Applied Boltzmann Statistics



Systems with only two or three possible energies illustrate the Boltzmann distribution. The probabilities for such systems determine average thermodynamic parameters. The intimate connection between the energies of individual molecules and the macroscopic thermodynamic parameters makes statistical thermodynamics a powerful analytical technique.


Partition Function Average Energy Helmholtz Free Energy Lower Energy State Boltzmann Factor 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

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