Lunar enterprises and development

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


After a hiatus of some 40 years since humanity’s first lunar landing, we are now planning to return to the Moon permanently, hopefully by year 2020. No united vision, plan, or strategy for exploring, settling, and industrializing the lunar surface has come forth from the world’s space agencies, despite numerous conferences, studies, and reports on the subject. However, NASA has undertaken to implement a national space policy to do just that, called the Vision for Space Exploration. The Agency is beginning to seek collaboration from public and private entities within the global space community in this latest orbital venture. But to build a lunar transportation system and outpost within a dozen years would involve facing up to harsh economic, technological, and political realities, leading to the realization that the only way earthkind can afford this macroproject is by means of international cooperation with major participation by private enterprise. If the limited resources of China, Europe, India, Japan, Russia, and the U.S.A. were combined into a joint technological enterprise on the Moon, then synergistic activities there would encourage competing space constituencies to work together on lunar development. Exhibit 125 (opposite) gives the principal reasons for doing this.


Lunar Surface Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Prospector Lunar Exploration Space Resource 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

10.6 References

  1. [1]
    Schrunk, D.; Sharpe, B.; Cooper, B.; and Thangavelu, M. The Moon: Resources, Future Development, and Settlement. Chichester, U.K.: Springer/Praxis, 2008, Second Edition ( Scholar
  2. [2]
    In addition to the above book, we recommend: Harrison M. Schmitt’s Return to the Moon. New York: Springer/Copernicus/Praxis, 2008... In 1984, a NASA study at the California Space Institute took place on the theme, “Strategic Planning for a Lunar Base”; edited by Drs. Mary Fay and David McKay with Michael Duke, the proceedings were published in 1992 under the title, Space Resources, by the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. These four volumes of NASA SP-509 are still relevant and available from (see especially Vol. 4 on Social Concerns in which the contribution of your author appears)... For updates on lunar development, subscribe to Lunar Enterprise Daily, Space Age Publishing ( or email: Also see developed by Ken Murphy, who graduated from the International Space University, plus the blog site, Out of the Cradle which includes Murphy’s lunar bibliography.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Science & Technology, “Spaceflight: Objective Moon,” The Economist, May 28th, 2005, pp. 79–80 ( “The Fans of Mars,” The Economist, March 11th, 2000, pp. 85–86.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Spudis, P. D. The Once and Future Moon. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996... See “The New Race to the Moon,” Science, 300, May 2, 2003 ( and the “blog” discussion on “To the Moon, Mars, and Beyond,” March 4, 2007 ( Scholar
  5. [5]
    Ad Astra, 10(1), Spring 2007 (the magazine of the National Space Society, 1620 “I” St. NW, Ste. 615, Washington, D.C. 20006; See articles by Jeff Foust, “Moon Base: The Next Step in the Exploration of the Solar System,” pp. 28–31; Jeanna Bryner, “Lunar Observatories: Grand Plans vs. Clear Problems,” pp. 32–35; Andrew Chatiklin, “Building the Future,” pp. 36–37... In Ad Astra, November/December 2001, Philip Harris, “Time for a Return on our Apollo Investment,” pp. 31–32 ( Scholar
  6. [6]
    “The Moon: A New Frontier,” New York Times Special Supplement, August 3, 1969, 20 pp. ( For an update, see Johnson-Freese, J.; and Handberg, R. Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the 21st Century. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Aldrin, E. (Buzz) Reaching for the Moon. New York: Harper Collins, 2005... with John Barnes, The Return. New York: Forge Books, 2000... Also see Tom Hanks’ IMAX/DVD, From Earth to the Moon, or Walt Disney Television’s two-hour movie, Plymouth, about the first lunar colony (tel.: 818/5608844 or fax.: 818/566-6566)... Websites: check out online or or Then download “pdf” files on your computer from Inquire about attending the annual International Lunar Conference at or the yearly International Space Development Conference at (subsequently change the year in this website for future sessions)!... The following open online wiki-type encyclopedia is worth a visit: If you want to listen to a Real Audio radio show like Space Beat, contact http://expert. Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Hansen, J. First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006... See also Pyle, R. Destination Moon: Apollo Missions in the Astronaut’s Own Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Schmitt, H. H. Return to the Moon: Exploration, Enterprise and Energy in Human Settlement of Space. New York: Springer/Copernicus/Praxis, 2005... “My Seven: Why We Must Go Back to the Moon,” National Geographic, July 2004 ( Cernan. D.; and Davis. T. L. The Last Man on the Moon: Eugene Cernan and Americas Race into Space. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Durst, S. M.; Bohannan, C. T.; Thomason, C. G.; Cerney, M. R., and Yuen, L. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Lunar Conference 2003/International Lunar Exploration Group 5. San Diego, CA: UNIVELT/AAS, 2004, Vol. 108 in “Science and Technology Series” with CD-ROM supplement.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Galloway, E. “Status of the Moon Treaty,” Space News, August 3–9, 1998, pp. 21–22. See also Glen Reynold’s “Return of the Moon Treaty,” Ad Astra, May/June 1994, pp. 27–28 ( Scholar
  12. [12]
    Criswell, D. R. “No Growth in the Two Planet Economy,” International Astronautical Federation Proceedings (8.1.704) at the 45th Congress, Jerusalem, Israel (October 9, 1994).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Ockels, W. J. A Moon Programme: The European View. Noordwijk, the Netherlands: European Space Agency, May 1994 (ESA BR-101), 14 pp... ESA Lunar Study Steering Group Report, Mission to the Moon (ESA SP-1150, 1992)... ESA Press Release on “International Lunar Workshop Declaration” (NR-12-94, June 6, 1994).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Harvey, B. Russia in Space: The Failed Frontier?... Hall, R.; and Shayler, D. J. The Rocket Men. Chichester, U.K.: Springer-Praxis, 1997; 2001.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Reynolds, D. W. Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon. New York: Harcourt, Inc./Tehabi Books, 2002... Light, M. Full Moon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002... Krauthammer, C. “Clinton is Cutting NASA to Pieces,” Washington Post Writers Group in the San Diego Union-Tribune, April 9, 1995, p. G-5.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Spudis, P.; and Bussey, B. The Clementine Atlas of the Moon. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005 ( Scholar
  17. [17]
    Godwin, R. (ed.) Surveyor Lunar Exploration Program. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2006... Binder, A. B. Lunar Prospector: Against All Odds. New York: Ken Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Spudis, P. A. “A Moon Full of Opportunity,” January 27, 2007, 23 pp. (article #791/1)... Berger, B., “The Vision at Three Years and Counting,” Space News, March 12, 2007, 4 pp.... Britt, R. B. “Commentary: The Reasonable Cost of Putting Humans on the Moon and Mars,” January 14, 2004... Malik, T. “For the President’s Moon-to-Mars Commission”, May 11, 1994,3 pp.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    “Spaceflight: Objective Moon,” May 28th, 2005, pp. 79–80; “The Fans of Mars,” March 11, 2000, pp. 85–86, The Economist (www.economist,com)... Cowing, K.; and Sietzen, F., New Moon Rising. Burlington, Ontario: CGPublishing/Apogee Books, 2004... Belbrano, E. Fly Me to the Moon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Blaise, W. P.; and Stroke, P. “The First Commercial Lunar Mission,” Ad Astra, January–February 2003, 38–42... Blaise, W. P.; and Radley, C. F. “The Trailblazer Class of Low Cost Space Vehicles,” 1st Responsive Space Conference, Redondo Beach, CA (AIAA LA Section/SSTC), April 1–3, 2003, 16 pp. ( or Scholar
  21. [21]
    Shapiro, R. Planetary Dreams: The Quest to Discover Life beyond Earth. New York: John Wiley, 1999... Burrows, W. The Survival Imperative: Using Space to Protect Earth. New York: Forte/Tom Doherty, LLC, 2006.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Dror, Y. “Governance for a Human Future in Space,” in Krone, B.; Morris, L.; and Cox, K. (eds.) Beyond Earth: The Future of Humans in Space. Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Space Books, 2006, pp. 41–45. In the same volume, also see S. E. Bell and D. L. Strongin’s “Evolutionary Psychology and Its Implications for Humans in Space,” pp. 78–83... P. J. Werbos, “Strategic Thinking for Space Settlements,” p. 23... T. L. Matula and K. A. Loveland “Lunar Commercial Development for Space Exploration,” p. 29... F. Hsu and R. Duffey, “Managing Risks on the Space Frontier,” p. 30.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Sadeh, E.; Benaroya, H.; Livingston, D.; and Matula, T. “Private-Public Models for Lunar Development,” in Durst, S. et al. (eds.) Proceedings of the International Lunar Conference, 2003/International Lunar Exploration Working Group 5. San Diego, CA: UNIVELT/AAS, Vol. 108, 2004, pp. 349–357. In this same volume, see Magelsse, E. C.; and Sadeh, E. “Political Feasibility of Lunar Base Mission Scenarios,” pp. 359–369... H. L. Starlife’s “Property Rights in Space,” pp. 407–411.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Ehricke, E. A. “The Anthology of Astronautics,” Astronautica, 2(4), November 1957... “Lunar Industrialization and Settlement: Birth of a Polyglobal Civilization” in Mendell, W. W. (ed.) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Houston, TX: Lunar and Planetary Institute, pp. 731–756... Bova, B. Welcome to Moonbase. New York: Ballantine Books, 1987... Harris, P. R. Launch Out: A Science-Based Novel about Space Enterprise, Lunar Industrialization and Settlement. West Conshohocken, PA: Infinity Publishing, 2003 ( Scholar
  25. [25]
    O’Donnell, D. J.; and Harris, P. R. “Legal Strategies for a Lunar Economic Development Authority,” Annals of Air and Space Law, 1996, 121–139 (published by the Institute and Center of Air & Space Law, McGill University; Harris, P. R.; and O’Donnell, D. J. “Creating New Social Institutions to Develop Business from Space,” 48th International Astronautical Congress Proceedings, Turin, Italy, October 5-10, 1997, #IAA-97-IAA.3.1.01 (published by the International Aeronautical Federation, 3-5 rue Mario-Nikis, 75015, Paris)... O’Donnell, D. J. “International Space Development Corporation,” Space Governance, 9, 2003, 16–18 (published by United Societies in Space, Inc., 499 South Larkspur Dr., Castlerock, CO 80104).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Benaroya, H. “Lunar Industrialization,” Journal of Practical Applications in Space, VI(1), Fall 1994, 85–94... Petek, L. “Management in Outer Space,” Space Policy, 10(3), August 1994, 189–198.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Goldman, N. C. “A Lawyer’s Perspective on the USIS Strategies for Metanation and the Lunar Economic Development Authority,” Space Governance, 3(1), July 1996, 16–17, 34... Smith, M. L. “The Compliance with International Space Law of the LEDA Proposal,” Space Governance, 4(1), January 1997, 16–19.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Robinson, G. S. “Natural Law and a Declaration of Humankind Interdependence,” Space Governance, 2(1/2), 1995, June and December issues.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    O’Donnell, D. J. “Overcoming Barriers to Space Travel,” Space Policy, 10(4), November 1994, 252... Harris, P. R. “A Case for Lunar Development and Investment,” Space Policy, 10(4), August 1994, 187–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    The Lunar Economic Development Authority strategy was inaugurated by Attorney Declan O’Donnell and Management/Space Psychologist Dr. Philip Harris, and in 1997 was incorporated in the State of Colorado. In 1998, Dr. Michael Duke was elected LEDA president with Dr. Brad Blair as Chairman of the Board; both are now at the Colorado School of Mines... In 2000, LEDA issued a private memorandum relative to “LEDA Development Bonds”. In this document, the reason for issuing the bonds was explained as a movement to maintain a private enterprise paradigm in both space governance and lunar development. For further information, contact Attorney O’Donnell (email djops@quest. net).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Cleveland, H. Birth of a New World Order: An Open Moment for International Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing, 1993.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Whittington, M. “Lunar Exploration and Development Authority (LEDA) Would Help Open Space Frontier,” Washington Dispatch article summarized in Lunar Enterprise Daily, 5(59), March 30, 2005, p. 1.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    “Briefing Antarctic Science: To Coldly Go,” The Economist, March 31st, 2007, pp. 85–87.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Harrison, A. A.; Clearwater, Y. A.; and McKay, C. P. (eds.) From Antarctica to Outer Space. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Fogg, M. J. Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments. New York: SAE Press. 1995.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    David, L. “Back to the Moon: Uniting Science and Exploration,”, May 16, 2007, 5 pp... “Moon-Based Instruments Could Change How We See Earth,” Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ross, M. From Footprints to Blueprints: Development of the Moon, and Private Enterprise. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2005 ( Scholar
  38. [38]
    Hart, P. A. et al. (eds.) A Center for Extraterrestrial Engineering and Construction (CETEC) (proceedings of Space’ 90 Conference). Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1990, p. 1198... Also see from same proceedings and source, W. R. Sharp’s article on “Mining and Excavating Systems for a Lunar Environment,” p. 294... plus Daga, A. W.; and Daga, M. A. “A Preliminary Assessment of the Potential Lava Tube-Situated Lunar Base Architecture,” p. 568.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Lowdon, P. D. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon. Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996, Technical Memorandum 4757... Alfred, J.; Bufkin, A. et al., Lunar Outpost. Houston, TX: Johnson Space Center, 1989, 60 pp.... Bialla, P. H. (ed.) Low-cost Lunar Access. Arlington, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1993... Robotics Insitute, Entertainment Based Lunar Rover Concept. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie-Mellon University, 1994, 148 pp.... Heiken, G. D.; Vaniman, D. T.; and French, B. M. Lunar Sourcebook. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 736 pp.... Wendell, W. W. (ed.) The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: NASA Conference Publication 3166, 1992.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Koelle, H. H. “Steps toward a Lunar Settlement,” Space Governance, 4(1), January 1997, 20–25... Koelle, H. H. (ed.), Handbook of Aeronautical Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Koelle, H. H. (ed.) Recommended Lunar Development Scenario. Paris: International Academy of Astronautics Subcommittee on Lunar Development, January 1995... See also Schmitt, H. H. “The Case for Establishing a Human Presence on the Moon,” Space Governance, 4(2), July 1997, 118–131... “Return to the Moon and Stay,” Ad Astra, 7(3), May/June 1995 (whole issue of the National Space Society devoted to this theme), and again “Reclaiming the Moon: The First Steps,” Ad Astra, 19(1), Spring 2007 ( Scholar
  42. [42]
    Neufeld, M. J. Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007... Stuhlinger, E.; and Ordway, F. L. Wernher von Braun: Crusader for Space. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing, 1994, Vols. 1/2... O’Neill, G. K. The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space. Princeton, NJ: Space Studies Institute, 1989.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Lauer, C. et al. “A Reference Design for a Near Term Lower Earth Orbit Commercial Business Park,” Legal & Regulatory Aspects of Lower Earth Orbit Business Park Development. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1995... Briefing Book: Lower Earth Orbit Business Park (available from Peregrine Properties, 540 Avis Dr., Ste. E, Ann Arbor, MI 48108). [Author note: such a strategy can also be applied to a lunar business park.]Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Howerton, B. A. Free Space: Real Alternatives for Reaching Outer Space. Port Townsend, WA: Loompancis Unlimited (or Box 1197, zip code 98368, USA, or contact author at Public Information Office: Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2009

Personalised recommendations