Sunlight, UV-Radiation, Vitamin D and Skin Cancer: How Much Sunlight Do We Need?

  • Michael F. Holick
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 624)


Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin for good reason. During exposure to sunlight, the ultraviolet B photons enter the skin and photolyze 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 which in turn is isomerized by the body’s temperature to vitamin D3. Most humans have depended on sun for their vitamin D requirement. Skin pigment, sunscreen use, aging, time of day, season and latitude dramatically affect previtamin D3 synthesis. Vitamin D deficiency was thought to have been conquered, but it is now recognized that more than 50% of the worlds population is at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency is in part due to the inadequate fortification of foods with vitamin D and the misconception that a healthy diet contains an adequate amount of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency causes growth retardation and rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis and increase risk of fracture in adults. The vitamin D deficiency has been associated pandemic with other serious consequences including increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with their vitamin D requirement for health.


Skin Cancer Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Raise Blood Level Antirachitic Activity Time Ofday 
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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael F. Holick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research LaboratoryBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA

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