• Daniel C. O’Connell
  • Sabine Kowal
Part of the Cognition and Language: A Series in Psycholinguistics book series (CALS)

Chapter Prospectus

Chapter 15, Referring, calls the reader’s attention to a number of indicators that speakers use to refer a listener to someone or somewhere or sometime (e.g., all three, as in Jose went there in June). We have used the generic term referring so as to include in this chapter discussions of deixis, anaphora (frequently a pronominal substitution for a preceding word or phrase), naming, and other forms of designation of objects, places, or persons in the environment or under discussion in spoken discourse. Deixis need not be verbal at all; pointing or even direction of gaze often suffices. Pronominal reference allows of much stylistic variation in choosing person (e.g., you do it this way or one does it this way) and number (e.g., I or an editorial we). We review empirical research on the implications of references in various settings (in particular, political). These research examples will especially clarify the importance of referring as an expression of the...


Individual Speaker Tense Marker Underlying Psychology Phenomenal Field Dialogical Perspective 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel C. O’Connell
    • 1
  • Sabine Kowal
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgetown UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Technische Universität Institut für Sprache und KommunikationGermany

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