquired infections.4,5


Intensive Care Unit Stay Intensive Insulin Therapy Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score Endotracheal Aspirate Medical Intensive Care Unit Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Chroneou
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Zias
    • 1
  • Anthony Gray
    • 2
  • Anthony Gray
    • 3
  • Donald E. Craven
    • 4
  • Donald E. Craven
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineLahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Tufts University School of MedicineBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineLahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA
  4. 4.Tufts University School of MedicineBurlingtonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Infectious DiseasesLahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

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