Irreversible Thermodynamics and Transport



The product of electrical potential ψ and charge dq is a reversible free energy change Charge is transferred without changing the potential. The energy is the product of an intensive ψ(J/C) and extensive (qC) parameters. A battery converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Energy is transferred reversibly only when the current that moves across the system boundary is infinitesimally small.


Average Location Particle Flux Vector Flow Charge Flux Onsager Reciprocal Relation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

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