Multi-state Systems



The number of Boltzmann factors in the partition function increases with increasing energy states. The higher energy states might have small Boltzmann factors but are included for completeness. This leads to infinite sums that can sometimes be reduced to a simple partition function to calculate average energy, entropy, and free energy.


Heat Capacity Partition Function Average Energy Helmholtz Free Energy Boltzmann Factor 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

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