Advertisement

Health Initiatives for the Prevention of Skin Cancer

  • Rüdiger Greinert
  • Eckhard W. Breitbart
  • Peter Mohr
  • Beate Volkmer
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 624)

Abstract

Skin cancer represents the most common type of cancer in the white population worldwide and the incidence has dramatically increased during the last decades. UV radiation is the most important risk factor responsible for this development. Socio-economical and cultural changes in behaviour of large groups of the society led to an increase in UV-exposure due to life-style trends which go along with more leisure time and holidays spent in the sun and (in the last decades) with frequent exposure to artificial UV in sunbeds.

Keywords

Skin Cancer Indoor Tanning Minimal Erythemal Dose Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Incidence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    The sun-burnt face. Lancet 1910; 2:132–135.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: A systematic review. Int J Cancer 2007; 120:1116–1122.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG. The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: part 1. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47:930–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG. The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: part 3. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49:1096–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albert MR, Ostheimer KG. The evolution of current medical and popular attitudes toward ultraviolet light exposure: part 2. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 48:909–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Gruijl FR, Longstreth J, Norval M et al. Health effects from stratospheric ozone depletion and interactions with climate change. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2003; 2:16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrady A, Aucamp PJ, Bais AF et al. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2004. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2005; 4:177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andrady AL, Aucamp PJ, Bais AF et al. Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 2006 assessment: interactions of ozone depletion and climate change. Executive summary. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2007; 6:212–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Norval M, Cullen AP, de Gruijl FR et al. The effects on human health from stratospheric ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2007; 6:232–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lucas RM, Repacholi MH, McMichacl AJ. Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct? Bull World Health Organ 2006; 84:485–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Cancer Concil of Victoria. SunSmart overview: Our history. 2007. http://www.sunsmart.com.au. Ref Type: Internet Communication.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    MacKie RM, Osterlind A, Ruiter D et al. Report on consensus meeting of the EORTC Melanoma Group on educational needs for primary and secondary prevention of melanoma in Europe. Results of a workshop held under the auspices of the EEC Europe against cancer programme in Innsbruck. Eur J Cancer 1991; 27:1317–1323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    NIH. Consensus Developmental Conference: Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma. 1992; 10:1–25. Cosensus Statement. Ref Type: Conference Proceeding.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    How to decrease morbidity and mortality of skin cancer: primary prevention of skin cancer/screening of skin cancer. Report of a workshop held under the auspices of the society of dermatological prevention (ADP e.V.), Commission of early detection and prevention of skin cancer 1994. Hamburg, Germany. Eur J Cancer Prev 1996; 5:297–299.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    WHO. INTERSUN. The global UV project: a guide and compendium. Geneva 2003.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Girgis A, Sanson-Fisher RW, Tripodi DA et al. Evaluation of interventions to improve solar protection in primary schools. Health Educ Q 1993; 20:275–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hughes BR, Altman DG, Newton JA. Melanoma and skin cancer: evaluation of a health education programme for secondary schools. Br J Dermatol 1993; 128:412–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kölmel FKCURMBEW. Sonne, Kind und Melanome. Kinderarzt 1993; 4:470–481.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Geller AC, Rutsch L, Kenausis K et al. Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Sunwise School Program. Environ Health 2003; 2:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buller DB, Buller MK, Beach B et al. Sunny days, healthy ways: evaluation of a skin cancer prevention curriculum for elementary school-aged children. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 35:911–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greinert R, McKinlay A, Breitbart EW. The European Society of Skin Cancer Prevention—EUROSKIN: towards the promotion and harmonization of skin cancer prevention in Europe. Recommendations. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001; 10:157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Repacholi MH. Global Solar UV Index. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2000; 91:307–311.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McKinlay A, Breitbart EW, Ringborg U et al. ‘Children under the Sun’—UV radiation and children’s skin. WHO Workshop—Children’s sun protection education. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002; 11:397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saraiya M, Glanz K, Briss PA et al. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2004; 27:422–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brändström R. Skin Cancer Prevention. In: Ringborg U, Brandberg Y, Breitbart EW, Greinert R. eds, pp. 315–337 (informa Helathcare, New York, London, 2007).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mahler HI, Kulik JA, Gibbons FX et al. Effects of appearance-based interventions on sun protection intentions and self-reported behaviors. Health Psychol 2003; 22:199–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mahler HI, Kulik JA, Harrell J et al. Effects of UV photographs, photoaging information and use of sunless tanning lotion on sun protection behaviors. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141:373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mahler HI, Kulik JA, Gerrard M et al. Long-term effects of appearance-based interventions on sun protection behaviors. Health Psychol 2007; 26:350–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and colorectal cancer: recent findings. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006; 22:24–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bodiwala D, Luscombe CJ, French ME et al. Associations between prostate cancer susceptibility and parameters of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Cancer Lett 2003; 200:141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Grant WB. An ecologic study of dietary and solar ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates. Cancer 2002; 94:272–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grant WB. Ecologic studies of solar UV-B radiation and cancer mortality rates. Recent Results Cancer Res 2003; 164:371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grant WB. Epidemiology of disease risks in relation to vitamin D insufficiency. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:65–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Welsh J. Vitamin D and breast cancer: insights from animal models. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:1721S–1724S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA 2006; 296:2832–2838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Staples JA, Ponsonby AL, Lim LL et al. Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation and disease prevalence. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111:518–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001; 358:1500–1503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VL et al. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR et al. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50:72–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    McGrath JJ, Kimlin MG, Saha S et al. Vitamin D insufficiency in south-east Queensland. Med J Aust 2001; 174:150–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hanley DA, Davison KS. Vitamin D insufficiency in North America. J Nutr 2005; 135:332–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lamberg-Allardt C. Vitamin D in foods and as supplements. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reichrath J. The challenge resulting from positive and negative effects of sunlight: how much solar UV exposure is appropriate to balance between risks of vitamin D deficiency and skin cancer? Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vieth R. What is the optimal vitamin D status for health? Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:26–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holick MF. Vitamin D: its role in cancer prevention and treatment. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lamberg-Allardt CJ, Outila TA, Karkkainen MU et al. Vitamin D deficiency and bone health in healthy adults in Finland: could this be a concern in other parts of Europe? J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16:2066–2073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Dowell S et al. Vitamin D and its major metabolites: serum levels after graded oral dosing in healthy men. Osteoporos Int 1998; 8:222–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tangpricha V, Koutkia P, Rieke SM et al. Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: a novel approach for enhancing vitamin D nutritional health. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77:1478–1483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride, pp. 250–287 (National Academic Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ et al. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85:649–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Holick MF. A perspective on the benefitial effects of moderate exposure to sunlight: bone health, cancer prevention, mental health and well being. In: Giacomoni, PU, ed. Sun protection in men. Amsterdam, London, New York: Elsevier, 2001:11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hollis BW. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J Nutr 2005; 135:317–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    MacLaughlin JA, Anderson RR, Holick MF. Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin. Science 1982; 216:1001–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Webb AR. Who, what, where and when-influences on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J, Haddad JG et al. In vivo threshold for cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3. J Lab Clin Med 1989; 114:301–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    WHO. Sunbeds, tanning and UV exposure (Fact sheet). 2005; 287. Ref Type: Report.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    McKinlay A. Workshop round-up session rapporteur’s report. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2006; 92:179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schofield PE, Freeman JL, Dixon HG et al. Trends in sun protection behaviour among Australian young adults. Aust N Z J Public Health 2001; 25:62–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hill D. Sun Protection behaviour—determinants and trends. Cancer Forum 1996; 20:204–211.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Staples M, Marks R, Giles G. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanocytic skin cancer (NMSC) treated in Australia 1985–1995: are primary prevention programs starting to have an effect? Int J Cancer 1998; 78:144–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levi F, Te VC, Randimbison L et al. Trends in skin cancer incidence in Vaud: an update, 1976–1998. Eur J Cancer Prev 2001; 10:371–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    de Vries E, Bray FI, Coebergh JW et al. Changing epidemiology of malignant cutaneous melanoma in Europe 1953–1997: rising trends in incidence and mortality but recent stabilizations in western Europe and decreases in Scandinavia. Int J Cancer 2003; 107:119–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bulliard JL, Cox B, Semenciw R. Trends by anatomic site in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Canada, 1969–93. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10:407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marrett LD, Nguyen HL, Armstrong BK. Trends in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in New South Wales, 1983–1996. Int J Cancer 2001; 92:457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Martin RC, Robinson E. Cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian New Zealanders: 1995–1999. ANZ J Surg 2004; 74:233–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Greinert
    • 1
  • Eckhard W. Breitbart
    • 1
  • Peter Mohr
    • 1
  • Beate Volkmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of DermatologyElbenkliniken Stade/BuxtehudeBuxtehudeGermany

Personalised recommendations