Advertisement

Oil Crops pp 369-396 | Cite as

Coconut

  • Lalith Perera
  • Suriya A.C.N. Perera
  • Champa K. Bandaranayake
  • Hugh C. Harries
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 4)

Introduction

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. is now grown mainly by smallholders but was once the major perennial plantation oil crop widely cultivated in the humid tropics. It has a pan-tropical distribution, occurring in coastal areas between the latitudes 20° north and south of the equator and at altitudes between sea level and 1,200 m. Coconut grows best under conditions of high humidity, at temperatures of 27–30°C and on moderately to well-aerated soils.

Coconut is the most extensively grown and used palm in the world and about 10 million families in over 80 countries rely on coconut as their main source of food and income. Coconut is a smallholders’ crop and a major proportion of the production is usually consumed locally. The actual percentage of domestic consumption of coconut in Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) countries was around 64% in 2001. Coconut is mainly an oil crop, particularly rich (48%) in lauric acid (Jones 1991). Virgin coconut oil (Bawalan and...

Keywords

Coconut Palm Seed Garden Malayan Yellow Dwarf Coconut Variety Panama Tall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Dr. R.R.A. Peries of Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia for his valuable comments, Ms. Mithila Jayasundara of Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka for proof reading and the moderator of the Coconut Time Line (http://cocos.arecaceae.com) for assistance with citations.

References

  1. Ashburner, G.R., Thompson, W.K., Halloran, G.M. and Foale, M.A. (1997a) Fruit component analysis of south Pacific coconut palm populations. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 44, 327–355.Google Scholar
  2. Ashburner, G.R., Thompson, W.K. and Halloran, G.M. (1997b) RAPD analysis of South Pacific coconut palm populations. Crop Sci. 37, 992–997.Google Scholar
  3. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (Ed.). (1997) Coconut Statistical Yearbook. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, Jakarta.Google Scholar
  4. Bandaranayake, C.K. (2006) An effective population size for reliable map resolution of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). CORD 22(2), 33–40.Google Scholar
  5. Bandaranayake, C.K., Fernando, W.B.S., Fernando, A. and Herath, N. (2005) DNA fingerprinting to distinguish the coconut type San Ramon. CORD 21(2), 30–36.Google Scholar
  6. Bandaranayake, C.K. and Kearsey, M.J. (2005) Genome mapping, QTL analysis and MAS: Importance, principle, constraints and application in coconut. Int. Plant Genetic Resour. Newslett. 142, 47–54.Google Scholar
  7. Batugal, P. (2005) Performance of coconut hybrids in some countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In: P. Batugal, V. Ramanatha Rao and J. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome, pp. 302–308.Google Scholar
  8. Batugal, P., Ramanatha Rao, V. and Oliver J. (Eds.). (2005) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome.Google Scholar
  9. Baudouin, L. and Lebrun, P. (2002) The development of a microsatellite kit and dedicated software use with coconuts. Burotrop Bull. 17, 16–20.Google Scholar
  10. Baudouin, L., Lebrun, P., Konan, J.L., Ritter, E., Berger, A. and Billottee, N. (2006) QTL analysis of fruit components in the progeny of a Rennell Island Tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) individual. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112, 258–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bawalan, D.D. and Chapman K.R. (2006) Virgin Coconut Oil; Production Manual for Macro- and Village-Scale Processing. FAO, Thammada Press, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  12. Benbadis, B.K. (1992) Coconut and date palm. In: F.A. Hammerschlag and R.W. Litz (Eds.) Biotechnology of Perennial Fruit Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 383–400.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdeix, R. (1988) Effectiveness of mass selection on the yield component of coconut. Oleagineux 43, 283–295.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdeix, R., Konan, J.L. and N’Cho, Y.P. (2005b) Coconut, a Guide to Traditional and Improved Varieties. Editions Diversiflora, Montpellier.Google Scholar
  15. Bourdeix, R., N’Cho, Y.P. and Le Saint, J.P. (1990) A coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) selection strategy I. Rundown of achievements. Oleagineux 45, 359–371.Google Scholar
  16. Bourdeix, R., Santos, G., Labouisse, J.P. and Baudouin, L. (2005a) Useful definition of terms and nomenclature. In: P. Batugal, V. Ramanatha Rao and J. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  17. Buckley, R. and Harries, H.C. (1984) Self-sown, wild type coconuts from Australia. Biotropica 16, 148–151.Google Scholar
  18. Burkill, I.H. (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  19. Carandang, E.V. (2002) Makapuno embryo culture: The Philippine Coconut Research and Development Foundation experience. In: F. Engelmann, P. Batugal and J.T. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Embryo In Vitro Culture, Part II. IPGRI-APO, Serdang, Malaysia, pp. 157–162.Google Scholar
  20. Chan, J.L., Saenz, L., Talavera, C., Hornung, R., Robert, M. and Oropeza, C. (1998) Regeneration of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) from plumule explants through somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Rep. 17, 515–521.Google Scholar
  21. Child, R. (1964) Coconuts. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  22. Child, R. (1974) Coconuts. 2nd Ed., Longman, London.Google Scholar
  23. Chiovenda, E. (1921) La culla del cocco. Webbia 5, 199–294, 359–449.Google Scholar
  24. Cook, O.F. (1910) History of the coconut palm in America. Contribution to US National Herbarium 14, 271–342. Cited in: Bruman, H.J. (1944) Some observations on the early history of the coconut culture in the New World. Acta Americana 2, 220–243.Google Scholar
  25. Dasanayake, P.N. (2003) Use of Molecular Markers for Enhancing the Coconut Breeding Strategy. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.Google Scholar
  26. Dasanayake, P.N., Everard, J.M.D.T., Karunanayake, E.H. and Nandadasa, H.G. (2003) Characterization of coconut germplasm by microsatellite markers. Trop. Agr. Res. 15, 51–61.Google Scholar
  27. Dennis, J.V. and Gunn, C.R. (1971) Case against trans-Pacific dispersal of the coconut by ocean currents. Econ. Bot. 25, 407–413.Google Scholar
  28. Duran, Y., Rohde, W., Kullaya, A., Goikoetxea, P. and Ritter E. (1997) Molecular analysis of east African Tall coconut genotypes by DNA marker technology. J. Genet. Breed. 51, 279–288.Google Scholar
  29. Everard, J.M.D.T. (1996) Use of Molecular Markers for Breeding of the Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.). M.Sc. Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.Google Scholar
  30. Everard, J.M.D.T. (2002) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila.Google Scholar
  31. Fernando, S.C., Verdeil, J.L., Hocher, V., Weerakoon, L.K. and Hirimburegama, K. (2003) Histological analysis of plant regeneration from plumule explants of Cocos nucifera. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 72, 281–284.Google Scholar
  32. Fernando, S.C., Weerakoon, L.K., Perera, P.I.P., Banupriya, H.D.D., Ambagala. E., Gamage, C.K.A., Santha, E.S., Gunathilake, T.R. and Perera, L. (2004) Genetic fidelity and ex vitro performance of tissue cultured coconut plants. In: T.S.G. Peiris and C.S. Ranasinghe (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference to Mark the 75th Anniversary of Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka, Part II. Ceylon Printers, Colombo, pp. 47–57.Google Scholar
  33. Foale, M.A. (1991) Coconut genetic diversity: present knowledge and future research needs. In: Papers of the IBPGR Workshop on Coconut Genetic Resources held in Cipanas, Indonesia, 8–11 October 1999. IBPGR, Rome, pp. 46–53.Google Scholar
  34. Fremond, Y., Ziller, R. and de Nuce de Lamothe, M. (1966) Le cocotier. Maisonneuve and Larose, Paris.Google Scholar
  35. Gangolly, S.R., Satyabalan, K. and Pandalai, K.M. (1957) Varieties of coconut. Ind. Cocon. J. X, 3–28.Google Scholar
  36. George, E.F. and Sherrington, P.D. (1984) Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture: Handbook and Directory of Commercial Laboratories. Exegenetics Eversley, Busingstoke, London.Google Scholar
  37. Gruezo, W.S. and Harries, H.C. (1984) Self-sown, wild-type coconuts in the Philippines. Biotropica 16, 140–147.Google Scholar
  38. Gunn, B.F. (2004) The phylogeny of the Cocoeae (Arecaceae) with emphasis on Cocos nucifera. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 91, 505–522.Google Scholar
  39. Guppy, H.B. (1906) Observation of a Naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899. Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  40. Hamelin, C., Bourdeix, R. and Baudouin, L. (2005) The international coconut genetic resources database. In: P. Batugal, V. Ramanatha Rao and J. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome, pp. 282–301.Google Scholar
  41. Harland, S.C. (1957) The Improvement of the Coconut Palm by Breeding and Selection. Bulletin 15, Coconut Research Institute, Ceylon.Google Scholar
  42. Harries, H.C. (1977) The Cape Verde region (1499 to 1549); the key to coconut culture in the Western hemisphere? Turrialba 27, 227–231.Google Scholar
  43. Harries, H.C. (1978) The evolution, dissemination and classification of Cocos nucifera L. Bot. Rev. 44, 205–317.Google Scholar
  44. Harries, H.C. (1990) Malesian origin for a domestic Cocos nucifera L. In: P. Baas, K. Kalkman and R. Geesink (Eds.) The Plant Diversity of Malesia. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 351–357.Google Scholar
  45. Harries, H.C. (1995) Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). In: J. Smartt J. and N.W. Simmonds (Eds.) Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd Ed., Longman, London, pp. 389–394.Google Scholar
  46. Harries, H.C. (2002) The “Niu” Indies: Long lost “home” of the coconut. Palms 46(2), 97–100.Google Scholar
  47. Harries, H.C. and Romney, D.H. (1974) Maypan: An F1 hybrid coconut variety for commercial production in Jamaica. World Crops 26, 110–111.Google Scholar
  48. Harries, H.C., Thirakul, A. and Rattanapruk, V. (1982) The coconut genetic resources of Thailand. Thai. J. Agric. Sci. 15, 141–156.Google Scholar
  49. Herran, A., Estioko, L., Becker, D., Rodriguez, M.J.B., Rohde, W. and Ritter, E. (2000) Linkage mapping and QTL analysis in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 101, 292–300.Google Scholar
  50. Jones, L.H. (1991) Perennial vegetable oil crops. In: G.J. Persely (Ed.) Agricultural Biotechnology: Opportunities for International Developments. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 213–224.Google Scholar
  51. Krain, E., Issa, J.A., Kullaya, A. and Harries H.C. (1993) The coconut palm in East Africa, 2. The Pemba Dwarf in Zanzibar. Palm Enthusiast 10(1), 9–15.Google Scholar
  52. Leach, B., Foale, M.A. and Ashburner, R. (2003) Some characteristics of wild and managed coconut palm populations and their environment in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 50, 627–638.Google Scholar
  53. Lebrun, P., Baudouin, L., Bourdeix, R., Konan, J.L., Barker, J.H.A., Aldam, C., Herran, A. and Ritter, E. (2001) Construction of a linkage map of the Rennell Island Tall coconut type (Cocos nucifera L.) and QTL analysis for yield characters. Genome 44, 962–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lebrun, P., N’Cho, Y.P., Bourdeix, R. and Baudouin, L. (1999) Le cocotier. In: P. Hamon, M. Seguin, X. Perrier and J.C. Glaszmann (Eds.) Diversité Génétique des Plantes Cultivées. CIRAD, Montpellier, pp. 219–240.Google Scholar
  55. Lebrun, P., N’Cho, Y.P., Seguin, M., Grivet, L. and Baudouin, L. (1998) Genetic diversity in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Euphytica 101, 103–108.Google Scholar
  56. Liyanage, D.V. (1954) Controlled pollination of coconut palms. Ceylon Cocon. Quart. 5, 135–138.Google Scholar
  57. Liyanage, D.V. (1955) Planting materials for coconut. Ceylon Cocon. Quart. 6, 75–80.Google Scholar
  58. Liyanage, D.V. (1958) Varieties and forms of coconut palms grown in Ceylon. Ceylon Cocon. Quart. 9, 1–10.Google Scholar
  59. Liyanage, D.V. (1961a) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila.Google Scholar
  60. Liyanage, D.V. (1961b) The use of isolated seed gardens for coconut seed production. Ceylon Cocon. Quart. 12, 121–124.Google Scholar
  61. Liyanage, D.V. (1966) Planting materials in coconut. Ceylon Cocon. Planters’ Rev. 4(2), 27–29.Google Scholar
  62. Liyanage, D.V. (1972) Production of improved coconut seeds by hybridization. Oleagineux 27, 597–599.Google Scholar
  63. Liyanage, D.V. and Abeywardena, V. (1957) Correlation between seed nut, seedlings and adult palm characters in coconut. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 113, 326–340.Google Scholar
  64. Liyanage, D.V. and Azis, H. (1983) A new technique for establishing coconut seed gardens. Cocos 1, 1–6.Google Scholar
  65. Liyanage, D.V. and Sakai, K.I. (1960) Heritabilities of certain yield characters of the coconut palm. J. Genet. 57, 245–252.Google Scholar
  66. Liyanage, D.V., Wickramaratne, M.R.T. and Jayasekera, C. (1988) Coconut breeding in Sri Lanka. Cocos 6, 1–26.Google Scholar
  67. Mahabale, T.S. (1976) The origin of coconut. The Palaeobotanist 25, 238–248. Cited in: Harries, H.C. (1995) Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). In: J. Smartt J. and N.W. Simmonds (Eds.) Evolution of Crop Plants. 2nd Ed., Longman, London, pp. 389–394.Google Scholar
  68. Manthriratne, M.A.P. (1971) Some results of field experimentation with typica x nana F1 hybrids. Ceylon Coconut Quarterly 22, 107–113.Google Scholar
  69. Manthriratne, M.A.P. (1972) The performance of dwarfs (Cocos nucifera L. variety nana) as a plantation crop in Ceylon. Ceylon Cocon. Quart. 23, 92–99.Google Scholar
  70. Manthriratne, M.A.P. (1978) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila.Google Scholar
  71. Marechal, H. (1928) Observations and preliminary experiments on the coconut with a view to developing improved seednuts for Fiji. Agric. J. Fiji 1, 16–45.Google Scholar
  72. Marikkar, J.M.N., Jayasundara, J.M.M.A., Prasadika, S.A.H., Jayasingha, C.V.L. and Premakumara, G.A.S. (2007) Assessment of stability of virgin coconut oil during deep frying. CORD 23(1), 62–70.Google Scholar
  73. Meerow, A.W. and Ayala-Silva, T. (2006) Building a better coconut. Ornamental Outlook 15(2), 22–24.Google Scholar
  74. Meerow, A.W., Wisser, R.J., Brown, J.S., Kuhn, D.N., Schnell, R.J. and Broschat, T.K. (2003) Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using microsatellite DNA, with special emphasis on the Fiji Dwarf cultivar. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106, 715–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Menon, K.P.V. and Pandalai, K.M. (1958) The Coconut, A Monograph. Indian Central Coconut Committee, Ernakulam Publishers, India.Google Scholar
  76. Narayana, G.V. and John, C.M. (1949) Varieties and forms of coconut. Madras Agric. J. 36, 349–366.Google Scholar
  77. Nei, M. (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Ohler, J.G. (1984) Coconut, Tree of Life. Plant Production and Protection Paper 57, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  79. Oropeza, C., Rillo, E., Hocher, V. and Verdeil, J.L. (2005) Coconut micro propagation. In: P. Batugal, V. Ramanatha Rao and J. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome, pp. 334–348.Google Scholar
  80. Perera, L. (1999) Assessing Genetic Diversity in Coconut using Molecular Markers. Ph.D Thesis, University of Dundee, Scotland.Google Scholar
  81. Perera, L. (2002) Chloroplast DNA variation of coconut is opposite to its nuclear DNA variation. CORD 18(2), 56–73.Google Scholar
  82. Perera, L. (2005) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila.Google Scholar
  83. Perera, L. (2006) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Lunuwila.Google Scholar
  84. Perera, L., Fernando, W.B.S.F., Hearth, N., Fernando, A., Russell, J., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (2004) Use of microsatellite DNA markers for population analysis, variety identification and for hybridity testing of coconut in Sri Lanka. In: T.S.G. Peiris and C.S. Ranasinghe (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference to Mark the 75th Anniversary of Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka, Part II. Ceylon Printers, Colombo, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  85. Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J., McNicol, J.W. and Powell, W. (1998) Evaluating genetic relationships between indigenous coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions from Sri Lanka by means of AFLP profiling. Theor. Appl. Genet. 96, 545–550.Google Scholar
  86. Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (1999) Identification and characterization of microsatellites in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the analysis of coconut populations in Sri Lanka. Mol. Ecol. 8, 344–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (2000) Use of microsatellite DNA markers to investigate the level of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Genome 43, 15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (2001) Levels and distribution of genetic diversity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L., var. Typica form typica) from Sri Lanka assessed by microsatellite markers. Euphytica 122, 381–389.Google Scholar
  89. Perera, L., Russell, J.R., Provan, J. and Powell, W. (2003) Studying genetic relationships among coconut varieties/populations using microsatellite markers. Euphytica 132, 121–123.Google Scholar
  90. Powell, T. (1868) On various Samoan plants and their vernacular names. J. Bot. (London) 6, 278–285, 242–347, 255–370. Cited in: Harries, H.C. (1978) The evolution, dissemination and classification of Cocos nucifera L. Bot. Rev. 44, 205–317.Google Scholar
  91. Purseglove, J.W. (1965) The spread of tropical crops. In: H.G. Baker and G.L. Stebbins (Eds.) The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press, New York, pp. 337–389.Google Scholar
  92. Purseglove, J.W. (1968) Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. 2nd Ed., Longman, London.Google Scholar
  93. Purseglove, J.W. (1972) Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  94. Purseglove, J.W. (1985) Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. 5th Ed., Longman, London.Google Scholar
  95. Rajagopal, V., Kasturi Bai, K.V. and Kumar, N. (2005) Breeding for drought tolerance in coconut. In: P. Batugal, V. Ramanatha Rao and J. Oliver (Eds.) Coconut Genetic Resources. IPGRI, Rome, pp. 282–301.Google Scholar
  96. Rattanapruk, V. (1970) Thailand. In: FAO (Ed.) Yearly Progress Report on Coconut Breeding. FAO, Rome, pp. 31–33.Google Scholar
  97. Raveendranath, T.G. and Ninan, C.A. (1974) A study of the somatic chromosome compliments of tall and dwarf coconuts. J. Plant. Crops 1, 17–22.Google Scholar
  98. Ridley, H.N. (1930) The Dispersal of Plants throughout the World. Reeves, London.Google Scholar
  99. Rillo, E.P. (2004) The successful mass production of the Makapuno coconut by embryo culture in the Philippines. In: T.S.G. Peiris and C.S. Ranasinghe (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference to Mark the 75th Anniversary of Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka. Part II. Ceylon Printers, Colombo, pp. 16–30.Google Scholar
  100. Ritter, E., Rodriguez, M.J.B., Herran, A., Estioko, L., Becker, D. and Rohde, W. (2000) Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on linkage maps in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). In: A. Arencibia (Ed.) Plant Genetic Engineering towards the Third Millennium. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 42–48.Google Scholar
  101. Rivera, R., Edwards, K.J., Barker, J.H.A., Arnold, G.M., Ayad, G., Hodgkin, T. and Karp, A. (1999) Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellites in Cocos nucifera L. Genome 42, 668–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rohde, W., Becker, D., Kullaya, A., Rodriguez, M.J.B., Herran, A. and Ritter, E. (1999) Analysis of coconut germplasm biodiversity by DNA marker technologies and construction of a first genetic linkage map. In: C. Oropeza, J.L. Verdeil, G.R. Ashburner, R. Cardena and J.M. Santamaria (Eds.) Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 99–120.Google Scholar
  103. Rohde, W., Herran, A., Estioko, L., Sinje, S., Becker, D., Kullaya, A., Rodriguez, M.J.B. and Ritter, E. (2000) Mapping of DNA markers, homeotic genes and QTLs in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and synteny studies with oil palm. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Oil Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. AC1–AC21.Google Scholar
  104. Rohde, W., Kullaya, A., Rodriguez, J. and Ritter, E. (1995) Genome analysis of Cocos nucifera L. by PCR amplification of spacer sequences separating a subset of copia-like 16RI repetitive elements. J. Genet. Breed. 49, 179–186.Google Scholar
  105. Schuiling, M. and Harries, H.C. (1992) The coconut palm in East Africa 1. East African Tall. Palm Enthusiast 9(3), 22–35.Google Scholar
  106. Swaminathan, M.S. and Nambiar, M.C. (1961) Cytology and origin of the dwarf palm. Nature 192, 85–86.Google Scholar
  107. Teulat, B., Aldam, C., Trehin, R., Lebrun, L., Barker, G.M., Karp, A., Baudouin, L. and Rognon, F. (2000) An analysis of genetic diversity in coconut (Cocos nucifera) populations from across the geographic range using sequence-tagged microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLPs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100, 764–771.Google Scholar
  108. Vargas, A. and Blanco, F.A. (2000) Fruit characterization of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) cultivars from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and the Philippines. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 47, 483–487.Google Scholar
  109. Verdeil, J.L., Hornung, R., Jacobsen, H.J., Rillo, E., Oropeza, C., Bourdeix, R., N’Cho, Y.P., Hocher, V., Hamon, S. and Sangare, A. (1999) Recent progress on coconut micropropagation through a joined effort involving different countries. In: C. Oropeza, J.L. Verdeil, G.R. Ashburner, R. Cardena and J.M. Santamaria (Eds.) Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 391–405.Google Scholar
  110. Whitehead, R.A. (1966) Survey and Collection of Coconut Germplasm in the Pacific Islands. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  111. Whitehead, R.A. (1976) Coconut. In: N.W. Simmonds (Ed.) Evolution of Crop Plants. Longman, London, pp. 221–225.Google Scholar
  112. Wickramaratne, M.R.T. (1987a) Breeding coconut for adaptation to drought. Cocon. Bull. 4, 16–23.Google Scholar
  113. Wickramaratne, M.R.T. (1987b) Report of the Genetics and Plant Breeding Division. Annual Report of the Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, pp. 51–107.Google Scholar
  114. Young, N.D. (1994) Constructing a plant genetic linkage map with DNA markers. In: R.L. Phillips and I.K. Vasil (Eds.) DNA Based Markers in Plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 39–57.Google Scholar
  115. Zizumbo-Villarreal, D., Fernández-Barrera, M., Torres-Hernández, N. and Cardena, R. (1999) Lethal yellowing resistance in coconut germplasm from Mexico. In: C. Oropeza, J.L. Verdeil, G.R. Ashburner, R. Cardena and J.M. Santamaria (Eds.) Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 183–196.Google Scholar
  116. Zizumbo-Villarreal, D. (1996) History of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mexico: 1539–1810. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 43, 505–515.Google Scholar
  117. Zizumbo-Villarreal, D., Fernández-Barrera, M., Torres-Hernández, N. and Colunga-GarcíaMarín, P. (2005) Morphological variation of fruit in Mexican populations of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) under in situ and ex situ conditions. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 52, 421–434.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lalith Perera
    • 1
  • Suriya A.C.N. Perera
    • 1
  • Champa K. Bandaranayake
    • 2
  • Hugh C. Harries
    • 3
  1. 1.Genetics and Plant Breeding DivisionCoconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, CRISLBandirippuwa EstateSri Lanka
  2. 2.Department of Primary IndustriesPlant Genetics and GenomicsHamiltonSri Lanka
  3. 3.Coconut Industry Board of Jamaica (retired)WeymouthDorsetUK

Personalised recommendations