Advertisement

Macrothinking in strategic space planning

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)

Abstract

To open up and develop the space frontier, a new type of macrothinking is required, as implied in the above quotation. Such reasoning and actions were evident during the Apollo mission period when the human family was “turned on” to the daring achievement of rocketing humans to the Moon! Unfortunately, since that decade (the 1960s), space programs throughout the world have been the exclusive concern of national space agencies, aerospace contractors, planetary scientists, and government legislators. Their somewhat myopic focus on special interest missions has garnered only the support of direct beneficiaries and committed space activists. As a result, public interest has waned over technical accomplishments and failures which do not capture the imagination of Everyman. Because would-be space planners fail to provide a 21st-century vision of humankind’s future within our Solar System, they do not inspire the masses to financially back risk-taking endeavors in the orbital environment. Further, too many mission planners and managers neither control escalating costs nor provide adequate information about the return on investment, especially the spinoff value of space technologies. Instead they alienate suffering taxpayers, potential investors, and politicians with grandiose plans that are hugely costly to implement and manage effectively. Only in this first decade of the new millennium have space entrepreneurs recaptured the public’s interest in orbital enterprises, as evident in less expensive spaceplanes, space inflatables, and space tourism. Whether offworld endeavors are undertaken by sponsors in the public or private sectors, or through global consortia, a different and innovative type of “macro” thinking, planning, and management is required, as will be discussed in this and Chapter 8.

Keywords

Space Exploration European Space Agency Launch Site Space Resource Lunar Landing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

7.8 References

  1. [1]
    Carter, N. E. “The Challenge of Macroengineering,” Battelle Today, No. 43, June 1985, p. 1 (Battelle, 506 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201)... Cathcart. R. B. Macroengineering: Its History and Future, 2005 (available from GEOGRAPHICS, 1300 West Olive Ave., Ste. M, Burbank, CA 91508).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    McFarland, D. E. The Management Imperative: The Age of Macromanagement. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger/Harper & Row, 1985.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    McKay, M. F.; McKay, D. S.; and Duke, M. B. (eds.) Space Resources. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, NASA SP-509, 1992, 5 vols. (www.univelt.com). See Vol. 4, Social Concerns, “New Space Management and Structure: NASA in the 21st Century” (K. J. Murphy, pp. 16–34); “The Future Management” (P. R. Harris, pp. 120–141).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Badescu, V.; Cathcart, R. B.; and Schuiling, R. D. Macroengineering: A Challenge for the Future. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2006... See R. B. Cathcart’s chapter in Badescu, V.; and Rudhakrishnan, N. (eds.) Macroengineers’ Dreams (to download textbook, go to http://textbookrevolution,org/).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Davidson, F. P.; and Brooke, L. B. Building the World: An Encyclopedia of Great Engineering Projects in History. Oxford, UK: Greenwood Publishing, 2000, 2 vols.... Davidson, F. P.; and Meader, C. L. (eds.) Macroengineering: Global Infrastructure Solutions. Chichester, U.K.: Ellis Horwood, 1988... Davidson, F. P.; and J. B. Cox, MACRO. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1983 (see www.tasme.org or email tasme@ecostructure. com).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Pritchett, P.; and Muirhead, B. The Mars Pathfinder Approach to Faster, Better, Cheaper. Dallas, TX: Pritchett Associates, 1998... See www.nasawatch.com/fbc.html Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Katsioloudes, M. I. Strategic Management: Global Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006, ch. 1.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Salkeld, R. “Space Macro-arena for Macro-engineering,” in Davidson, F. P.; Giacoletto, J.; and Salkeld, R. (eds.) Macro-Engineering and the Infrastructure of Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol. 23, 1978, pp. 131–138... See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macro-engineering Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Surkov, Y. Exploration of Terrestial Planets from Spacecraft. Chichester, U.K.: Ellis Horwood, 1990... Curtis, A. R. Space Satellite Handbook. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing, Third Edition, 1992–]1994.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kozmetsky, G. “Education for Large-scale and Complex Systems Based on Technology Venturing,” Technology in Society, 6, 1984, 173–176. This recommended macrothinking journal is published by the Institute for Technology Management and Policy at Pratt Polytechnic Institute of New York (333 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Glaser, P. E.; Davidson, F. P.; and Csigi, K. I. (eds.) Solar Power Satellites: A Space Energy System for Earth. Chichester, UK: Wiley/Praxis, Second Edition, 1998.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Webber, D., “Horses for Courses: Spaceport Types,” address at the International Space Development Conference, Washington, D.C., May 2005.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Space Tourism Market Study. The Futron/Zogby Survey. Futron Corporation, October 2002 (Futron Corporation, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Ste. 900W, Bethesda, MD 20814; www.futron.com).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Webber, D.; and Reifert, J. The Adventurers’ Survey: Full Report. Rockville, MD: Spaceport Associates, November 2006 (www.spaceportassociates.com)... Space Adventures, 8000 Towers Crescent Road, Ste. 1000, Vienna, VA 22182; www.SpaceAdventures.com).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bonnet, R. M. “Taking the Next Steps in the European Moon Program,” Planetary Review, XV, January 1995, 8–11... ESA. Mission to the Moon: Europe’s Priorities for Scientific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon. Paris: European Space Agency, ESA SP-1150, June 1992, 190 pp.... For further information on current lunar planning, contact ESA Headquarters (8–10 Rue Mario Nikis, Paris, Cédex 15, or 955 L’Enfant Plaza, SW, Ste. 7800, Washington, D.C. 20023; tel.: 202/488-4148; fax.: 488-4930).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Dyson, G. Project Orion: The True Story of the Atomic Spaceship. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2002.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    O’Donnell, D. J. “Founding a Space Nation Utilizing Living Systems Theory,” Behavioral Science, 39(2), April 1994, 93–117... “Overcoming Barriers to Space Travel,” Space Policy, 10(4), November 1944, 252–255... For further information consult back volumes of the journal Space Governance, from 1994 to the present (published by United Societies in Space, Inc., 499 Larkspur Rd., Castle Rock, CO 80104; tel.: 303//688-2432; email: djope@quest.net; www.usis.org).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Savage, M. T. The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps. New York: Little Brown & Co., 1994... “The Millennial Project Strategy,” Space Governance, 2(1), June 1005, 26–31... For further information, contact First Millennial Foundation (PO Box 347, Rife, CO 81650; tel.: 303/625-2815; email: mtsavage@pipeline.com).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Schoenberger, C. R. “The Space Mafia: If You Haven’t Heard of International Space University, You Will Soon: Rocket Science Goes Commercial,” Forbes, April 17, 2000, pp. 104–108... As an example of the type of project or thesis research produced at ISU, consider Rei Uda’s report on Influence of Different Language, Culture, and Nationality among Team Members on Space Missions and Projects, May 1996. Direct inquiries to International Space University (Communuaté Urbaine de Strasbourg, Blvd. Gonthier d’Andernach, 67400 Illkirch, France; North American office: 3400 International Dr., NW, 4M Ste. 400, Washington, D.C. 20008).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Forston, R., “Cultivating the High Frontier,” Agricultural Engineering: Technology for Food and Agriculture, November 1992, 20–23 (reprints available from Agricultural Engineering, 2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, MI 49085; Russ Forston’s contact details are The Bionetics Corp., Code BIO = 3, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Harris, P. R. “Future Role of Space Nurses in a 21st Century Lunar Colony,” June 22, 2001, 10 pp. in Proceedings of 2001, A Nursing Odyssey: A Tribute to Martha Rogers, American Holistic Nurses Association Conference (www.ahna.org or www.sns.org)... “The Space Nurse’s Role in Moon/Mars Personnel Deployment Systems,” September 27, 1997, pp. 4–78, in the program Pushing the Envelope II: Medicine on Mars, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (www.UTMB.edu or www.sns.org)... Malinski, V. M.; and Barrett, E. A. (eds.) Martha E. Rogers: Her Life and Her Works. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Co., 1994... O’Rangers, E.; and Plush, L. “A Proposal for the Oversight of Medical Care for Travelers and Crew Flying in Virgin Galactic Spacecraft at Mojave Spaceport,” April 2005, 10 pp. (www.spacemedicineassociates.com).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Taylor, R. L. “Paraterraforming: The Worldhouse Concept,” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, August 1991, 341–352... The author, Richard Taylor, works at the Centre for Extra Mural Studies, Birkbeck College (26 Russell Square, London WC1B 5DQ).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Global Exploration Strategy. The Framework for Coordination, May 2007. Press release of British National Space Centre, #31.05.07, “New Era for Space Exploration as 14 Space Agencies Take Historic Step” (www.bnsc.gov.uk/home).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Ehricke, K. “Selenopolis,” in Mendell, W. W. (ed.) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Houston, TX: Lunar and Planetary Institute, pp. 731–736.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Freeman, M. Challenges of Human Space Exploration. Chichester, U.K.: Springer/Praxis, 2000, p. 234... “Krafft Ehricke’s Extraterrestrial Imperative,” 21st Century Science & Technology, 7(4), Winter 1994... Ehricke, K., “The Anthropology of Astronautics,” Astronautics, 2(4), 1957, 26–27.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Sagan, C. The Pale Blue Dot. New York: Random House, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Toffler, A. “The Space Program’s Impact on Society,” in Korn, P. (ed.) Humans and Machines in Space. San Diego, CA: UNIVELT/AAS, 1992 (www.univelt.com).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2009

Personalised recommendations