Advertisement

Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Calcium Phosphate Coatings

  • Betty León
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the work performed by the international research community on the production of thin calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings by p`ulsed laser deposition (PLD). Studies on the mechanisms of the technique shed light on the scientific bases for optimization of the coatings beyond empirical work. The relations between the physicochemical coating properties and the various processing parameters are presented. PLD can produce extremely thin, dense, well adhering CaP coatings with extraordinary controlled chemistry and crystallinity. No postdeposition thermal annealing is needed. Different CaP phases and morphologies can be deposited, so the degree of resorption may be adapted to a specific medical application. Coatings with graded composition or graded crystallinity can readily be produced, not only on metal substrates but also on polymers. In vitro and in vivo testing with various cells and animal models have verified similar or better osseointegration of the PLD coatings compared to the commercially available plasma-sprayed coatings, with improved adhesion properties and without risk of delamination or detachment of the coating. The technique is mature enough for an industrial scale-up and the start of clinical tests with real dental or orthopedic implants.

Keywords

Simulated Body Fluid Pulse Laser Deposition Plasma Spray Plasma Plume Titanium Substrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work performed at the University of Vigo could not have been possible without the valuable contributions of present and past coworkers: J.L. Arias, M.B. Mayor, F. García, E. Jiménez, J. Pou, S. Chiussi, P. González, J. Serra, J.P. Borrajo, S. Liste, E. Solla, M. Pérez-Amor, C. Peraire, D. Bernal, and A. Arañó. I would like to express my gratitude to all of them. Some fruitful discussions with F. Driessens have stimulated our activities. P. Kitajlowicz has technically helped with the manuscript. Financial support of CICYT (MAT93-0271, DPI2000-0393-P4-04 MAT2003-09277-C03-01), UE CRAFT (BRE2.CT94.1533), MINER (PATI 665/95), Xunta de Galicia (INFRA93, INFRA94-58, INFRA96-ED405A-50 and C. Educación 200612), and the University of Vigo is acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    H. M. Smith and A.F. Turner, Appl. Opt. 4 (1965) 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Dijkkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Jarcho, Clin. Orthop. 157 (1981) 259.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Z. Legeros, Adv. Dent. Res. 2 (1988) 164.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. De Groot, in “Bioceramics of Calcium Phosphate” edited by De Groot K. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1983) p. 100.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. G. T. Geesink, K. De Groot, and C. P. A. T. Klein, J. Bone Joint Surg. 70-B (1988) 17.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. D. Bloembaum and J. A. Dupond, J. Arthroplast. 8 (1993) 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. D. Bobyn, E. S. Mortimer, A. H. Glassman, C. A. Engh, J. E. Miller, and C. E. Brooks, Clin. Orthop. 261 (1992) 196.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. L. Jaffe and D. F. Scott, J. Bone Joint Surg. 78-A (1996) 1918.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Okazaki, J. Takahashi, H. Kimura, and T. Aoba, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 16 (1982) 851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. J. Filiaggi, R. M. Pilliar, and N. A. Coombs, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 27 (1993) 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. S. Zhang, P. A. Revell, S. L. Evans, M. A. Tuke, and P. J. Gregson, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 46 (1999) 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Zheng, M. Huang, and C. Ding, Biomaterials 21 (2000) 841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. P. Ferraz, J. C. Knowles, J. Olsen, F. J. Monteiro, and J. D. Santos, Biomaterials 21 (2000) 813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Ducheyne, W. Van Raemdonck, J. C. Heughebaert, and M. Heughebaert, Biomaterials 7 (1986) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Yoshinari, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Dérand, Biomaterials 15 (1994) 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. A. Jansen, J. G. Wolke, S. Swann, J. P. Van Der Waerden, and K. De Groot, Clin. Oral Implants Res. 4 (1993) 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. R. Lacefield, Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 523 (1988) 72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Li, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 66A (2003) 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. M. Cotell, D. B. Chrisey, K. S. Grabowski, and J. A. Sprague, J. Appl. Biomater. 3 (1992) 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Baeri, L. Torrisi, N. Marino, and G. Foti, Appl. Surf. Sci. 54 (1992) 210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Sardin, J. Palau, M. Varela, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza, in “Hydroxyapatite and related materials” edited by Brown P. W. and Constantz B. (CRC press, 1994) p. 225.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. K. Singh, F. Qian, V. Nagabushnam, R. Damodaran, and B. M. Moudgil, Biomaterials 15 (1994) 522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Serra, J. Palau, M. Varela, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza, J. Mater. Res. 10 (1995) 473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Jelínek, V. Olsan, L. Jastrabík, V. Studnicka, V. Hnatowicz, J. Kvítek, V. Havránek, T. Dostálová, I. Zergioti, A. Petrakis, E. Hontzopoulos, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 257 (1995) 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. N. Bagratashvili, E. N. Antonov, E. N. Sobol, V. K. Popov, and S. M. Howdle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) 2451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. E. Tucker, G. H. Nancollas, C. M. Cottell, R. C. Y. Auyeung, and M. Spector, Biomaterials 17 (1996) 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Hontsu, M. Nakamori, H. Tabata, J. Ishii, and T. Kawai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O. Guillot-Noël, R. Gómez-San Román, J. Perriére, J. Hermann, V. Craciun, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, and P. Barboux, J. Appl. Phys. 80 (1996) 1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. K. Wang, J. H. Chern Lin, C. P. Ju, H. C. Ong, and R. P. H. Chang, Biomaterials 18 (1997) 1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, F. J. García-Sanz, J. Pou, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, and J. C. Knowles, J. Mater. Sci. : Mater. Med. 8 (1997) 873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, L. Cléries, P. Serra, C. Ferrater, and J. L. Morenza, Thin Solid Films 317 (1998) 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Craciun, I. W. Boyd, D. Craciun, P. Andreazza, and J. Perriere, J. Appl. Phys. 85 (1999) 8410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. M. Cotell, Appl. Surf. Sci. 69 (1993) 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Torrisi, Thin Solid Films 237 (1994) 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Torrisi and R. Setola, Thin Solid Films 227 (1993) 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, E. N. Sobol, S. M. Howdle, C. Joiner, K. G. Parker, T. L. Parker, A. A. Doktorov, V. B. Likhanov, A. I. Volozhin, S. S. Alimpiev, and S. M. Nikiforov, J. Biomed. Optics 3 (1998) 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Kelly and A. Miotello, in “Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films” edited by Chrisey D. B. and Hubler G. H. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994) p. 55.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. B. Geohegan, in “Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films” edited by Chrisey D. B. and Hubler G. H. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994) p. 115.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. S. Horwitz and J. A. Sprague, in "Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films" edited by Chrisey D. B. and Hubler G.H. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994) p. 229.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    B. Feddes, A. M. Vredenberg, M. Wehner, J. C. G. Wolke, and J. A. Jansen, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Zeng, W. R. Lacefield, and S. Mirov, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 50 (2000) 248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. J. García-Sanz, M. B. Mayor, J. L. Arias, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 8 (1997) 861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Cléries, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 23 (2002) 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. L. Arias, PhD thesis (University of Vigo, Spain, 2000).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. Masetti, M. Jelínek, and C. Grivas, Proc. SPIE 2965 (1996) 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, PhD thesis (University of Barcelona, Spain, 1999).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    O. Blind, B. Dailey, L. Jordan, and L. H. Klein, Dent. Mater. 21 (2005) 1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. L. Arias, F. J. García-Sanz, M. B. Mayor, S. Chiussi, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Biomaterials 19 (1998) 883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    M. Katto, K. Kurosawa, A. Yokotani, S. Kubodera, A. Kameyama, T. Higashiguchi, T. Nakayama, and M. Tsukamoto, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248 (2005) 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Ferro, J. V. Rau, S. M. Barinov, R. Teghil, and A. Latini, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. P. Ferraz, F. J. Monteiro, D. Giao, B. León, P. González, S. Liste, J. Serra, J. Arias, and M. Pérez-Amor, Key Eng. Mater. 254–256 (2004) 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. L. Solla, J. P. Borrajo, P. González, J. Serra, S. Chiussi, B. León, and J. García-López, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253 (2006) 8282.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. Gyorgy, G. Socol, M. Iliescu, I. N. Mihailescu, P. Toricelli, J. Werckman, I. Mayer, and A. Bigi, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 71A (2004) 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Y. Suda, H. Kawasaki, T. Ohshima, S. Nakashima, S. Kawazoe, and T. Toma, Thin Solid Films 506–507 (2006) 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P. Serra and J. L. Morenza, Thin Solid Films 335 (1998) 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P. Serra and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129 (1998) 662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110 (1997).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    P. Serra, L. Cléries, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98 (1996) 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, J. Navarro, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A 69 (1999)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186 (2002) 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208–209 (2003) 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    D. G. A. Nelson and J. D. B. Featherstone, Calcif. Tiss. Int. 34 (1982) 69.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. Z. Legeros, O. R. Trautz, J. P. Legeros, and E. Klein, Bull. Soc. Chim.(Fr.) special issue (1968) 1712.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    H. Zeng and W. R. Lacefield, Biomaterials 21 (2000) 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 154 (2000) 434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, L. I. Krotova, V. K. Popov, M. Ball, S. Downes, D. M. Grant, S. M. Howdle, and W. J. Lo, Key Eng. Mater. 192–195 (2001) 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Cléries, P. Serra, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A 72 (2001) 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    P. Serra and J. L. Morenza, J. Appl. Phys. 85 (1999) 3289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Vacuum. 67 (2002) 653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. B. Mayor, J. Arias, S. Chiussi, F. Garcia, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Thin Solid Films 317 (1998) 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    E. Jiménez, J. L. Arias, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Thin Solid Films 453–454 (2004) 422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. Arends and W. L. Jongebloed, Recl. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 100 (1981) 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. B. Mayor, PhD thesis (University of Vigo, Spain, 2000).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R. Z. Legeros and J. P. Legeros, in “An introduction to bioceramics” edited by Hench L.L. and Wilson J. (World Scientific, 1993) p. 139.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, M. V. García-Cuenca, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A 80 (2005) 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    E. Jiménez, J. L. Arias, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Key Eng. Mater. 254–256 (2004) 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. Iliescu, J. Werckmann, V. Nelea, I. N. Mihailescu, G. Socol, A. Bigi, and B. Bracci, Thin Solid Films 453–454 (2004) 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. Socol, F. Miroiu, I. N. Mihailescu, P. Torricelli, B. Bracci, A. Bigi, M. Iliescu, and J. Werckmann, Biomaterials 25 (2004) 2539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, M. D. Ball, D. M. Grant, S. M. Howdle, and C. A. Scotchford, J. Mater. Sci. : Mater. Med. 14 (2003) 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    S. Hontsu, T. Matsumoto, J. Ishii, M. Nakamori, H. Tabata, and T. Kawai, Thin Solid Films 295 (1997) 214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. Kusunoki, M. Kawasima, H. Nishikawa, K. Morimoto, T. Hayami, S. Hontsu, and T. Kawai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2 44 (2005)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, L. I. Krotova, and V. K. Popov, in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, edited by Giannini S. and Moroni A. (Trans Tech Publications, Bologne, Italy, 2001).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. D. Ball, S. Downes, C. A. Scotchford, E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, W. J. Lo, D. M. Grant, and S. M. Howdle, Biomaterials 22 (2001) 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. P. Borrajo, J. Serra, S. Liste, P. González, S. Chiussi, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248 (2005) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    V. Nelea, H. Pelletier, M. Iliescu, J. Werckmann, V. Craciun, I. N. Mihailescu, C. Ristoscu, and C. Ghica, J. Mater. Sci. : Mater. Med. 13 (2002) 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Katto, M. Nakamura, T. Tanaka, and T. Nakayama, Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198 (2002) 768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    M. Katto, M. Nakamura, T. Tanaka, T. Matsutani, M. Kuwata, and T. Nakayama, Surf. Coat. Tech. 169–170 (2003) 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    E. L. Solla, J. P. Borrajo, P. González, J. Serra, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248 (2005) 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    P. J. Burnett and D. S. Rickerby, Thin Solid Films 157 (1988) 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Y. Yang and J. L. Ong, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 64 (2003) 509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    L. Cléries, E. Martínez, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 21 (2000) 967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Cléries, Martínez E., G. Sardin, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 22 (2001) 2171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. L. Arias, M. B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, and Y. Leng, Biomaterials 24 (2003) 3403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, M. V. García-Cuenca, L. Cléries, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Surf. Sci. 195 (2002) 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    C. G. Zhang, M. F. Cheng, Y. Leng, P. Tong, and J. Y. Chen, in Biomedical Materials Research in the Far East (III), edited by Zhang Z. and Ikada Y. (Kobushi Kantokai Inc, Kyoto, 1997).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    V. Nelea, H. Pelletier, P. Mille, V. Craciun, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Iliescu, and J. Werckmann, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208–209 (2003) 638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    V. Nelea, H. Pelletier, P. Mille, and D. Muller, Thin Solid Films 453–454 (2004) 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    L. Cléries, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 19 (1998) 1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    L. Cléries, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, G. Sardin, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 20 (1999) 1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    J. L. Arias, J. Pou, B. León, C. Peraire, and A. Arañó, in Transactions – 7th World Biomaterials Congress, edited by Howlett R. (Australian Society for Biomaterials Inc., Sydney, 2004).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    C. Peraire, A. Rovira, A. Araño, B. Mayor, J. L. Arias, J. Pou, and B. León, Report (EU CRAFT project: BRE2.CT94.1533, 1997).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    T. L. Parker, K. G. Parker, S. M. Howdle, E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, E. Sobol, and C. J. Roberts, Cell Eng. 1 (1996) 91.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    L. Cléries, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, and J. L. Morenza, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 49 (2000) 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. D. De Bruijn, J. E. Davies, and C. A. Van Blitterswijk, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 29 (1995) 89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    J. E. Davies, Anat. Rec. 245 (1996) 426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    J. Morgan, K. R. Holtman, J. C. Keller, and C. M. Stanford, Implan. Dent. 6 (1996) 264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    H. Matsuoka, H. Akiyama, Y. Okada, H. Ito, C. Shigeno, J. Konishi, T. Kokubo, and T. Nakamura, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 47 (1999) 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    L. Himmlová, T. Dostálová, M. Jelínek, J. Bártová, V. Pesáková, and M. Adam, Proc. SPIE 3564 (1998) 221.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    M. Seydlova, Z. Teuberova, T. Dostálová, B. Dvorankova, K. Smetana, M. Jelínek, T. Kocourek, and W. Mróz, J. Appl. Phys. 99 (2006) 014905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. Bigi, B. Bracci, L. Sturba, F. Cuisinier, R. Elkaim, M. Fini, P. Torricelli, I. Mayer, I. N. Mihailescu, and G. Socol, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 2381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    C. M. Cotell, J. A. Conklin, R. C. Y. Auyeung, S. S. Wong, C. M. Klapperich, and M. Spector, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 414 (1996) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    T. Dostálová, M. Jelínek, L. Himmlová, and C. Grivas, Proc. SPIE 3593 (1999) 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    T. Dostálová, L. Himmlová, M. Jelínek, and C. Grivas, Laser Phys. 8 (1998) 182.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    M. Jelínek, T. Dostálová, L. Himmlová, C. Grivas, and C. Fotakis, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Tech. A Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374 (2002) 599.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    T. Dostálová, L. Himmlová, M. Jélinek, and C. Grivas, J. Biomed. Optics 6 (2001) 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    C. Peraire, J. Arias, D. Bernal, J. Pou, B. León, A. Arañó, and W. Roth, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 77A (2006) 370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    C. Peraire, A. Arañó, A. Arsuaga, B. Assenza, A. Borrell, A. Padrós, J. L. Arias, J. Pou, and B. León, Final report (EU CRAFT Project: BRE2. CT94. 1533, 1997).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    D. Lew, A. A. Marino, J. M. Startzell, and J. C. Keller, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 52 (1994) 952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    S. Mohammadi, M. Esposito, L. Emanuelsson, and P. Thomsen, in Transactions- 7th World Biomaterials Congress, edited by Howlett R. (Australian Society for Biomaterials Inc., Sydney, 2004).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    S. Mohammadi, M. Esposito, L. Emanuelsson, and P. Thomsen, in Transactions- 7th World Biomaterials Congress, edited by Howlett R. (Australian Society for Biomaterials Inc., Sydney, 2004).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    J. A. Greer, in “Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films” edited by Chrisey D. B. and Hubler G. H. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1994) p. 293.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Cléries, E. Martínez, G. Sardin, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A A71 (2000) 37.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    S. Hontsu, J. Ishii, M. Nakamori, N. Kato, T. Matsumoto, H. Tabata, and T. Kawai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2 37 (1998)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    L. L. Hench and J. Wilson, in “An Introduction to Bioceramics” edited by Hench L. L. and Wilson J. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, E. N. Sobol, and S. M. Howdle, Spectrochimica Acta Part A 52A (1996) 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, V. K. Popov, E. N. Sobol, M. C. Davies, S. J. B. Tendler, C. J. Roberts, and S. M. Howdle, Biomaterials 18 (1997) 1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    F. García, J. L. Arias, B. Mayor, J. Pou, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, I. Rehman, J. Knowles, S. Best, and W. Bonfield, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 43 (1998) 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    M. B. Mayor, J. L. Arias, F. J. García-Sanz, S. Chiussi, J. Pou, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Biomaterials 11 (1998) 209.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    P. Serra and J. L. Morenza, Appl. Phys. A 67 (1998) 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    V. Craciun, D. Craciun, P. Andreazza, J. Perriere, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 138 (1999) 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    L. Cléries, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, and J. L. Morenza, Biomaterials 21 (2000) 1861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    W. J. Lo, D. M. Grant, B. S. Welsh, M. D. Ball, S. M. Howdle, E. N. Antonov, V. N. Bagratashvili, and V. K. Popov, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 50 (2000) 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    V. Nelea, H. Pelletier, P. Mille, A. Cornet, C. Ristoscu, C. Chiritescu, I. N. Mihailescu, and C. Ghica, Appl. Surf. Sci. 168 (2000) 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    H. Zeng and W. R. Lacefield, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 50 (2000) 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    V. Nelea, H. Pelletier, D. Muller, N. Broll, P. Mille, C. Ristoscu, and I. N. Mihailescu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186 (2002) 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    P. N. De Aza, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, and P. Serra, Biomaterials 25 (2004) 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    M. Iliescu, J. Werckmann, V. Nelea, and I. N. Mihailescu, Surf. Coat. Tech. 187 (2004) 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    V. Nelea, C. Morosanu, M. Iliescu, and I. N. Mihailescu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 228 (2004) 346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    L. C. Nistor, C. Ghica, V. S. Teodorescu, S. V. Nistor, M. Dinescu, D. Matei, N. Frangis, N. Vouroutzis, and C. Liutas, Mater. Res. Bull. 39 (2004) 2089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    H. Pelletier, V. Nelea, P. Mille, and D. Muller, J. Mater. Sci. 39 (2004) 4185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    H. Pelletier, V. Nelea, P. Mille, and D. Muller, J. Mater. Sci. 39 (2004) 3605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    H. Pelletier, V. Nelea, P. Mille, and D. Muller, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 216 (2004) 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    H. Pelletier, V. Nelea, P. Mille, and D. Muller, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 216 (2004) 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. Beltrano, L. Torrisi, and D. Margarone, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 160 (2005) 545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    J. P. Borrajo, J. Serra, S. Liste, P. González, S. Chiussi, B. León, and M. Pérez-Amor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248 (2005) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    H. Kim, R. P. Camata, Y. K. Vohra, and W. R. Lacefield, J. Mater. Sci. : Mater. Med. 16 (2005) 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    I. N. Mihailescu, G. Socol, F. Miroiu, P. Torricelli, A. Bigi, I. Mayer, M. Iliescu, J. Werckmann, F. Cuisinier, R. Elkaim, and G. Hildebrand, Appl. Surf. Sci. 248 (2005) 344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departmento de Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. IndustrialesUniversity of VigoLagoas-Marcosende s/nSpain

Personalised recommendations