Advertisement

Oil Crops pp 317-332 | Cite as

Castor

  • Dick L. Auld
  • Mauricio D. Zanotto
  • Thomas McKeon
  • John B. Morris
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 4)

Introduction

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) has the potential to become the premier vegetable oil crop for industrial oil production across the globe (Roetheli et al. 1990). Castor is an ideal candidate for production of high value, industrial oil feedstocks because of the very high oil content (48–60%) of the seed, the extremely high levels of potential oil production (500–1,000 l of oil/acre), and this plants unique ability to produce oils with extremely high levels (80–90%) of ricinoleic acid (Brigham 1993). Additionally, the high potential yield and unique fatty acid composition of castor allows this oil to provide economically competitive feedstocks needed for the production of premium quality biodiesel, short chain aviation fuels, fuel lubrication additives, and very high value biopolymers (Geller and Goodrum 2004; Goodrum and Geller 2005; Roetheli et al. 1990). Because castor is not used for food and can be grown productively on marginal lands this crop represents a unique...

Keywords

Ricinoleic Acid Hydroxy Fatty Acid Recurrent Selection Mass Selection Castor Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amaral, J.G.C. (2003) Genetic variability for agronomic characteristics between self pollinated lines of castor (Ricinus communis L.) cv. AL Guarany. Ph. Dissertation (Agronomy), College of Agronomic Sciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil.Google Scholar
  2. Atsmon, D. (1989) Castor. In: G. Röbbelen, R.K. Downey and A. Ashri (Eds.) Oil Crops of the World. McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 348–447.Google Scholar
  3. Auld, D.L., Pinkerton, S.D., Boroda, E., Lombard, K.A., Murphy, C.K., Kenworthy, K.E., Becker, W.D., Rolfe, R.D. and Ghetie, V. (2003) Registration of TTU-LRC castor germplasm with reduced levels of ricin and RCA120. Crop Sci. 43, 746–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Auld, D.L., Rolfe, R.D. and McKeon, T.A. (2001) Development of castor with reduced toxicity. J. New Seeds 3, 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brigham, R.D. (1965) Delayed germination and seedling emergence of castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) open pollinated lines and hybrids as influenced by genotype and environment. Crop Sci. 5, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brigham, R.D. (1967a) Natural outcrossing in dwarf-internode castor, Ricinus communis L. Crop Sci. 7, 353–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brigham, R.D. (1967b) Inheritance of two female-sterile characters in dwarf-internode castor (Ricinus communis L.). Crop Sci. 7, 648–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brigham, R.D. (1973) Registration of T55001 castor composite germplasm (Reg. No. GP 2). Crop Sci. 13, 398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brigham, R.D. (1993) Castor: Return of an old crop. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (Eds.) New Crops. Wiley, New York, pp. 380–383.Google Scholar
  10. Broun, P. and Somerville, C. (1997) Accumulation of ricinoleic, lesquerolic, and densipolic acids in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis plants that express a fatty acyl hydroxylase cDNA from castor bean. Plant Physiol. 113, 933–942.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bukhatchenko, S.L. (1986) Ricinine: The alkaloid of castor oil. In: V.A. Moshkin (Ed.) Castor. Amerind Publ., New Delhi, India, pp. 81–85.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, G.Q., He, X., Liao, L.P. and McKeon, T.A. (2004) 2S albumin gene expression in castor plant (Ricinus communis L.). J. Am. Oil Che. Soc. 81, 867–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, G.Q., He, X. and McKeon, T. (2005) A simple and sensitive assay for distinguishing the expression of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin gene in developing castor seed. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 2358–2361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Culp, T.W. (1966) Inheritance of capsule drop resistance and pedicel length in castorbeans, Ricinus communis L. Crop Sci. 6, 280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO-STAT (2008) World Crop Production Statistics. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567
  16. Frankel, A., Schlossman, D., Welsh, P., Hertler, A., Withers, D. and Johnston, S. (1989) Selection and characterization of ricin toxin A-chain mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 415–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Franz, D.R. and Jaax, N.K. (1997) Ricin toxin. In: R. Zajtchur (Ed.) Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare – Textbook of Military Medicine. The Office of the Surgeon General, US Army, Falls Church, VA, pp. 631–642.Google Scholar
  18. Gardner, C.O. and Eberhart, S.A. (1966) Analysis and interpretation of the variety cross diallel and related populations. Biometrics 22, 439–452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Geller, D.P. and Goodrum, J.W. (2004) Effects of specific fatty acid methyl esters on diesel fuel lubricity. Fuel 83, 2351–2356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ghetie, V. and Vitetta, E.S. (1994) Immunotoxins in the therapy of cancer from bench to clinic. Pharmac. Ther. 63, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giriraj, K., Mensinkai, S.W. and Sindagi, S.S. (1974) Components of genetic variation for yield and its attributes in 6 X 6 diallel crosses of castor (Ricinus communis L.). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 44, 132–136.Google Scholar
  22. Goodrum, J.W. and Geller, D.P. (2005) Influence of fatty acid methyl ester from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity. Bioresour. Technol. 96, 851–855.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Halling, K., Halling, A., Murray, E., Ladin, B., Houston, L. and Weaver, R. (1985). Genomic cloning and characterization of a ricin gene from Ricinus communis. Nucl. Acids Res. 13, 8018–8033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hartley, M.R. and Lord, J.M. (2004) Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating lectins from plants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1701, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayman, B.I. (1954) The theory and analysis of the diallel crosses. Genetics 39, 798–809.Google Scholar
  26. Hayman, B.I. (1958) Separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means. Heredity 12, 371–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. He, X., Chen, G.Q., Kang, S.T. and McKeon, T.A. (2007) Ricinus communis contains an acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates ricinoleate to its CoA ester. Lipids 42, 931–938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. He, X., Chen, G.Q., Lin, J.T. and McKeon, T.A. (2004) Regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase in developing seeds of castor. Lipids 39, 865–871.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. He, X., Chen, G.Q., Lin, J.T. and McKeon, T.A. (2005) Molecular characterization of the acyl-CoA-dependent diacylglycerol acyltransferase in plants. Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2, 69–86.Google Scholar
  30. Hooks, J.A., Williams, J.H. and Gardner, C.O. (1971) Estimates of heterosis from a diallel cross of castors, Ricinus communis L. Crop Sci. 11, 651–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khvostova, I.V. (1986) Ricin: The toxic protein of seed. In: V.A. Moshkin (Ed.) Castor. Amerind Publ., New Delhi, India, pp. 85–92.Google Scholar
  32. Layton, L., Panzani, R. and von Helms, L.T. (1970) Cross-reactivity in primary respiratory allergy in castorbean (Ricinus communis). Int. Arch. Allergy 37, 67–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lin, J.T., Chen, J.M., Liao, L.P. and McKeon, T.A. (2002) Molecular species of acylglycerols incorporating radiolabeled fatty acids from castor (Ricinus communis L.) microsomal incubations. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 5077–5081.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lowery, C.C., Auld, D.L., Rolfe, R., McKeon, T.A. and Goodrum, J.W. (2007) Barriers to commercialization of a castor cultivar with reduced concentration of ricin. In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (Eds.) Issues in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp. 97–104.Google Scholar
  35. Mackinnon, P.J. and Alderton, M.R. (2000) An investigation of the degradation of the plant toxin, ricin, by sodium hypochlorite. Toxicon 38, 287–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. McKeon, T.A. and Chen, G.Q. (2003) Transformation of Ricinus communis, the castor plant. U.S. Patent 6,620,986 B1.Google Scholar
  37. McKeon, T.A. and Lin, J.T. (2002) Biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid for castor oil production. In: T.M. Kuo and H.W. Gardner (Eds.) Lipid Biotechnology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 129–139.Google Scholar
  38. Mercier, P. and Panzani, R. (1988) Human castor bean allergy and HLA_A, B, C, DR. J. Asthma 24, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moshkin, V.A. (1967) Rukovodstvo dust Sektsii i Semenovodst vu Maslichnykh kul’tur. Manual of Breeding and Seed-Production of Oil Crops, Moscow.Google Scholar
  40. Moshkin, V.A. (1986) Cytology and genetics of qualitative characteristics. In: V.A. Moshkin (Ed.) Castor. Amerind Publi., New Delhi, India, pp. 125–132.Google Scholar
  41. Oliveira, I.J. and Zanotto, M.D. (2008) Efficiency of recurrent selection for reduction of the stature of plants in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Ciência and Agrotecnologia. 32, 1107–1112.Google Scholar
  42. Olsnes, S. and Pihl, A. (1973) Different biological properties of the two constituent peptide chains of ricin, a toxic protein inhibiting protein synthesis. Biochemistry 12, 3121–3126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Panzani, R. and Layton, L.L. (1963) Allergy to the dust of Ricinus communis (castor bean): Clinical studies upon human beings and passively sensitized monkeys. Int. Arch. Allergy 22, 350–368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Peat, J.E. (1928) Genetic studies in Ricinus communis L. J. Genetics 19, 373–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pinkerton, S.D., Rolfe, R., Auld, D.L., Ghetie, V. and Lauterbach, B. (1999) Selection of castor for divergent concentrations of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin. Crop Sci. 39, 353–357.Google Scholar
  46. Ritzinger, C.H.S.P. and McSorley, R. (1998) Effect of castor and velvet bean organic amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria in greenhouse experiments. Supp. J. Nematol. 30(4S), 624–631.Google Scholar
  47. Roberts, L., Lamb, F.I., Pappin, D. and Lord, J. (1985) The primary sequence of Ricinus communis agglutinin. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15682–15686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Roetheli, J.C., Glaser, L.K. and Brigham, R.D. (1990) Castor: Assessing the feasibility of U.S. production. Workshop Proceed. Growing Industrial Material Series. USDA-CSRS and Texas A&M University, Plainview, TX.Google Scholar
  49. Rojas-Barros, P., deHaro, A. and Fernandez-Martinez, J.M. (2005) Inheritance of high oleic/low ricinoleic acid content in the seed oil of castor mutant OLE-1. Crop Sci. 45, 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rojas-Barros, P., deHaro, A., Munoz, J. and Fernandez-Martinez, J.M. (2004) Isolation of a natural mutant in castor with high oleic/low ricinoleic acid content in the oil. Crop Sci. 44, 76–80.Google Scholar
  51. Savy Filho, A. (1999) Improvement of castor. In: The Borém (Ed.) Improvement of Cultivated Species. Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.Google Scholar
  52. Savy Filho, A. (2005) Castor bean breeding. In: The Borém (Ed.) Improvement of Cultivated Species. Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.Google Scholar
  53. Solanki, S.S. and Joshi, P. (2000) Combining ability analysis over environments of diverse pistillate and male parents for seed yield and other traits in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Indian J. Genet. 60, 201–212.Google Scholar
  54. Solanki, S.S., Joshi, P., Gupta, D. and Deora, V.S. (2003) Gene effects for yield contributing character in castor, Ricinus communis L., by generation mean analysis. J. Oilseeds Res. 20, 217–219.Google Scholar
  55. Sujatha, M. and Sailaja, M. (2005) Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds. Plant Cell Rep. 23, 803–810.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Swarnlata, Prasad, M.V.R. and Rana, B.S. (1984) Inheritance of yield and its components in castor. Indian J. Genet. 44, 538–543.Google Scholar
  57. Tregear, J.W. and Roberts, L.M. (1992) The lectin gene family of Ricinus communis: Cloning of a functional ricin gene and three lectin pseudogenes. Plant Mol. Biol. 18, 515–525.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Weiss, E.A. (2000) Oilseed Crops. 2nd Ed., Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  59. Zanotto, M.D., Amaral, J.G.C. and Poletine, J.P. (2004) Recurrent selection with use of self pollinated lines for reduction of the height of plants of castor (Ricinus communis L.) in a common Guarani population. Annals of the I Brazilian Congress of Mamona, Campina Great, PB, vol. 1, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  60. Zimmerman, L.H. and Smith, J.D. (1966) Production of F1 seed in castor beans by use of sex genes sensitive to environment. Crop Sci. 6, 406–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dick L. Auld
    • 1
  • Mauricio D. Zanotto
    • 2
  • Thomas McKeon
    • 3
  • John B. Morris
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant and Soil ScienceTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of Crop ScienceSao Paulo State University, Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780, Fazenda LageadoBotucatuBrazil
  3. 3.USDA-ARS, PWA, WRRC-CIUAlbanyUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARSGriffinUSA

Personalised recommendations