Cytogenetic Analysis of Wheat and Rye Genomes

  • Bikram S. Gill
  • Bernd Friebe
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 7)


Cytogenetics is the correlated study of genetics and cytology. In cereals, five phases of cytogenetic research can be recognized: (i) meiotic pairing analysis of F1 hybrids; (ii) aneuploidy. (iii) molecular cytogenetics (C-banding and in situ hybridization); (iv) deletion bin mapping; and (v) flow cytogenetics. We review here the first four phases of cytogenetic research with special reference to chromosome analysis of wheat and rye. Meiotic pairing analysis revealed genomic relationships among diploid and polyploid species. Aneuploidy opened possibilities of chromosome/arm and comparative mapping. C-banding and in situ hybridization allowed rapid identification and analysis of heterochromatic and euchromatic components of wheat and rye chromosomes. The isolation of deletion stocks and their use to study the structure and function of the expressed portion of the wheat genome further revealed structural and functional differentiation of wheat chromosomes into proximal gene-poor/low recombination and distal gene-rich/high recombination compartments. The abovementioned structural and functional differentiation may have been driven by chromosome behavior at meiosis. As DNA sequence information becomes available and with the application of techniques such as Fiber FISH and others that close the gap between DNA level and chromosome level observations, we can truly begin to understand the biological meaning of the superimposed structural, functional, and behavioral differentiation and organization of cereal chromosomes.


Wheat Chromosome Wheat Genome Chinese Spring Wheat International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium Deletion Stock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Research supported in part by grants from the USDA-CSREES, National Science Foundation, and the Kansas Wheat Commission. This is contribution 08-347-B from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

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