Self-Organized Surface Nanopatterning by Ion Beam Sputtering

  • Javier Muñoz-García
  • Luis Vázquez
  • Rodolfo Cuerno
  • José A. Sánchez-García
  • Mario Castro
  • Raúl Gago
Part of the Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology book series (LNNST, volume 5)


The production of self-organized surface nanopatterns by ion beam sputtering (IBS) at low (<10 keV) and intermediate (10–100 keV) energies has emerged in the last decade as a promising bottom-up nanostructuring tool. The technique is remarkably universal, being applicable to metals, semiconductors or insulators, and it enables large degree of control over the main pattern features with high throughput (it requires low process time and can be used over extended areas). However, there is a wide scatter in the experimental results obtained as a function of system type and process parameters. In parallel, diverse theoretical models have been developed that differ in their capabilities to reproduce such a wide range of experimental features. We provide an overview of the most recent studies on the production of nanoripple, nanohole and nanodot periodic nanostructures by IBS, with special attention to the comparison between experiments and (continuum) models, and with a focus on those issues that remain open or, at least, ambiguous. The pattern properties to be considered are those of potential increased technological importance, such as the variation of size, shape, distance and ordering of the nanostructures as a function of parameters such as ion energy, target temperature and sputtering time (i.e., fluence). Finally, reported and proposed applications of IBS nanopatterns are briefly presented showing, in this way, the high-potential functionality of IBS nanostructured surfaces.


Monte Carlo Highly Orient Pyrolytic Graphite Highly Orient Pyrolytic Graphite Surface Ripple Pattern Grazing Incidence Diffraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are pleased to acknowledge collaborations and exchange with a number of colleagues, in particular JM Albella, MC Ballesteros, A-L Barabási, M Camero, T Chini, M Feix, AK Hartmann, R Kree, M Makeev, TH Metzger, O Plantevin, M Varela and EO Yewande. We would like to thank specially F Alonso for his help in the ripple experiments on Si at 40 keV shown in Section 3.

Our work has been partially supported by Spanish grants Nos. FIS2006-12253-C06 (-01, -02, -03, -06) from Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC), CCG06-UAM/MAT-0040 from Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (CAM) and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CCG08-CSIC/MAT-3457 from CAM and CSIC, UC3M-FI-05-007 and CCG06-UC3M/ESP-0668 from CAM and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, and finally S-0505/ESP-0158 from CAM. RG also acknowledges financial support from the “Ramón y Cajal” program (MEC).


  1. 1.
    Alkemade PFA, Jiang ZX (2001) Complex roughening of Si under oblique bombardment by low-energy oxygen ions. J Vac Sci Technol 19: 1699–1705Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alkemade PFA (2006) Propulsion of ripples on glass by ion bombardment. Phys Rev Lett 96: 107602Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amirtharaj PM, Little J, Wood GL, Wickenden A, Smith DD (2002) The army pushes the boundary of sensor performance through nanotechnology. In Grethlein CE (ed) The AMPTIAC Newsletter, Spring 2002, Special Issue: Nanotechnology 6: 49–56Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen HH, Bay HL (1981) Sputtering by particle bombardment vol I Chapter 4: R. Behrisch (Ed.). Springer, Berlin, pp 145–218Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Auger MA, Schilardi PL, Caretti I, Sánchez O, Benítez G, Albella JM, Gago R, Fonticelli M, Vázquez L, Salvarezza RC, Azzaroni O (2005) Molding and Replication of Ceramic Surfaces with Nanoscale Resolution. Small 1: 300–309Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aste T, Valbusa U (2004) Surface instabilities in granular matter and ionsputtered surfaces. Physica A 332: 548–558Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aste T, Valbusa U (2005) Ripples and ripples: from sandy deserts to ionsputtered surfaces. New J Phys 7: 122Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Azzaroni O, Schilardi PL, Salvarezza RC, Gago R, Vázquez L (2003) Direct molding of nanopatterned polymeric films: Resolution and errors. Appl Phys Lett 82: 457–459Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azzaroni O, Fonticelli MH, Benítez G, Schilardi PL, Gago R, Caretti I, Váquez L, Salvarezza RC (2004) Direct nanopatterning of metal surfaces using self-assembled molecular films. Adv Mater 16: 405–409Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azzaroni O, Fonticelli M, Schilardi PL, Benítez G, Caretti I, Albella JM, Gago R, Vázquez L, Salvarezza RC (2004) Surface nanopatterning of metal thin films by physical vapour deposition onto surface-modified silicon nanodots. Nanotechnol 15: S197-S200Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Binnig G, Quate C, Gerber Ch (1986) Atomic force microscope. Phys Rev Lett 56: 930–933Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bobek T, Facsko S, Kurz H, Xu M, Teichert C (2003) Temporal evolution of dot patterns during ion sputtering. Phys Rev B 68: 085324Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradley RM, Harper JME (1988) Theory of ripple topography induced by ion-bombardment. J Vac Sci Technol A 6: 2390–2395Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bradley RM (1996) Dynamic scaling of ion-sputtered rotating surfaces. Phys Rev E 54: 6149–6152Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bringa EM, Johnson RE, Papaléo RM (2002) Crater formation by single ions in the electronic stopping regime: Comparison of molecular dynamics simulations with experiments on organic films. Phys Rev. B 65: 094113Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown AD, Erlebacher J (2005) Temperature and fluence effects on the evolution of regular surface morphologies on ion-sputtered Si(111). Phys Rev B 72: 075350Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown AD, Erlebacher J (2005) Transient topographies of ion patterned Si(111). Phys Rev Lett 95: 056101Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Calleja M, Anguita J, García R, Birkelund K, Pérez-Murano F, Dagata JA (1999) Nanometer-scale oxidation of silicon surfaces by dynamic force microscopy: Reproducibility, kinetics and nanofabrication. Nanotechnol 10: 10044–10050Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carter G, Vishnyakov V (1996) Roughening and ripple instabilities on ion-bombarded Si. Phys Rev B 54: 17647–17653Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carter G (1999) The effects of surface ripples on sputtering erosion rates and secondary ion emission yields. J Appl Phys 85: 455–459Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carter G (2001) The physics and applications of ion beam erosion. J Phys D Appl Phys 34: R1-R22Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carter G (2004) Proposals for producing novel periodic structures by ion bombardment sputtering. Vacuum 77: 97–100Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carter G (2005) Surface ripple amplification and attenuation by sputtering with diametrically opposed ion fluxes. Vacuum 79: 106–109Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carter G (2006) Proposals for producing novel periodic structures on silicon by ion bombardment sputtering. Vacuum 81: 138–140Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Castro M, Cuerno R, Vázquez L, Gago R (2005) Self-organized ordering of nanostructures produced by ion-beam sputtering. Phys Rev Lett 94: 016102Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Castro M, Cuerno R (2005) Comment on “Kinetic roughening of ion-sputtered Pd(001) surface: beyond the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky model”. Phys Rev Lett 94: 139601Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castro M, Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R, García-Hernández M, Vázquez L (2007) Generic equations for pattern formation in evolving interfaces. New J Phys 9: 102Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chason E, Mayer TM, Kellerman BK, McIlroy DT, Howard AJ (1994) Roughening instability and evolution of the Ge(001) surface during ion sputtering. Phys Rev Lett 72: 3040–3043Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chason E, Kellerman BK (1997) Monte Carlo simulations of ion-enhanced island coarsening. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 127: 225–229Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chason E, Erlebacher J, Aziz MJ, Floro JA, Sinclair MB (2001) Dynamics of pattern formation during low-energy ion bombardment of Si(001). Nucl Instr and Meth B 178: 55–61Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chason E, Chan WL (2006) Kinetic mechanisms in ion-induced ripple formation on Cu(001) surfaces. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys Res B 242: 232–236Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chason E, Chan WL, Bharathi MS (2006) Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of ion-induced ripple formation: Dependence on flux, temperature, and defect concentration in the linear regime. Phys Rev B 74: 224103Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen YJ, Wilson IH, Cheung WY, Xu JB, Wong SP (1997) Ion implanted nanostructures on Ge(111) surfaces observed by atomic force microscopy. J Vac Sci Technol B 15: 809–813Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen YJ, Wang JP, Soo EW, Wu L, Chong TC (2002) Periodic magnetic nanostructures on self-assembled surfaces by ion beam bombardment. J Appl Phys 91: 7323–7184Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen HH, Orquidez OA, Ichim S, Rodriguez LH, Brenner MP, Aziz MJ (2005) Shocks in ion sputtering sharpen steep surface features. Science 310: 294–297Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen Y, Chen H, Yu J, Williams JS, Craig V (2007) Focused ion beam milling as a universal template technique for patterned growth of carbon nanotubes. Appl Phys Lett 90: 093126Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chey SJ, Van Nostrand JE, Cahill DG (1995) Surface morphology of Ge(001) during etching by low-energy ions. Phys Rev B 52: 16696–166701Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chini TK, Sanyal MK, Bhattacharyya SR (2002) Energy-dependent wavelength of the ion-induced nanoscale ripple. Phys Rev B 66: 153404Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chini TK, Okuyama F, Tanemura M, Nordlund K (2003) Structural investigation of keV Ar-ion-induced surface ripples in Si by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Phys Rev B 67: 205403Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cirlin E-H, Vajo JJ, Doty RE, Hasenberg TC (1991) Ion-induced topography, depth resolution, and ion yield during secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling of GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice: effects of sample rotation. J Vac Sci Technol A 9: 1395Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Costantini G, de Mongeot FB, Boragno C, Valbusa U (2001) Is ion sputtering always a “negative homoepitaxial deposition”?. Phys Rev Lett 86: 838–841Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Csahók Z, Misbah C, Rioual F, Valance A (2000) Dynamics of aeolian sand ripples. Eur Phys J E 3: 71–86Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cuenat A, Aziz MJ (2002) Spontaneous pattern formation from focused and unfocused ion beam irradiation. Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 696: N2.8.1–N.2.8.6Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cuerno R, Barabási AL (1995) Dynamic scaling of ion-sputtered surfaces. Phys Rev Lett 74: 4746–4749Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cuerno R, Makse HA, Tomassone S, Harrington ST, Stanley HE (1995) Stochastic model for surface erosion via ion sputtering: dynamical evolution from ripple morphology to rough morphology. Phys Rev Lett 75: 4464–4467Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cuerno R, Castro M, Muñoz-García J, Gago R, Vázquez L (2007) Universal non-equilibrium phenomena at submicrometric surfaces and interfaces. Eur Phys J Special Topics 146: 427Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Datta A, Wu YR, Wang YL (2001) Real-time observation of ripple structure formation on a diamond surface under focused ion-beam bombardment. Phys Rev B 63: 125407Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Datta D, Bhattacharyya SR, Chini TK, Sanyal MK (2002) Evolution of surface morphology of ion sputtered GaAs(100). Nucl Instr and Meth B 193: 596–602Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Datta DP, Chini TK (2004) Atomic force microscopy study of 60-keV Ar-ion-induced ripple patterns on Si(100). Phys Rev B 69: 235313Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Datta DP, Chini TK (2005) Spatial distribution of Ar on the Ar-ion-induced rippled surface of Si. Phys Rev B 71: 235308Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Demanet CV, Malherbe JB, van der Berg NG, Sankar V (1995) Atomic force microscopy investigation of argon-bombarded InP: Effect of ion dose density. Surf Interface Anal 23: 433–439Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Diaz de la Rubia T, Averback RS, Benedeck R, King WE (1987) Role of thermal spikes in energetic displacement cascades. Phys Rev Lett 59: 1930–1933Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Erlebacher J, Aziz MJ, Chason E, Sinclair MB, Floro JA (1999) Spontaneous pattern formation on ion bombarded Si(001). Phys Rev Lett 82: 2330–2333Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ehrlich G, Hudda FG (1966) Atomic view of surface self-diffusion: Tungsten on tungsten. J Chem Phys 44: 1039–1049Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Facsko S, Dekorsy T, Koerdt C, Trappe C, Kurz H, Vogt A, Hartnagel HL (1999) Formation of ordered nanoscale semiconductor dots by ion sputtering. Science 285: 1551–1553Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Facsko S, Dekorsy T, Trappe C, Kurz H (2000) Self-organized quantum dot formation by ion sputtering. Microelectron Eng 53: 245–248Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Facsko S, Kurz H, Dekorsy T (2001) Energy dependence of quantum dot formation by ion sputtering. Phys Rev B 63: 165329Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Facsko S, Bobek T, Kurz H, Dekorsy T, Kyrsta S, Cremer R (2001) Ion-induced formation of regular nanostructures on amorphous GaSb surfaces. Appl Phys Lett 80: 130–132Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Facsko S, Bobek T, Stahl A, Kurz H, Dekorsy T (2004) Dissipative continuum model for self-organized pattern formation during ion-beam erosion. Phys Rev B 69: 153412Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fan WB, Li WQ, Qi LJ, Sun HT, Luo J, Zhao YY, Lu M (2005) On the role of ion flux in nanostructuring by ion sputter erosion. Nanotechnol 16: 1526–1529Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Feix M, Hartmann AK, Kree R, Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R (2005) Influence of collision cascade statistics on pattern formation of ion-sputtered surfaces. Phys Rev B 71: 125407Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Finnine I (1995) Some reflections on the past and future of erosion. Wear 186–187: 1–10Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Flamm D, Frost F, Hirsch D (2001) Evolution of surface topography of fused silica by ion beam sputtering. Appl Surf Sci 179: 95–101Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frost F, Schindler A, Bigl F (2000) Roughness evolution of ion sputtered rotating InP surfaces: Pattern formation and scaling laws. Phys Rev Lett 85: 4116–4119Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Frost F, Hirsch D, Schindler A (2001) Evaluation of AFM tips using nanometer-sized structures induced by ion sputtering. Appl Surf Sci 179: 8–12Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Frost F, Rauschenbach B (2003) Nanostructuring of solid surfaces by ion-beam erosion. Appl Phys A 77: 1–9Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Frost F, Fechner R, Ziberi B, Flamm D, Schindler A (2004) Large area smoothing of optical surfaces by low-energy ion beams. Thin Sol Films 459: 100–1005.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Frost F, Ziberi B, Höche T, Rauschenbach B (2004) The shape and ordering of self-organized nanostructures by ion sputtering. Nucl Instr and Meth B 216: 9–19Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Frost F, Fechner R, Flamm D, Ziberi B, Frank W, Schindler A (2004) Ion beam assisted smoothing of optical surfaces. Appl Phys A 78: 651–654Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gago R, Vázquez L, Cuerno R, Varela M, Ballesteros C, Albella JM (2001) Production of ordered silicon nanocrystals by low-energy ion sputtering. Appl Phys Lett 78: 3316–3318Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gago R, Vázquez L, Cuerno R, Varela M, Ballesteros C, Albella JM (2002) Nanopatterning of silicon surfaces by low-energy ion-beam sputtering: Dependence on the angle of ion incidence. Nanotechnol 13: 304–308Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gago R, Vázquez L, Plantevin O, Metzger TH, Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R, Castro M (2006) Order enhancement and coarsening of self-organized silicon nanodot patterns induced by ion-beam sputtering. Appl Phys Lett 89: 233101Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gago R, Vázquez L, Sánchez-García JA, Varela M Ballesteros MC, Plantevin O, Albella JM, Metzger TH (2006) Temperature influence on the production of nanodot patterns by ion beam sputtering of Si(001). Phys Rev B 73: 155414Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Granone F, Mussi V, Toma A, Orlanducci S, Terranova ML, Boragno C, Buatier de Mongeot F, Valbusa U (2005) Ion sputtered surfaces as templates for carbon nanotubes alignment and deformation. Nucl Inst. and Meth B 230: 545–550Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Grove WR (1852) On the electrochemical polarity of gases. Phil Trans R Soc (London) B 142: 87Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Guo LJ (2007) Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements. Adv Mater 19: 495–513Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Habenicht S, Bolse W, Lieb KP, Reimann K, Geyer U (1999) Nanometer ripple formation and self-affine roughening of ion-beam-eroded graphite surfaces. Phys Rev B 60: R2200–R2203Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Habenicht S (2001) Morphology of graphite surfaces after ion-beam erosion. Phys Rev B 63: 125419Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Habenicht S, Lieb KP, Koch J, Wieck AD (2002) Ripple propagation and velocity dispersion on ion-beam-eroded silicon surfaces. Phys Rev B 65: 115327Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Harrison DE (1988) Application of molecular-dynamics simulations to the study of ion-bombarded metal-surfaces. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 14: S1–S78.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hartmann AK, Kree R, Geyer U, Kölbel M (2002) Long-time effects in a simulation model of sputter erosion. Phys Rev B 65: 193403Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hazra S, Chini TK, Sanyal MK, Grenzer J, Pietsch U (2004) Ripple structure of crystalline layers in ion-beam-induced Si wafers. Phys Rev B 70: 121307(R)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hodes G (2007) When small is different: Some recent advances in concepts and applications of nanoscale phenomena. Adv Mater 19: 639–655Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hofer C, Abermann S, Teichert C, Bobek T, Kurz H, Lyutovich K, Kasper E (2004) Ion bombardment induced morphology modifications on self-organized semiconductor surfaces. Nucl Inst and Meth B 216: 178–184Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jeffries JH, Zuo JK, Craig MM (1996) Instability of kinetic roughening in sputter-deposition growth of Pt on glass. Phys Rev Lett 76: 4931–4934Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johnson LF, Ingersoll KA (1979) Interference gratings blazed by ion-beam erosion. Appl Phys Lett 35: 500–503Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kahng B, Jeong H, Barábasi AL (2001) Quantum dot and hole formation in sputter erosion. Appl Phys Lett 78: 805–807Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kardar M, Parisi G, Zhang YC (1986) Dynamic Scaling of growing interfaces. Phys Rev Lett 56: 889–892Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Karen A, Okuno A, Soeda F, Ishitani I (1991) A study of the secondary-ion yield change on the GaAs surface caused by the \({\rm O}_2^+\) ion-beam-induced rippling. J Vac Sci Technol A 9: 2247–2252Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karmakar P, Ghose D (2004) Ion beam sputtering induced ripple formation in thin metal films. Surf Sci 554: L101–L106Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Karmakar P, Goshe D (2005) Nanoscale periodic and faceted structures formation on Si(100) by oblique angle oxygen ion sputtering. Nucl Instr and Meth B 230: 539–544Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kasemo B (2002) Biological surface science. Surf Sci 500: 656–677Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kim J, Cahill DG, Averback RS (2003) Surface morphology of Ge(111) during etching by keV ions. Phys Rev B 67: 045404Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kim TC, Ghim C-M, Kim HJ, Kim DH, Noh DY, Kim ND, Chung JW, Yang JS, Chang YJ, Noh TW, Kahng B, Kim J-S (2004) Kinetic Roughening of Ion-Sputtered Pd(001) Surface: beyond the kuramoto-sivashinsky model. Phys Rev Lett 92: 246104Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kim TC, Ghim C-M, Kim HJ, Kim DH, Noh DY, Kim ND, Chung JW, Yang JS, Chang YJ, Noh TW, Kahng B, Kim J-S (2005) Kim et al. Reply. Phys Rev Lett 94: 139602Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Koponen I, Hautala M, Sievänen O-P (1996) Simulations of submicrometer-scale roughening on ion-bombarded solid surfaces. Phys Rev B 54: 13502–13505Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Koponen I, Hautala M, Sievänen O-P (1997) Simulations of roughening of amorphous carbon surfaces bombarded by low-energy Ar-ions. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 127–128: 230–234Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Koponen I, Hautala M, Sievänen O-P (1997) Simulations of ripple formation on ion-bombarded solid surfaces. Phys Rev Lett 78: 2612–2615Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Koponen I, Sievänen O-P, Hautala M, Hakovirta M (1997) Simulations of sputtering induced roughening and formation of surface topography in deposition of amorphous diamond films with mass separated kiloelectronvolt ion beams. J Appl Phys 82: 6047–6055Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Koponen I, Hautala M, Sievänen O-P (1997) Simulations of self-affine roughening and ripple formation on ion bombarded amorphous carbon surfaces. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 129: 349–355Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Krim J, Heyvaert I, Haesendonck CV, Bruynseraede Y (1993) Scanning tunnelling microscopy observation of self-affine fractal roughness in ion-bombarded film surfaces. Phys Rev Lett 70: 57–60Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Krug J (2004) Kinetic pattern formation at solid surfaces. In: Radons G, Häussler P, Just W (eds) Collective dynamics of nonlinear and disordered systems. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kulriya PK, Tripathi A, Kabiraj D, Khan SA, Avasthi DA (2006) Study of 1.5 keV Ar atoms beam induced ripple formation on Si surface by atomic force microscopy. Nucl Instr and Meth B 244: 95–99Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kustner M, Eckstein W, Dose V, Roth J (1998) The influence of surface roughness on the angular dependence of the sputter yield. Nucl Instr and Meth B 145: 320–331Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lau GS, Tok ES, Liu R, Wee ATS, Tjiu WC, Zhang J (2003) Nanostructure formation by O2 + ion sputtering of Si/SiGe heterostructures. Nanotechnol 14: 1187–1191Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Li YZ, Vázquez L, Piner R, Reifenberger R (1989) Writing nanometer-scale symbols in gold using the scanning tunneling microscope. Appl Phys Lett 54: 1424–1426Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lindner J, Poulopoulos P, Farle M, Baberschke K (2000) Structure and magnetism of self-organized Ni nanostructures on Cu(001). J Magn Magn Mater 218: 10–16Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Liu ZX, Alkemade PFA (2001) Flux dependence of oxygen-beam- induced ripple growth on silicon. Appl Phys Lett 79: 4334–4336Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ludwig F Jr, Eddy CR Jr, Malis O, Headrick RL (2002) Si(100) surface morphology evolution during normal-incidence sputtering with 100–500 eV Ar+ ions. Appl Phys Lett 81: 2770–2772Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Maclaren SW, Baker JE, Finnegan WL, Loxton CM (1992) Surface roughness development during sputtering of GaAs and InP: Evidence for the role of surface diffusion in ripple formation and sputter cone development. J Vac Sci Technol A 10: 468–476Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Makeev MA, Barabási AL (1997) Ion-induced effective surface diffusion in ion sputtering. Appl Phys Lett 71: 2800–2802Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Makeev MA, Cuerno R, Barábasi AL (2002) Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces. Nucl Instr Meth B 97: 185–227Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Malherbe JB (2003) Bombardment-induced ripple topography on GaAs and InP. Nucl Instr Meth B 212: 258–263Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mayer TM, Chason E, Howard AJ (1994) Roughening instability and ion-induced viscous relaxation of SiO2 surfaces. J Appl Phys 73: 1633–1643Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Michely T, Comsa G (1991) Temperature dependence of the sputtering morphology of Pt(111). Surf Sci 256: 217–226Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mirkin CA (2001) Dip-pen nanolithography: automated fabrication of custom multicomponent, sub-100 nm nanometer surface architectures. MRS Bull 26: 535–538Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Moore DF, Daniel JH, Walker JF (1997) Nano- and micro-technology applications of focused ion beam processing. Microelectron J 28: 465–473Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mora A, Haase M, Rabbow T, Plath PJ (2005) Discrete model for laser driven etching and microstructuring of metallic surfaces. Phys Rev B 72: 061604Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mori H, Kuramoto Y (1997) Dissipative structures and chaos. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Moroni R, Sekiba D, Buatier de Mongeot F, Gonella G, Boragno C, Mattera L, Valbusa U (2003) Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in nanostructured Co/Cu(001): From surface ripples to nanowires. Phys Rev Lett 91: 167207Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mullins WW (1957) Theory of thermal grooving. J Appl Phys 28: 333Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mullins WW (1959) Flattening of a nearly plane solid surface due to capillarity J Appl Phys 30: 77Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Muñoz-García J, Castro M, Cuerno R (2006) Nonlinear ripple dynamics on amorphous surfaces patterned by ion beam sputtering. Phys Rev Lett 96: 086101Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R, Castro M (2006) Short-range stationary patterns and long-range disorder in an evolution equation for one-dimensional interfaces. Phys Rev E 74: 050103(R)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R, Castro M (2007) Coupling of morphology to surface transport in ion-beam irradiated surfaces: Oblique incidence. Phys Rev B 78: 205408Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Muñoz-García J, Cuerno R, Castro M (2009) Coupling of morphology to surface transport in ion-beam irradiated surfaces: Normal incidence and rotating targets. J Phys: Condens Matter. In pressGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Murty MVR, Cowles B, Cooper BH (1998) Surface smoothing during sputtering: mobile vacancies versus adatom detachment and diffusion. Surf Sci 415: 328–335Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Murty MVR (2002) Sputtering: The material erosion tool. Surf Sci 500: 523–544Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mussi V, Granonce F, Boragno C, Bautier de Mongeot, Valbusa (2006) Surface nanostructuring and optical activation of lithium fluoride crystals by ion beam irradiation. Appl Phys Lett 88: 103116Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nastasi MA, Mayer JW, Hirvonen JK (1996) Ion-solid interactions: Fundamentals and applications. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Navez M, Chaperot D, Sella C (1962) Microscopie electronique – etude de l’attaque du verre par bombardement ionique. C R Acad Sci 254: 240–248Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Nord J, Nordlund K, Keinonen J (2003) Molecular dynamics study of damage accumulation in GaN during ion beam irradiation. Phys Rev B 68: 184104Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Oechsner H (1975) Sputtering - Review of some recent experimental and theoretical aspects. Appl Phys 8: 185–198Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Oechsner H (ed.) (1984) Thin film and depth profile analysis. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Okutani T, Shikate S, Ichimura S, Shimizu R (1980) Angular distribution of Si atoms sputtered by keV Ar+ ions. J Appl Phys 51: 2884–2887Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ozaydin G, Özcan AS, Wang Y, Ludwig KF, Zhou H, Headrick RL, Siddons DP (2005) Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment. Appl Phys Lett 87: 163104Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Paniconi M, Elder KR (1997) Stationary, dynamical, and chaotic states of the two-dimensional damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Phys. Rev. E 56: 2713–2721Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Park S, Kahng B, Jeong H, Barabási AL (1999) Dynamics of ripple formation in sputter erosion: Nonlinear phenomena. Phys Rev Lett 83: 3486–3489Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Plücker J (1958) Observations on the electrical discharge through rarefied gases. The London, Edimburgh and Dublin Phil Mag 16: 409Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Politi P, Misbah C (2006) Nonlinear dynamics in one dimension: A criterion for coarsening and its temporal law. Phys Rev E 73: 036133Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Raible M, Mayr SG, Linz SJ, Moske M, Hänggi P, Samwer K (2000) Amorphous thin-film growth: Theory compared with experiment. Europhys Lett 50: 61–67Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Raible M, Linz SJ, Hänggi P (2001) Amorphous thin film growth: Effects of density inhomogeneities. Phys Rev E 64: 031506Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rossnagel SM, Robinson RS (1982) Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing. J Vac Sci Technol 20: 195–198Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rossnagel SM (2003) Thin film deposition with physical vapor deposition and related technologies. J Vac Sci Technol A 21: S74–S87Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rost M, Krug J (2005) Anisotropic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation for surface growth and erosion. Phys Rev Lett 75 : 3894–3897Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Roth J (1983) Chemical sputtering. Topics Appl Phys 52: 91–146Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rusponi S, Boragno C, Valbusa U (1997) Ripple structure on Ag(110) surface induced by ion sputtering. Phys Rev Lett 78: 2795–2798Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rusponi S, Constantini G, Boragno C, Valbusa U (1998) Ripple wave vector rotation in anisotropic crystal sputtering. Phys Rev Lett 81: 2735–2738Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Schildenberger M, Bonetti YC, Gobrecht J, Prins R (2000) Nano-pits: Supports for heterogeneous model catalysts prepared by interference lithograpy. Top Catal 13: 109–120Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schubert E, Razek N, Frost F, Schindler A, Rauschenbach B (2005) GaAs surface cleaning by low-energy hydrogen ion bombardment at moderate temperatures. J Appl Phys 97: 23511Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Schwoebel RL, Shipsey EJ (1966) Step motion on crystal surfaces. J Appl Phys 37: 3682–3686Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Seoo YS, Luo H, Samuilov VA, Rafailovic h MH, Sokolov J, Gersappe D, Chu B (2004) DNA Electrophoresis on Nanopatterned Surfaces. Nano Lett 4: 659–664Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Shen J, Kischner J (2002) Tailoring magnetism in artificially structured materials: The new frontier. Surf Sci 500: 300–322Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sigmund P (1969) Theory of sputtering. I. Sputtering yield of amorphous and polycrystalline targets. Phys Rev 184: 383–416Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sigmund P (1973) A mechanism of surface micro-roughening by ion bombardment. J Mat Sci 8: 1545–1553Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Soh HT, Guarini KW, Quate CF (2001) Scanning probe lithography. Kluwer, Boston.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sohn LL, Willet RL (1995) Fabrication of nanostructures using atomic-force-microscope- based lithography. Appl Phys Lett 67: 1552–1554Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Smirnov VK, Kibalov DS, Krivelevich SA, Lepshin PA, Potapov EV, Yankov RA, Skorupa W, Makarov VV, Danilin AB (1999) Wave-ordered structures formed on SOI wafers by reactive ion beams. Nucl Instr and Meth B 147: 310–315Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Smirnov VK, Kibalov DS, Orlov OM, Graboshinikov VV (2003) Technology for nanoperiodic doping of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor channel using a self-forming wave-ordered structure. Nanotechnol 14: 709–715Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Stangl J, Hol V, Bauer G (2004) Structural properties of self-organized semiconductor nanostructures. Rev Mod Phys 76: 725–783Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Stark J (1908) Zeitsch Elecktrochem 14: 752–756Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Stepanova M, Dew SK (2004) Surface relaxation in ion-etch nanopatterning. Appl Phys Lett 84: 1374–1376Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Stepanova M, Dew SK, Soshnikov IP (2005) Copper nanopattern on \({\rm SiO}_2\) from sputter etching a \({\rm Cu}/{\rm SiO}_2\) interface. Appl Phys Lett 86: 073112Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Stepanova M, Dew SK (2006) Self-organized Cu nanowires on glass and Si substrates from suptter etching Cu/substrate interfaces. J Vac Sci Technol B 24: 592–598Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Strobel M, Heinig K-H, Michely T (2001) Mechanisms of pit coarsening in ion erosion of fcc(111) surfaces: a kinetic 3D lattice Monte-Carlo study. Surf Sci 486: 136–156Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Stuart RV, Wehner GK, Anderson GS (1969) Energy distribution of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline metals. J Appl Phys 40: 803–812Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Tachi S, Okudaira S (1986) Chemical sputtering of silicon by F+, Cl+, and Br+ ions - reactive spot model for reactive ion etching. J Vac Sci Technol B 4: 459–467Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Taglauer E (1990) Surface cleaing using sputtering. Appl Phys A 51: 238–251Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tan SK, Liu R, Sow CH, Wee ATS (2006) Self-organized nanodot formation on InP(100) by oxygen ion sputtering. Nucl Instr and Meth B 248: 83–89Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Tan SK, Wee ATS (2006) Self-organized nanodot formation on InP(100) by argon ion sputtering at normal incidence. J Vac Sci Technol B 24: 1444–1448Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Teichert C (2001) Self-organization of nanostructures in semiconductor heteroepitaxy. Phys Rep 365: 335–432Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Teichert C (2003) Self-organized semiconductor surfaces as templates for nanostructured magnetic thin films. Appl Phys A 76: 653–664Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Terris BD, Thomson T (2005) Nanofabrication and self-assembled magnetic structures as data storage media. J Phys D: Appl Phys 38: R199-R222Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Tok ES, Ong SW, Kang HC (2004) Dynamical scaling of sputter-roughened surfaces in 2+1 dimensions. Phys Rev E 70: 011604Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Toma A, Buatier de Mongeot F, Buzio R, Firpo G, Bhattacharyya SR, Boragno C, Valbusa U (2005) Ion beam erosion of amorphous materials: Evolution of surface morphology. Nucl Instr and Meth B 230: 551–554Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Umbach CC, Headrick RL, Chang K (2001) Spontaneous nanoscale corrugation of ion-eroded \({\rm SiO}_2\): The role of ion-irradiation-enhanced viscous flow. Phys Rev Lett 87: 246104Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Vajo JJ, Doly RE, Cirlin EH (1996) Influence of O2 + energy, flux, and fluence on the formation and growth of sputtering-induced ripple topography on silicon. J Vac Sci Technol A 14: 2709–2720Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Valbusa U, Boragno C, Buatier de Mongeot F (2002) Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering. J Phys: Condens Matter 14: 8153–8175Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Vogel S, Linz SJ (2005) Continuum modeling of sputter erosion under normal incidence: Interplay between nonlocality and nonlinearity. Phys Rev B 72: 035416Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Vogel S, Linz SJ (2006) How ripples turn into dots: Modeling ion-beam erosion under oblique incidence. Europhys Lett 76: 884–890Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wei S, Li B, Fujimoto T, Kojima I (1998) Surface morphological modification of Pt thin films induced by growth temperature. Phys. Rev. B 58: 3605–3608Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Witcomb MJ (1974) Prediction of apex angel of surface cones on ion-bombarded crystalline materials. J Mat Sci 9: 1227–1232Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wittmaack K (1984) An attempt to understand the sputtering yield enhancement due to implantation of inert-gases in amorphous solids. Nucl Instr and Meth B 230: 569–572Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wittmaack K (1999) Effect of surface roughening on secondary ion yields and erosion rates of silicon subject to oblique oxygen bombardment. J Vac Sci Technol A 8: 2246–2250Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Xia YN, McClelland JJ, Gupta R, Qin D, Zhao XM, Sohn LL, Celotta RJ, Whitesides GM (1997) Replica molding using polymeric materials: A practical step toward nanomanufacturing. Adv Mater 9: 147–149Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Xu M, Teichert C (2004) How do nanoislands induced by ion sputtering evolve during the early stage of growth? J Appl Phys 96: 2244–2248Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Yonzon CR, Stuart DA, Zhang X, McFarland AD, Haynes CL, Van Duyne RP (2005) Towards advanced chemical and biological nanosensors? An overview. Talanta 67: 438–448Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Yewande EO, Kree R, Hartmann AK (2005) Propagation of ripples in Monte Carlo models of sputter-induced surface morphology. Phys Rev B 71: 195405Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Yewande EO, Hartmann AK, Kree R (2006) Morphological regions and oblique-incidence dot formation in a model of surface sputtering. Phys Rev B 73: 115434Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Zaera F (2002) The surface chemistry of catalysis: New challenges ahead. Surf Sci 500: 947–965Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Zalm PC (1986) Ion beam assisted etching of semiconductors. Vacuum 36: 787–797Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Zalm PC (1994) Secondary ion mass spectrometry. Vacuum 45: 753–772Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Zhao Y, Drotar JT, Wang GC, Lu TM (1999) Roughening in Plasma Etch Fronts of Si(100). Phys Rev Lett 82: 4882–4885Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zhao Y, Wang GC, Lu TM (2001) Characterization of amorphous and crystalline rough surface: Principles and applications. In Celotta R, Lucatorto T (eds.) Experimental methods in the physical sciences vol. 3. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Tartz M, Neumann H, Rauschenbach (2004) Importance of ion beam parameters on self-organized pattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion. Thin Sol Films 459: 106–110Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Höche T, Rauschenbach B (2005) Ripple pattern formation on silicon surfaces by low-energy ion-beam erosion: Experiment and theory. Phys Rev B 72: 235310Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Rauschenbach B, Höche T (2005) Highly ordered self-organized dot patterns on Si surfaces by low-energy ion-beam erosion. Appl Phys Lett 87: 033113Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Rauschenbach B (2006) Pattern transitions on Ge surfaces during low-energy ion beam erosion. Appl Phys Lett 88: 173115Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Rauschenbach B (2006) Formation of large-area nanostructures on Si and Ge surfaces during low energy ion beam erosion. J Vac Sci Technol A 24: 1344–1348Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ziberi B, Frost F, Rauschenbach B (2006) Self-organized dot patterns on Si surfaces during noble gas ion beam erosion. Surf Sci 600: 3757–3761Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ziegler JF, Biersack JP, Littmark U (1985) The stopping and range of ions in matter. Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ziegler ZF (1999) IBM Research, SRIM-2006.01 (PC version), Yorktown Heights, New York. []

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Muñoz-García
    • 1
  • Luis Vázquez
    • 2
  • Rodolfo Cuerno
    • 1
  • José A. Sánchez-García
    • 2
  • Mario Castro
    • 3
  • Raúl Gago
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Matemáticas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de SistemasComplejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de MadridE-28911 LeganésSpain
  2. 2.Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientíficasInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de MadridE-28049 MadridSpain
  3. 3.Universidad Pontificia Comillas de MadridEscuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería and GISCE-28015 MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations