Strawberry Genomics: Botanical History, Cultivation, Traditional Breeding, and New Technologies

Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 6)

The Origin of Strawberries – Cherokee Nation

When first man was created, he lived with the mate Creator gave him. When they began to quarrel, first woman left her husband. The man followed, sad and crying, but first woman kept going and never looked behind. Unetlanv, the Creator, took pity on first man and asked him if he was still angry with his wife. He said he wasn’t, so Unetlanv asked him if he would like to have her back. He answered, ‘yes!’


Segregation Distortion Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Unreduced Gamete Methyl Bromide Important Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aharoni A, Giri A., Verstappen F, Bertea C, Sevenier R, Sun Z, Jongsma M, Schwab W, and Bouwmeester H (2004). Gain and loss of fruit flavor compounds produced by wild and cultivated species. Plant Cell 16: 3110–3131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aharoni A, Keizer L, Bouwmeester H, Sun Z, Alvarez-Huerta M, Verhoeven H, Blaas J, van Houweilingen A, De Vos C, van der Voet H, Jansen R, Guis M, Mol J, Davis R, Schena M, van Tunen A, and O’Connell A (2000). Identification of the SAAT gene involved in strawberry flavor biogenesis by use of DNA microarrays. Plant Cell 12: 647–661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiyama Y, Yamamoto Y, Ohmido N, Oshima M, and Fukui K (2001). Estimation of the nuclear DNA content of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) compared with Arabidopsis thaliana by using dual-step flow cytometry. Cytologia 66: 431–436Google Scholar
  4. Arulsekar S, and Bringhurst RS, (1981). Genetic model for the enzyme marker PGI in diploid California Fragaria vesca. J. Hered. 73: 117–120Google Scholar
  5. Ashley MV, Wilk JA, Styan SMN, Craft KJ, Jones KL, Feldheim KA, Lewers KS, and Ashman TL (2003). High variability and disomic segregation of microsatellites in the octoploid Fragaria virginiana Mill. (Rosaceae). Theor. Appl. Genet. 107: 1201–1207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bors B, and Sullivan JA (1998). Interspecific crossability of nine diploid Fragaria species. HortScience 32: 439Google Scholar
  7. Bringhurst RS, and Senanayake YDA (1966). The evolutionary significance of natural Fragaria chiloensis x F. vesca hybrids resulting from unreduced gametes. Amer. J. Bot. 53: 1000–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bringhurst RS, Voth V, and Shaw D (1990). University of California strawberry breeding. HortScience 25:834Google Scholar
  9. Dai H, Lei J, and Deng M (2007). Investigation and studies on classification of wild Fragaria spp. distributed in the Changbai Mountains. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 34(1):63–66 [in Chinese with English summary]Google Scholar
  10. Darrow GM (1966). The Strawberry. History, Breeding and Physiology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 447 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis TM, DeMeglio LM, Yang R, Styan SMN, and Lewers KS (2006). Assessment of SSR Marker Transfer from the cultivated strawberry to diploid strawberry species:functionality, linkage group assignment, and use in diversity analysis. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 131(4):506–512Google Scholar
  12. Davis TM, and Yu H (1997). A linkage map of the diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca. J. Hered. 88:215–221Google Scholar
  13. Degener O (1975). Plants of Hawaii National Park Illustrative of Plants and Customs of the South Seas. Braun-Brumfield, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 316 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Dirinck PJ, De Pooter HL, Willaert GA, and Schamp NM (1981). Flavor of cultivated strawberries: The role of the sulfur compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29: 316–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eriksson T, Hibbs MS, Yoder AD, Delwiche CF, and Donoghue MJ (2003). The phylogeny of Rosoideae (Rosaceae) based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL/F region of chloroplast DNA. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164: 197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO (2007). Food and Agriculture. Accessed 19 July 2007
  17. Federova NJ (1946). Crossibility and phylogenetic relations in the main European species of Fragaria Compt. Rend (Doklady) Acad. Sci. USSR. 30:545–547Google Scholar
  18. Fletcher SW (1917) The Strawberry in North America: History, Origin, Botany and Breeding. The Macmillan Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Folta KM, and Davis TM (2006). Strawberry genes and genomics. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 25:399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forney CF, and Breen PJ (1985). Dry matter partitioning and assimilation in fruiting and deblossomed strawberry. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110:181–185Google Scholar
  21. Hadonou A, Sargent MDJ, Wilson F, James CM, and Simpson DW (2004). Development of microsatellite markers in Fragaria their use in genetic diversity analysis and their potential for genetic linkage mapping. Genome 47:429–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hammer K, and Pistrick K (2003). New versus old scientific names in strawberries (Fragaria L.). Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 50(7):789–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hancock JF (1999). Strawberries. CABI Pub. University Press, Cambridge, MA, 237 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Hancock JF, Soong GQ, and Sink KC (2008) Berry Crops. In: Kole C and Hall TC (eds) A Compendium of Transgenic Crop Plants. Vol. 4. Wiley- Blackwell. (In press)Google Scholar
  25. Harrison RE, Luby JJ, and Furnier GR (1997). Chloroplast DNA restriction fragment variation among strawberry (Fragaria spp.) taxa. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122:63–68Google Scholar
  26. Hedrick UP (1919). Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World. J. B. Lyon, Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  27. Hedrick UP (1925). The Small Fruits of New York. J. B. Lyon, Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  28. Hemphill R, and Martin LH (1992). Microwave oven-drying method for determining soluble solids in strawberries. HortScience 27:1326Google Scholar
  29. Hirvi T (1983). Mass fragmentographic and sensory analysis in the evaluation of the aroma of some strawberry cultivars. Lebensn. Wiss. Technol. 16:157–161Google Scholar
  30. Hirvi T, and Honkanen E (1982). The volatiles of two new strawberry cultivars, “Annelie” and Alaska Pioneer obtained by backcrossing of cultivated strawberries with wild strawberries, Fragaria vesca, Rügen and Fragaria virginiana. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung 175: 113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hodgson J (2007). Evolution of sequencing technology. Science. May 11, 2007. 316:846a pullout-posterGoogle Scholar
  32. Hokanson S, and Maas JL (2001). Strawberry biotechnology. In: Janick, J. (ed.) Plant Breeding Reviews, Vol. 21. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Hultén E (1927–1930) Flora of Kamchatka and the adjacent islands. Kungl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., (1927)5(1): 1–346; (1928). 8(3): 1–213; (1930). 8(4), 1–358 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  34. Hultén E, (1968). Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. A Manual of the Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  35. Kader AA (1991). Quality and its maintenance in relation to the postharvest physiology of strawberry. In: Luby JJ and Dale A (eds.). The Strawberry into the 21st Century. Timber Press, Portland, OR. pp. 145–152Google Scholar
  36. Kasuga M, Miura S, Shinozaki K, and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2004). A combination of the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene and stress-inducible rd29A promoter improved drought- and low- temperature stress tolerance in tobacco by gene transfer. Plant Cell Physiol. 45: 346–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Larsen M, and Poll L (1992). Odour thresholds of some important aroma compounds in strawberries. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel- Untersuchung und-Forschung 195: 120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lerceteau-Köhler E, Guérin G, Laigret F, and Denoyes-Rothan B (2003). Characterization of mixed disomic and polysomic inheritance in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) using AFLP mapping. Theor. Appl. Genet. 17: 619–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lei J, Li Y, Du G, Dai H, and Deng, M (2005). A natural pentaploid strawberry genotype from the Changbai Mountains in Northeast China. HortScience 40(5): 1194–1195Google Scholar
  40. Lei JJ, Dai HP, Hua TC, Qin DM, Zhao MH, and Qian Y, (2006) Studies of the taxonomy of Strawberry (Fragaria) species distributed in China. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 2006:01. Abstract [in Chinese]Google Scholar
  41. Maas JL, Galletta GJ, and Stoner GD (1991). Ellagic acid, an anticarcinogen in fruits, especially strawberry: A review. HortScience 26: 10–14Google Scholar
  42. Maas JL, Wang SY, and Galletta GJ (1996). Health enhancing properties of strawberry fruit. In: Pritts MP, Chandler CK, and Crocker TE. Proceedings of the IV. North American Strawberry Conference, Orlando, FL. pp. 11–18Google Scholar
  43. Mabberley DJ (2002). Potentilla and Fragaria (Rosaceae) reunited. Telopea 9(4):793–801Google Scholar
  44. Makino T (1979). The New Illustrated Flora of Japan. Hokuryukan Co. Ltd., TokyoGoogle Scholar
  45. Manning K (1998a) Genes for fruit quality in strawberry. In: Cockshull KE, Gray D, Seymour GB and Thomas B (eds.) Genetic and Environmental Manipulation of Horticultural Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 51–61Google Scholar
  46. Manning K (1998b) Genes for fruit quality in strawberry. In: Cockshull KE, Gray D, Seymour GB, and Thomas B (eds.) Genetic and Environmental Manipulation of Horticultural Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 51–61Google Scholar
  47. Melville AH, Galletta GJ, Draper AD, and Ng TJ (1980). Seed germination and early seedling vigor in progenies of inbred strawberry selections. HortScience 15: 49–750Google Scholar
  48. Morrow EB, and Darrow GM. 1952. Effects of limited inbreeding in strawberries. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 39:262–268Google Scholar
  49. Njuguna W, Bassil N, Hummer K, and Davis T (2007). Genetic Diversity of Fragaria iinumae and F. nipponica based on microsatellite markers. HortScience 42(4):915Google Scholar
  50. Particka C, and Hancock JF (2005). Field evaluation of strawberry genotypes for tolerance to black root rot in fumigated and nonfumigated soil. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130: 688–693Google Scholar
  51. Pérez AG, Olías R, Sanz C, and Olías JM (1996). Furanones in strawberries: Evolution during ripening and postharvest shelf life. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 3620–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pérez AG, Sanz C, Olías R, Ríos JJ, and Olías JM (1997). Aroma quality evaluation of strawberry cultivars in southern Spain. Acta Hort. 439: 337–340Google Scholar
  53. Potter D, Luby J, and Harrison R (2000). Phylogenetic relationships in Fragaria L. (Rosaceae) inferred from non-coding nuclear and chloroplast sequences. Syst. Bot. 25:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pyysalo T, Honkanen E, and Hirvi T (1979). Volatiles of wild strawberries, Fragaria vesca L. compared to those of cultivated strawberries, Fragaria x ananassa ‘Senga sengana.’ J. Agric. Food Chem. 27: 19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ranwala AP, Suematsu C, and Masuda H (1992). Soluble and wall-bound invertases in strawberry fruit. Plant Sci. 84: 59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ritchie JC (1984). Past and present vegetation of the far northwest of Canada. University of Toronto Press. Toronto 251 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Rousseau-Gueutin M, Gaston A, Aïnouche A, Aïnouche M.L, Olbricht K, Staudt G, Richard L, and Denoyes-Rothan B. (2008). Origin and evolution of the polyploid Fragaria species through phylogenetical analyses of GBSSI and DHAR low-copy nuclear genes. accessed 07/07/2008.
  58. Sanz C, Pérez AG, and Richardson DG (1994). Simultaneous HPLC determination of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanon and related flavor components in strawberries. J. Food Sci. 59:139–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sargent D, Geibel JM, Hawins JA, Wilkinson MJ, Battey NH, and Simpson DW (2004) Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Morphological Traits Revealed between Diploid Fragaria Species. Ann. Bot. 94(6):787–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sargent, DJ, Rys A, Nier S, and Simpson DW (2007). The development and mapping of functional markers in Fragaria and their transferability and potential for mapping in other genera. Theor. Appl. Genet. 114:373–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Senanayake YDA, and Bringhurst RS (1967). Improved techniques for the induction and isolation of polyploids in the genus Fragaria. Euphytica 25:725–734Google Scholar
  62. Scalzo J, Battino M, Costantini E, and Mezzetti B (2005). Breeding and biotechnology for improving berry nutritional quality. BioFactors 23: 213–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shamaila M, Baumann TE, Eaton GW, Powrie WD, and Skura BJ (1992). Quality attributes of strawberry cultivars grown in British Columbia. J. Food Sci. 57: 696–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Staudt GS (1989). The species of Fragaria, their taxonomy and geographical distribution. Acta Hort. 265: 23–34Google Scholar
  65. Staudt GS (1999a) Systematics and Geographic Distribution of the American Strawberry Species. Vol. 81, University of California Pub. Botany. 162 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Staudt GS (1999b). Notes on Asiatic Fragaria species: Fragaria nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J. Gay. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121:297–310.Google Scholar
  67. Staudt GS (2003). Notes on Asiatic Fragaria species: III. Fragaria orientalis Losinsk. and Fragaria mandshurica spec. nov. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 124:397–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Staudt GS (2005). Notes on Asiatic Fragaria species: IV. Fragaria iinumae Makino. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Staudt, GS (2008). Fragaria iturupensis, a new source for strawberry inprovement? Proceedings of the VI International Strawberry Symposium. Huelva, Spain, abstract 887Google Scholar
  70. Staudt GS, and Dickoré WB (2001). Notes on Asiatic Fragaria species: Fragaria pentaphylla Losinsk. and Fragaria tibetica spec. nov. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 123:341–354Google Scholar
  71. Tenllado F, Llave C, and Ramón Díaz-Ruíz J (2004). RNA interference as a new biotechnological tool for the control of virus diseases in plants. Virus Res. 102 (1):85–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hoffmann T, Kalinowski G, and Schwab W (2006). RNAi-induced silencing of gene expression in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) by agroinfiltration: A rapid assay for gene function analysis. Plant J 48: 818–826CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Viruel M, Sanchex AS, and Arus P (2002). An SSR and RFLP Linkage Map for the Octoploid Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Plant and Animal Genome X Conference. San Diego, CA (Abstract)Google Scholar
  74. Weebadde CK, Wang D, Finn, CE, Lewers KS, Luby JJ, Bushakra J, Sjulin TM, and Hancock JF (2007). Using a linkage mapping approach to identify QTL for day-neutrality in the octoploid strawberry. Plant Breed. 1–11Google Scholar
  75. Wilhelm S, and Sagen JA (1974). A History of the Strawberry. University of California Division of Agriculture Pub. 4031. Berkeley CAGoogle Scholar
  76. Wolfe, JA (1969). Neogene floristic and vegetational history of the Pacific Northwest. Madrono 20:83–100Google Scholar
  77. Wrolstad RE, Putnam TP, and Varseveld GW (1970) Color quality of frozen strawberries: Effect of anthocyanin, pH, total acidity and ascorbic acid variability. J. Food Sci. 35: 448–452Google Scholar
  78. Wrolstad RE, and Shallenberger RS (1981) Free sugars and sorbitol in fruits-a compilation from the literature. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 64:91–103Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm RepositoryCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations