Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Past, Present, and Future
The word “nanotechnology” began as a technical term, but recently it became a popular term representing the current state-of-the-art technology. On the website of US National Science Foundation (NSF), nanotechnology is defined as research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular level, in the length scale of approximately 1–100 nm range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size (N.S.F., February 2000). The earliest definition concerned only the size of materials (1–100 nm) (Franks, 1987). The current term nanotechnology, however, covers almost all fields of science and engineering (Salamanca-Buentello, Persad, Court, Martin, Daar, & Singer, 2005), and the size of materials of interest can be much larger than 100 nm. The biomedical and pharmaceutical fields...
KeywordsDrug Delivery System Loaded Drug Polymeric Micelle International Standard Organization Drug Conjugate
- Alpert, S. (1995). Required biocompatibility training and toxicology profiles for evaluation of medical devices. CDRH, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Google Scholar
- FDA. (Mar 2005). “Challenge and Opportunity on the Critical Path to New Medical Products.”Google Scholar
- International Risk Governance Council, Switzerland. (2006, April). “Survey on nanotechnology governance.” Survey on nanotechnology governance.Google Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland. (2007). “Biological evaluation of medical devices.” ISO 10993 Standard Series.Google Scholar
- Kwon, I. K., Jeong, S. H., Kang, E., & Park, K. (2006). Chapter 13: Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. New York, American Scientific Publishers.Google Scholar
- Lanza, G. M., Yu, X., Winter, P. M., Abendschein, D. R., Karukstis, K. K., Scott, M. J., Chinen, L. K., Fuhrhop, R. W., Scherrer, D. E., & Wickline, S. A. (2002). Targeted antiproliferative drug delivery to vascular smooth muscle cells with a magnetic resonance imaging nanoparticle contrast agent: implications for rational therapy of restenosis. Circulation, 106, 2842–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mnyusiwalla, A., S., D. A., & Singer, P. A. (2003). 'Mind the gap': science and ethics in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, 14, R9–R13.Google Scholar
- National Science Foundation, USA. (February 2000). “Nanotechnology definition.” from http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/omb_nifty50.jsp.
- Ratner, B. D., Hoffman, A., Schoen, F., & Lemons, J. (2004). Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine. New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Reddy, G. R., Bhojani, M. S., Mcconville, P., Moody, J., Moffat, B. A., Hall, D. E., Kim, G., Koo, Y. E., Woolliscroft, M. J., Sugai, J. V., Johnson, T. D., Philbert, M. A., Kopelman, R., Rehemtulla, A., & Ross, B. D. (2006). Vascular targeted nanoparticles for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. Clin. Cancer. Res., 12, 6677–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- The National Nanotechnology Initiative, USA. (July 2006). “Supplement to the President's 2007 budget.”Google Scholar