Estimating Effects over Time for Single and Multiple Units

  • Laura Dugan


Criminology can easily be characterized by its investigation of change. We need to understand the conditions that facilitate the change in order to inform policy makers on how to reduce crime or improve social welfare. Yet, much of the published research in our field relies on cross-sectional data. As most criminological research questions are inherently dynamic, criminologists have more recently adopted the methods of analyzing changes over time. This chapter introduces a set of methodological choices to estimate the effects of changes in an independent variable on a dependent variable. It begins by outlining several methodological options when the scholar has repeated the measures of a single unit. Then, several other options for a scenario in which the data include many units that are repeatedly measured, are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion designed to guide the readers’ methodological decisions while analyzing dynamic data.


Fixed Effect Model Unobserved Heterogeneity Granger Causality ARIMA Model Autoregressive Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Dugan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Criminology and Criminal JusticeUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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