Metagame Strategies of Nation-States, with Application to Cross-Strait Relations

  • Alex Chavez
  • Jun Zhang
Conference paper


Metagames (Howard, 1968), a class of formal models in game theory, model the behavior of players who predict each other’s conditional strategies recursively. We present a framework for three-player games based on metagame theory. This framework is well-suited to the analysis of nation-states, especially when the analyst wishes to make few assumptions about the level of recursive reasoning and the preference orderings of players.


Nash Equilibrium Solution Concept Inequity Aversion Conditional Strategy Brute Force Search 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bicchieri, C. (2006). The Grammar of Society: the Emergence and Dynamics of Social Norms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fehr, E. and Schmidt, K. (1999). A Theory of Fairness, Competition and Cooperation. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 817-868.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Howard, N. (1968). Theory of Metagames, Ph.D. Thesis , University of London.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Howard, N. (1971). Paradoxes of Rationality. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas, L. C. (1984). Games, Theory and Applications. Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York.MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Chavez
    • 1
  • Jun Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganUSA

Personalised recommendations