Venous Air Embolism

  • Carl J. Borromeo
  • Carl J. Borromeo


Gas embolism refers to the abnormal presence of gas within the circulatory system. It is a known complication of various surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic procedures. It can also occur as a result of trauma. Gas embolism may be asymptomatic or may even result in immediate cardiovascular collapse. The type and severity of sequelae depend on the composition and amount of gas, the rate and location of entry, and on patient characteristics such as size, cardio-pulmonary reserve, and presence of an intracardiac right— left communication. An understanding of the etiologies and pathophysiology of gas embolism is important in order to recognize, treat, and, most importantly, prevent this potentially catastrophic complication.


Central Venous Pressure Pulmonary Arterial Pressure Pulseless Electrical Activity Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Partial Pressure Gradient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Seefelder C, Rockoff MA. Air emboli in children. In: Atlee JL, editor. Complications in anesthesia. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1999. p. 684–688.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ho AM, Ling E. Systemic air embolism after lung trauma. Anesthesiology. 1999;90:564–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weaver LK, Morris A. Venous and arterial gas embolism associated with positive pressure ventilation. Chest. 1998;113:1132–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marini JJ, Culver BH. Systemic gas embolism complicating mechanical ventilation in the adult respiratory syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Durant TM, Long J, Oppenheimer MJ. Pulmonary (venous) air embolism. Am Heart J. 1947;33:269–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ho AM. Is emergent thoracotomy always the most appropriate immediate intervention for systemic air embolism after lung trauma. Chest. 1999;116:234–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kimura BJ, Chaux GE, Maisel AS. Delayed air embolism simulating pulmonary thromboembolism in the intensive care unit: role of echocardiography. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:1884–1886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Flanagan JP, Grandisar IA. Air embolus – a lethal complication of subclavian venipuncture. N Engl J Med. 1969;281:488–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ordway C. Air embolus via CVP catheter without positive pressure: presentation of case and review. Ann Surg. 1974;179:479–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borja AR. Current status of infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization: a review of the English literature. Ann Thorac Surg. 1972;13:615–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Albin MS, Carroll RG, Maroo JC. Clinical considerations concerning detection of venous air embolism. Neurosurgery. 1978;3:380–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harrison EA, Mackerskie A, McEwan A, et al. The sitting position for neurosurgery in children: a review of 16 years’ experience. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schubert A, Deogaonkar A, Drummond JC. Precordial Doppler probe placement for optimal detection of venous air embolism during craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:1543–1547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Engelhardt M, Folkers W, Brenke C, et al. Neurosurgical operations with the patient in sitting position: analysis of risk factors using transcranial Doppler sonography. Br J Anaesth. 2006;98:467–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hybels RL. Venous air embolism in head and neck surgery. Laryngoscope. 1980;90:946–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Faure EA, Cook RI, Miles D. Air embolism during anesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy. Anesthesiology. 1998;89:805–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hedge RT, Avetgere RN. Air embolism during anaesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy. Br J Anaesth. 2000;85:926–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frankel AS, Holzman RS. Air embolism during posterior spinal fusion. Can J Anesth. 1988;35:511–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albin MS, Ritter RR, Pruett CE, Kalff K. Venous air embolism during lumbar laminectomy in the prone position: a report of three cases. Anesth Analg. 1991;73:346–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ngai SH, Stirchfield FE, Trinen L. Air embolism during total hip arthroplasties. Anesthesiology. 1974;40:405–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lew TW, Tay DH, Thomas E. Venous air embolism during cesarean section: more common than previously though. Anesth Analg. 1993;77:448–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tsou MY, Teng YH, Chow LH, et al. Fatal gas embolism during transurethral incision of the bladder neck under spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1833–1834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Memtsoudis SG, Malhotra V. Catasrophic venous air embolism during prostatectomy in the Trendelenburg position. Can J Anesth. 2003;50:1084–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wond AYC, O’Regan A, Irwin MG. Venous air embolism during liver transplantation. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2001;29:668–669.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    OlmedillaL GI, Perez-Pena J, et al. Fatal paradoxical air embolism during liver transplantation. Br J Anaesth. 2000;84:112–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee SY, Choi BIW, Kim JS, Park KS. Paradoxical air embolism during hepatic resection. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:136–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ledowski T, Kiese F, Jeglin S, Scholz J. Possible air embolism during eye surgery. Anesth Analg. 2005;100(6):1651–1652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wadhwa RK, McKenzie R, Wadhwa SR, et al. Gas embolism during laparoscopy. Anesthesiology. 1978;48:74–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yacoub OF, Cardona I Jr, Coveler LA, Dodson MG. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopy. Anesthesiology. 1982;57:533–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deroiun M, Couture P, Boudreault D, et al. Detection of gas embolism by transesophageal echocardiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesth Analg. 1996;82:119–124.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schindler E, Muller M, Kelm C. Cerebral carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesth Analg. 1195;81:643–645.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fahy BG, Hasnain JU, Flowers JL, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic detection of gas embolism and cardiac valvular dysfunction during laparoscopic nephrectomy. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:500–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diakun TA. Carbon dioxide embolism: successful resuscitation with cardiolpulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology. 1991;74:1151–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perry PM, Baughman VL. A complication of hysteroscopy: air embolism. Anesthesiology. 1990;73:546–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grove JJ, Shinaman RC, Drover DR. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and venous air embolus as complications of operative hysteroscopy. J Clin Anesth. 2004;16:48–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Imasogie N, Crago R, Leyland NA, Chung F. Probable gas embolism during operative hysteroscopy caused by products of combustion. Can J Anesth. 2002;49:1044–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bricker MB, Morris WP, Allen SJ, et al. Venous air embolism in patients with pulmonary barotrauma. Crit Care Med. 1994;22:1692–1698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koo BN, Kil HK, Choi JS, et al. Hepatic resection by Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator® increases the incidence and severity of venous air embolism. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:966–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Adachi YU, Doi M, Sato S. Cardiac arrest by venous air embolism during hepatic resection using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator®. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:493–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Veyckemans F, Michel I. Venous gas embolism from an argon coagulator. Anesthesiology. 1996;85:443–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kono M, Yahagi N, Kitahara M, et al. Cardiac arrest associated with use of an argon beam coagulator during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87:644–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ousmane ML, Fleyfel M, Vallet B. Venous gas embolism during liver surgery with argon-enhanced coagulation. Eur J Anaesth. 2001;19:225.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Banks TA, Manetta F, Glick M, Graver M. Carbon dioxide embolism during minimally invasive vein harvesting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:296–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lin SM, Chang WK, Tsoa CM, et al. Carbon dioxide embolism diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography during endoscopic vein harvesting for coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:683–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Martineau A, Arcand G, Couture P, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of carbon dioxide embolism during minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting and treatment with inhaled epoprostenol. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:962–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chorost MI, Wu JT, Webb H, Ghosh BC. Vertebral venous air embolism: an unusual complication following colonoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1138–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sviri S, Woods WPD, VanHeerden PV. Air embolism – a case series and review. Crit Care Resusc. 2004;6:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nayagam J, Ho KM, Liang J. Fatal systemic air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2004;32:260–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sastre JA, Prieto MA, Garzon JC, Muriel C. Left-sided cardiac gas embolism produced by hydrogen peroxide: intraoperative diagnosis using transesophageal echocardiography. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:1132–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Haller G, Faltin-Traub E, Faltin D, Kern C. Oxygen embolism after hydrogen peroxide irrigation of a vulvar abscess. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:597–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sun WZ, Lin CS, Lee AA, Chan WH. The absence of arterial oxygen desaturation during massive oxygen embolism after hydrogen peroxide irrigation. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:687–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jones PM, Segal SH, Gelb AW. Venous oxygen embolism produced by injection of hydrogen peroxide into an enterocutaneous fistula. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:1861–1863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mendenhall ML, Spain DA. Venous air embolism and pressure infusion devices. J Trauma. 2007;63:246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pham KL, Cohen AJ. Iatrogenic venous air embolism during contrast enhanced computed tomography: a report of two cases. Emerg Radiol. 2003;10:147–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Imai S, Tamada T, Gyoten M, et al. Iatrogenic venous air embolism caused by CT injector – from a risk management point of view. Radiat Med. 2004;22:269–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mirski MA, Lele AV, Fitzsimmons L, Toung TJK. Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:164–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hatano Y, Murakawa M, Segawa H, et al. Venous air embolism during hepatic resection. Anesthesiology. 1990;73:1282–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sharma KC, Brandstetter RD, Brensilver JM, Jung LD. Cardiopulmonary physiology and pathophysiology as a consequence of laparoscopic surgery. Chest. 1998;110:810–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Monteverde-Grether C, Velez-y-Tello-deMeneses M, de-la-Llata-Romero M, et al. Transluminal coronary angioplasty using ultrasound. Arch Inst Cardiol Mex. 1990;60:27–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mann C, Boccara G, Grevy V, et al. Argon pneumoperitoneum is more dangerous than CO2 pneumoperitoneum during venous gas embolism. Anesth Analg. 1997;85:1367–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mayer KL, Ho HS, Mathiesen KA, Wolfe BM. Cardiopulmonary response to experimental venous carbon dioxide embolism. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1025–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    O’Quin RJ, Lakshminarayan S. Venous air embolism. Arch Intern Med. 1982;142:2173–2176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cottin V, Delafosse B, Viale JP. Gas embolism during laparoscopy: a report of seven cases in patients with previous abdominal surgical history. Surg Endosc. 1996;10:166–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Orebaugh SL. Venous air embolism: clinical and experimental considerations. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kashuk JL, Penn I. Air embolism after central venous catheterization. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1984;159:249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ely EW, Hite D, Baker AM, et al. Venous air embolism from central venous catheterization: a need for increased physician awareness. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:2113–2117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mennim P, Coyle CF, Taylor JD. Venous air embolism associated with removal of central venous catheter. BMJ. 1992;305:171–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cohen MB, Mark JB, Morris RW, Frank E. Introducer sheath malfunction producing insidious air embolism. Anesthesiology. 1987;67:573–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kondo K, O’Reilly LP, Chiota J. Air embolism associated with an introducer for pulmonary arterial catheters. Anesth Analg. 1984;63:871–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hartung EJ, Sgouropoulou S, Bierl R, et al. Severe air embolism caused by a pulmonary introducer sheath. Anesthesiology. 1994;80:1402–1403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peters JL. Removal of central venous catheter and venous air embolism. BMJ. 1992;305:524–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kuhn M, Fitting JW, Leuenberger P. Acute pulmonary edema caused by venous air embolism after removal of subclavian catheter. Chest. 1987;92:364–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Turnage WS, Harper JV. Venous air embolism occurring after removal of a central venous catheter. Anesth Analg. 1991;72:559–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marcus RH, Weinert L, Neumann A, et al. Venous air embolism: diagnosis by spontaneous right sided contrast echocardiography. Chest. 1991;99:784–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hosal VL, Ause RG, Hoskins PA. Fibrin sleeve formation on indwelling subclavian central venous catheters. Arch Surg. 1971;102:353–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Adornato DC, Gildenberg PL, Ferrario CM, et al. Pathophysiology of intravenous air embolism in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1978;49:120–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Still JA, Lederman DS, Renn WH. Pulmonary edema following air embolism. Anesthesiology. 1974;40:194–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moitra V, Permut TA, Penn RM, Roth S. Venous air embolism in an awake patient undergoing placement of deep brain stimulators. Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2004;16:321–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Souders JE. Pulmonary air embolism. J Clin Monit Comput. 2000;16:375–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Perschau RA, Munson ES, Chapin JC. Pulmonary interstitial edema after multiple venous air emboli. Anesthesiology. 1976;45:364–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Waggoner SE. Venous air embolism through a Groshong catheter. Gynecol Oncol. 1993;48:394–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Geissler HJ, Allen SJ, Mehlhorn U, et al. Effect of body repositioning after venous air embolism: an echocardiographic study. Anesthesiology. 1997;86:710–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Souders JE, Doshier JB, Polissar NL, Hlastala MP. Spatial distribution of venous gas emboli in the lungs. J Appl Physiol. 1999;87:1937–1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    van Hulst RA, Klein J, Lachmann B. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2003;23:237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Albertine KH, Wiener-Kronish JP, Koike K, et al. Quantification of damage by air emboli to lung microvessels in anesthetized sheep. J Appl Physiol. 1984;54:1360–1368.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nossum V, Hjelde A, Bergh K, et al. Anti-C5a monoclonal antibodies and pulmonary polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration – endothelial dysfunction by venous gas embolism. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tanus-Santos JE, Gordo WM, Udelsmann A, Junior HM. The hemodynamic effects of endothelin receptor antagonism during a venous air infusion in dogs. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:102–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hlastala MP, Roberstson HT, Ross BK. Gas exchange abnormalities produced by venous gas emboli. Respir Physiol. 1979;36:1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gottlieb JD, Eriricsson JA, Sweet RB. Venous air embolism: a review. Anesth Analg. 1965;44:773–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Deem S, McKinney S, Polissar NL, et al. Hemodilution during venous gas embolization improves gas exchange, without altering VA/Q or pulmonary blood flow distributions. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:1861–1872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fitchet A, Fitzpatrick AP. Central venous air embolism causing pulmonary edema mimicking left ventricular failure. BMJ. 1998;316:604–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lam KK. Severe pulmonary oedema after venous air embolism. Can J Anaesth. 1993;40:964–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wycoff CC, Cann JE. Experimental pulmonary air embolism in dogs. Calif Med. 1966;105:361–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stewart RH, Allen SJ, Quick CM, et al. Effect of venous air embolism in pulmonary microvascular protein permeability. Microcirculation. 2004;11:409–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Flick MR, Perel A, Straub NC. Leukocytes are required for increased lung microvascular permeability in sheep. Circ Res. 1981;48:344–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Flick MR, Hoeffel JM, Straub NC. Superoxide dismutase with heparin prevents increased lung vasculature permeability during air emboli in sheep. J Appl Physiol. 1983;55:1284–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Murphy PG, Jones JG. Acute lung injury. Br J Intensive Care. 1991;1:110–117.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cheney FW, Eisenstein BL, Overand PT, Bishop MJ. Regional alveolar hypoxia does not affect air embolism-induced pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol. 1989;65:2369–2373.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gottdiener JS, Papademetriou V, Notargiacomo A, et al. Incidence and cardiac effects of systemic venous air embolism. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:795–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vik A, Brubakk AO, Hennessy TR, et al. Venous air embolism in swine: transport of gas bubbles through the pulmonary circulation. J Appl Physiol. 1990;69:237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mandell MS. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension in the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) era. Liver Transpl. 2004;10:S54–S58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schlimp CJ, Loimer T, Rieger M, et al. The potential of venous air embolism ascending retrograde to the brain. J Forensic Sci. 2005;50:906–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ericcson JA, Gottlieb JD, Sweet RB. Closed-chest cardiac massage in the treatment of venous air embolism. N Engl J Med. 1964;270:1353–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Alvaran SB, Toung JK, Graff TE, et al. Venous air embolism: comparative merits of external cardiac massage, intracardiac aspiration, and left lateral decubitus position. Anesth Analg. 1978;57:166–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mitchenfelder JD, Martin JD, Altenberg BM, et al. Air embolism during neurosurgery. An evaluation of right atrial catheters for diagnosis and treatment. JAMA. 1969;208:1353–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bunegin L, Albin MS, Helsel PE, et al. Positioning the right atrial catheter: a model for reappraisal. Anesthesiology. 1981;55:343–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Colley PS, Artru AA. Bunegin-Albin catheter improves air retrieval and resuscitation from lethal air embolism in dogs. Anesth Analg. 1987;66:991–994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Artru AA. Placement of a multi-orificed catheter in the inferior portion of the right atrium; percentage of gas retrieved and success rate of resuscitation after venous air embolism in prone dogs with abdomen hanging freely. Anesth Analg. 1994;79:740–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jardin F, Genevray B, Brun-Ney D, Margairaz A. Dobutamine: a hemodynamic evaluation in pulmonary embolism shock. Crit Care Med. 1985;13:1009–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Angle MR, Molloy DW, Penner B, et al. The cardiopulmonary and renal hemodynamic effects of norepinephrine in canine pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1989;95:1333–1337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tanus-Santos JE, Nucci G. Low-dose inhaled nitric oxide attenuates hemodynamic changes following pulmonary air embolism in dogs [abstract]. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:S155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Agvald P, Adding C, Nilsson KF, et al. Increased expired NO and roles of CO2 and endogenous NO after venous gas embolism in rabbits. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:210–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Speiss BD, McCarthy RJ, Tuman KJ, et al. Treatment of decompression sickness with a perfluorocarbon emulsion (FC-34). Undersea Biomed Res. 1988;15:31–37.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cochran RP, Kunzelman KS, Vocelka CR, et al. Perfluorocarbon emulsion in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime reduces neurological injury. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63:1326–1332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zhu J, Hullett JB, Somera L, et al. Intravenous perfluorocarbon emulsion increases nitrogen washout after venous gas emboli in rabbits. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2007;34:7–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yoshitani K, de Lange F, Ma Q, et al. Reduction in air bubble size using perfluorocarbons during cardiopulmonary bypass in the rat. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1089–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl J. Borromeo
    • 1
  • Carl J. Borromeo
    • 2
  1. 1.Tufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyLahey Clinic Medical CenterBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations