Phase Equilibria and Colligative Properties
The chemical potential of a system is zero at equilibrium. To maintain equilibrium, a change in T, for example, must be balanced by a change in P, to keep the net chemical potential change equal to zero. For two phases, the chemical potential of any component must be equal. A differential change dμ 1 in phase 1 must be balanced by an equal change, dμ 2, in phase 2. These one and two phase balance equations are used to develop a broad range of equations, the equations for colligative properties.