Advertisement

Triticeae Genetic Resources in ex situ Genebank Collections

  • Helmut Knüpffer
Chapter
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 7)

Abstract

Of the ca. 350 species and ca. 30 genera estimated for the Triticeae, 111 species of 19 genera are either cultivated or useful wild species. These species are listed together with their main uses in the first part of this chapter. The second part provides an overview of Triticeae holdings in the world’s genebanks. Starting from a survey of available online information resources, 1,278,000 accessions of Triticeae, belonging to 35 genera (among them 12 hybrid genera) and almost 300 species and, comprising one-fifth of the estimated world germplasm holdings, are doucmented. The survey includes data from 295 genebanks. Summaries of the world holdings per genus, species, regions where the genebanks are located, and the largest collections of the major genera are provided. For the larger genera, i.e., Triticum, Hordeum, × Triticosecale, Aegilops, Secale, Elymus and Agropyron, the worldwide germplasm collections are surveyed with more details. Existing international or regional cooperation programmes, germplasm databases and cultivar registers with pedigree information for these genera are briefly described. For the major cereal crops, core collections and genetic stocks collections are also mentioned. Due to its growing importance as a model plant in genomics research, the genus Brachypodium closely related to the Triticeae is also included in the surveys. The paper aims at providing background information for plant breeders and crop plant researchers on the germplasm available in ex situ genebank collections, to make this wealth of material more easily accessible.

Keywords

Genetic Resource Core Collection Wheat Breeding Forage Grass Genetic Stock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The present study could not have been compiled without the invaluable support, contributions and discussions from numerous colleagues from the world of Triticeae taxonomy and nomenclature, and from genebank curators and information managers in genetic resources. I am grateful to all of them. Mary Barkworth and Roland von Bothmer provided useful comments on Triticeae classification and nomenclature and checked hundreds of names for the synonymy, but also suggested improvements to earlier versions of this manuscript. Laura Morrison commented especially on names in Triticum and Aegilops. Tom Payne provided information about the Wheat Strategy of the Global Crop Diversity Trust, and Jan Valkoun on the Barley Strategy. John Wiersema supported the study with providing taxonomic and other data from GRIN, and with relevant discussions. Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat updated me on the holdings of the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Iva Faberová provided summary information from the Czech genebank and the European Wheat Database, Edson Jair Iorczeski informed about the Triticeae holdings of Brazilian genebanks, Gert Kleijer sent information from the European Triticale Database, Jan Konopka provided data from the Global Barley Register (in progress), Giambattista Polignano updated information about the Bari Genebank in Italy, Marcin Zaczyński sent data from the European Secale Database. I am grateful to the anonymous reviewer for corrections and useful suggestions of an earlier version of the manuscript. Catherine Feuillet provided continuous support and encouragement as well as valuable advice for improving and completing the coverage of the chapter. Finally, I wish to thank my colleagues Andreas Börner, Annette Weidner and Benjamin Kilian for helpful discussions and information, and Markus Oppermann for assistance in providing IPK’s passport data.

References

  1. Arias, G., A. Reiner, A. Penger and A. Mangstl (1983) Directory of barley cultivars and lines. Ulmer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. Barkworth, M.E., K.M. Capels, S. Long, L.K. Anderton and M.B. Piep (Eds.) (2007) Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelidineae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, xxviii+911 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Baum, B.R. (1995) Triticale Register, an on-line register. Acta Hortic. 413, 163–168.Google Scholar
  4. Baum, B.R., L.G. Bailey, J. Nugent, W.G. Royds and R. Elvidge (1990) The Triticale Cultivars International Register Computer System, a flexible information system suitable for international registration. Taxon 39, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum, B.R., L.G. Bailey and B.K. Thompson (1985) Barley register. Canada Gov. Publ. Centre. Cat. No. A53-1783/1985. Biosystematics Res. Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  6. Baumer, M. and R. Cais (2000) Abstammung der Gerstensorten. Bayer. Landesanst. Bodenkultur u. Pflanzenbau, Freising, 109 pp. Also online under: http://www.lfl.bayern.de/ipz/gerste/09740/linkurl_0_9.pdf
  7. Bioversity (2007) Bioversity Directory of Germplasm Collections, accessed November/December 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Bockelman, H. (1996) Developing a barley core subset in the USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection. In: A. Slinkard, G. Scoles and B. Rossnagel (Eds.), Proc. Vth Internat. Oats Conf. & VIIth Internat. Barley Genetics Sympos., Saskatoon, Canada, p. 154.Google Scholar
  9. Bor, N.L. (1968) Gramineae. In: C.C. Townsend, E. Guest and A. Al-Rawi (Eds.), Flora of Iraq. Vol. 9. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, vi+588 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Börner, A. and A.J. Worland (1995) List of cytogenetic tester stocks – the reply of the questionnaire sent out with the 1991 EWAC-Newsletter. European Wheat Aneuploid Co-operative Newsletter 1995, 180–183.Google Scholar
  11. Bothmer, R. von, N. Jacobsen, C. Baden, R.B. Jørgensen and I. Linde-Laursen (1995) An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum. Systematic and Ecogeographical Studies on Crop Genepools 7. IPGRI, Rome.Google Scholar
  12. Bothmer, R. von, O. Seberg and N. Jacobsen (1992) Genetic resources in the Triticeae. Hereditas 116, 141–150.Google Scholar
  13. Brachyomics (2008) Germplasm [University of Wales, Aberystwyth]. http://www.aber.ac.uk/plantpathol/germplasm.htm. Accessed Jul 2008.
  14. Cadle, M.M., T.D. Murray and S.S. Jones (1997) Identification of resistance to Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides in Triticum monococcum. Plant Dis. 81, 1181–1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ceccarelli, S., C.A. Cenci and E. Piano (1975) Selezione per più caratteri in un programma di miglioramento genetico del Brachypodium pinnatum P. B. Genet. Agrar. 29, 95–110.Google Scholar
  16. Chabane, J.C.K. and J. Valkoun (2004) Characterisation of genetic diversity in ICARDA core collection of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed. 40, 134–136.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, Q., R.H. Zhou, L.H. Li, X.Q. Li, X.M. Yang and Y.S. Dong (1988) First intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum and Psathyrostachys juncea. Kexue Tongbao (Beijing) 33, 2071–2074. (cited after Wei et al. 1997)Google Scholar
  18. CIMMYT (2007) Global Strategy for the ex situ conservation with enhanced access to wheat, rye and triticale genetic resources. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico. http://www.croptrust.org/documents/web/Wheat-Strategy-FINAL-20Sep07.pdf. Accessed Jan 2008.
  19. Cubadda, R. and E. Marconi (1996) Technological and nutritional aspects in emmer and spelt. In: S. Padulosi, K. Hammer and J. Heller (Eds.), Hulled wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 203–211.Google Scholar
  20. Darvey, N.L., G. Oettler and W.H. Pfeiffer (1996) Establishment of a network for genetic resources. In: H. Guedes-Pinto, N. Darvey and V.P. Carnide (Eds.), Triticale: Today and Tomorrow. Developments in Plant Breeding 5. Kluwer, pp. 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dorofeev, V.F., A.A. Filatenko, E.F. Migushova, R.A. Udaczin and M.M. Jakubziner (1979) Wheat. In: V.F. Dorofeev and O.N. Korovina (Eds.), Flora of Cultivated Plants. vol. 1. Leningrad, Russia, Kolos, 346 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. Dosba, F. and G. Dossinault (1973) Resistance to eyespot (Cercosporella herpotrichoides) introduced to bread wheat from Aegilops ventricosa. In: Proc. Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. 4, pp. 409–413.Google Scholar
  23. Draper J., L.A.J. Mur, G. Jenkins, G.C. Ghosh-Biswas, P. Bablak, R. Hasterok and A.P.M. Routledge (2001) Brachypodium distachyon. A new model system for functional genomics in grasses. Plant Physiol. 127, 1539–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. EBDB (2008) European Barley Database of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. IPK Gatersleben, Germany. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  25. Enneking, D. and H. Knüpffer (2001) The European Barley Database. In: H. Knüpffer, R. von Bothmer, M. Ambrose, R. Ellis, A.M. Stanca, D. Enneking, L. Maggioni and E. Lipman (Compilers), Report of a Working Group on Barley, Sixth Meeting, 3 December 2000, Salsomaggiore, Italy. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 50–62.Google Scholar
  26. ETDB (2008) European Triticale Database. Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil Research Station (ACW), Nyon, Switzerland. Accessed Mar 2008.Google Scholar
  27. EURISCO (2008) European Plant Genetic Resources Search Catalogue. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  28. European Secale Database (2008) European Secale Database. IHAR, Radzików, Poland. Accessed Mar 2008.Google Scholar
  29. EWDB (2008) European Wheat Database. Crop Research Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. Accessed Mar 2008.Google Scholar
  30. FAO (1996) Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, prepared for the International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources Leipzig, Germany, 17–23 June 1996. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 81 pp. www.fao.org/AG/AGp/agps/Pgrfa/pdf/swrshr_e.pdf, accessed January 2008.
  31. FAO (1997) The State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 511 pp. Available from: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPS/Pgrfa/pdf/swrfull.pdf. Accessed Jan 2008.
  32. FAO (2007) WIEWS – World Information and Early Warning System. Accessed Nov/Dec 2007.Google Scholar
  33. Garvin, D. (2007) The USDA-ARS NPGS Brachypodium distachyon collection. Available from: http://www.brachypodium.org/files/File/USDA-ARS_Brachypodium_Collection.pdf. Accessed 16 Jul 2008.
  34. Garvin, D.F., Y.-Q. Gu, R. Hasterok, S.P. Hazen, G. Jenkins, T.C. Mockler, L.A.J. Mur and J.P. Vogel (2008) Development of genetic and genomic research resources for Brachypodium distachyon, a new model system for grass crop research. Crop Sci. 48(S1), S69–S84.Google Scholar
  35. Gass, T., W. Podyma, J. Puchalski and S.A. Eberhart, compilers (1998) Challenges in Rye Germplasm Conservation. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  36. GBIF (2008) Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal. Accessed Jul 2008.Google Scholar
  37. GBIS (2008) Genebank Information System of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben, Germany. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  38. GRIN (2008) Genetic Resources Information Network of the USDA. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  39. GRIN Canada (2008) Genetic Resources Information Network of Plant Gene Resources of Canada. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  40. Hammer, K. (1980) Vorarbeiten zur monographischen Darstellung von Wildpflanzensortimenten: Aegilops L. Kulturpflanze 28, 33–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hammer, K., E. Skolimowska and H. Knüpffer (1987) Vorarbeiten zur monographischen Darstellung von Wildpflanzensortimenten: Secale L. Kulturpflanze 35, 135–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanelt, P. (2001) Gramineae (Poaceae). Trib. Triticeae. In: Hanelt, P. and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Eds.), Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. vol. 5. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York etc., pp. 2542–2594.Google Scholar
  43. Hao, C.Y., X.Y. Zhang, L.F. Wang, Y.S. Dong, X.W. Shang and J.Z. Jia (2006) Genetic diversity and core collection evaluations in common wheat germplasm from the Northwestern Spring Wheat Region in China. Mol. Breeding 17, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hasterok, R., J. Draper, and G. Jenkins (2004) Laying the cytotaxonomic foundations of a new model grass, Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Chromosome Res. 12, 397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hintum, Th.J.L. van and F. Menting (2000) Barley genetic resources conservation – now and forever. In: S. Logue (Ed.), Barley Genetics VIII. vol. I, Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, South Australia, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  46. Hintum, Th.J.L. van and F. Menting (2003) Diversity in ex situ genebank collections of barley. In: R. von Bothmer, Th.J.L. van Hintum, H. Knüpffer and K. Sato (Eds.), Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 247–257.Google Scholar
  47. Hodgkin, T., Y.J. Adham and K.S. Powell (1992) A preliminary survey of wild Triticum and Aegilops species in the world’s genebanks. Hereditas 116, 155–162.Google Scholar
  48. Igartua, E., M.P. Gracia, J.M. Lasa, B. Medina, J.L. Molina-Cano, J.L. Montoya and I. Romagosa (1998) The Spanish barley core collection. Genetic Resour. Crop Evol. 45, 475–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. International Brachypodium Initiative (2008) Brachypodium Sequence Resource Gateway. The Brachypodium distachyon Information Resource. Available from: http://www.brachypodium.org/. Accessed 16 Jul 2008.
  50. Kimber, G. and M. Feldman (1987) Wild Wheat. An Introduction. Coll. Agric. Univ. Missouri-Columbia, Spec. Rep. 353.Google Scholar
  51. Kleijer, G. (2007) The Triticale Central Crop Database. In: G. Kleijer, R. Häner and H. Knüpffer (Compilers), Triticale and Rye Genetic Resources in Europe. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  52. Kleijer, G., R. Häner and H. Knüpffer, compilers (2007) Triticale and Rye Genetic Resources in Europe. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, iv+15 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Knüpffer, H. (1988) The European Barley Database of the ECP/GR: An introduction. Kulturpflanze 36, 135–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knüpffer, H. (2008) Barley Working Group, Summary of country reports. In: Maggioni et al. (2008), unpublished.Google Scholar
  55. Knüpffer, H. and Th.J.L. van Hintum (1995) The Barley Core Collection – an international effort. In: T. Hodgkin, A.H.D. Brown, Th.J.L. van Hintum and E.A.V. Morales (Eds.). Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester etc., pp. 171–178.Google Scholar
  56. Knüpffer, H. and Th. van Hintum (2003) Summarised diversity – the Barley Core Collection. In: R. von Bothmer, Th. van Hintum, H. Knüpffer and K. Sato (Eds.). Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kobiljski, B., S. Quarrie, S. Denčić, J. Kirby and M. Ivegeš (2002) Genetic diversity of the Novi Sad wheat core collection revealed by microsatellites. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 7, 685–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Konopka, J. and J. Valkoun (2005) Global database of wheat wild relatives. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed. 41, 251.Google Scholar
  59. Kovács, G., A.F. Bálint and J. Sutka (2002) Activity of the Cereal Genebank and the perspectives of diploid wheat research in Martonvásár. In: W. Świ cicki, B. Naganowska and B. Wolko (Eds.), Broad variation and precise characterization limitation for the future, pp. 45–48.Google Scholar
  60. Lipman, E., L. Maggioni, H. Knüpffer, R. Ellis, J.M. Leggett, G. Kleijer, I. Faberová and A. Le Blanc, compilers (2005) Cereal Genetic Resources in Europe. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, 318 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Löve, Á. (1984) Conspectus of the Triticeae. Feddes Repert. 95, 425–521.Google Scholar
  62. Lundqvist, U. (2007) Overall coordinators report. Barley Genet. Newsl. 37, 153–187.Google Scholar
  63. Lundqvist, U. and M. Huldén (2005) International Barley Genes and Barley Genetic Stocks database. In: E. Lipman; L. Maggioni, H. Knüpffer, R. Ellis, J.M. Leggett, G. Kleijer, I. Faberová and A. Le Blanc (Eds.), Cereal Genetic Resources in Europe. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 128–129.Google Scholar
  64. Maggioni, L., A. Katsiotis, H. Knüpffer and G. Kleijer, compilers (2008) Report of a Cereals Network meeting, Foça, Izmir, Turkey, 21–24 April 2008. Bioversity International, Rome. Unpublished draft. Final version to be published under http://www.ecpgr.cgiar.org/Networks/Cereals/cereals.htm
  65. Malosetti, M., T. Abadie and S. German (2000) Comparing strategies for selecting a core subset for the Uruguayan barley collection. FAO/IPGRI Plant Genet. Resour. Newsl. 121, 20–26.Google Scholar
  66. Mansfeld Database (2008) Mansfeld’s World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Accessed Dec 2007, Jan 2008.Google Scholar
  67. Martín, A., C. Martínez-Araque, D. Rubiales and J. Ballesteros (1996) Tritordeum: triticale’s new brother cereal. In: H. Guedes-Pinto, N. Darvey and V.P. Carnide (Eds.), Triticale: Today and Tomorrow. Developments in Plant Breeding 5. Kluwer, pp. 57–72.Google Scholar
  68. Martynov, S.P., T.V. Dobrotvorskaya, L. Dotlačil, Z. Stehno, I. Faberová and I. Bareš (2003) Genealogical approach to the formation of the winter wheat core collection. Genetika 39, 1091–1098. (also in: Russ. J. Genetics 39, 917–923).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Martynov, S.P., T.V. Dobrotvorskaya, I. Hon and I. Faberová (2006a) Wheat Pedigree and Identified Alleles of Genes On Line. Last updated 8 September 2006.Google Scholar
  70. Martynov, S.P., T.V. Dobrotvorskaya, I. Hon and I. Faberová (2006b) Barley Pedigree Catalogue on Line.Google Scholar
  71. Martynov, S.P., T.V. Dobrotvorskaya, Z. Stehno, L. Dotlačil, I. Faberová and V. Holubec (1992) Genealogies and Gene Alleles Identified in 31000 Cultivars and Lines of Wheat. Res. Inst. Crop Product. Press, Prague.Google Scholar
  72. Maschka, R. (1995) Die Identifizierung von Duplikaten in Genbankkollektionen im Rahmen des Informationssystems Genetischer Ressourcen in Deutschland. Diploma Thesis, Univ. Kassel Gesamthochschule.Google Scholar
  73. Maxted, N., K. White, J. Valkoun, J. Konopka and S. Hargreaves (2008) Towards a conservation strategy for Aegilops species. Plant Genet. Resour. 6, 126–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McNeill, J., F.R. Barrie, H.M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, D.L. Hawksworth, K. Marhold, D.H. Nicolson, J. Prado, P.C. Silva, J E. Skog, J.H. Wiersema and N.J. Turland (2006) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). Regnum Vegetabile 146. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG.Google Scholar
  75. Müntzing, A. (1974) Historical review of the development of triticale. In: R. MacIntyre and M. Campbell (Eds.), Triticale: Proc. Internat. Symposium. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp. 13–30.Google Scholar
  76. Pace, C. de, R. Paolini, G.T. Scarascia Mugnozza, C.O. Qualset and V. Delre (1990) Evaluation and utilization of Dasypyrum villosum as a genetic resource for wheat improvement. In: J.P. Srivastava and A.B. Damania (Eds.), Wheat genetic resources: meeting diverse needs. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (UK), pp. 279–288.Google Scholar
  77. Perrino, P., G. Laghetti, L.F. D’Antuono, M. Al Ajlouni, M. Kanbertay, A.T. Szabó and K. Hammer (1996) Ecogeographical distribution of hulled wheat species. In: S. Padulosi, K. Hammer and J. Heller (Eds.), Hulled wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 101–119.Google Scholar
  78. Plourde, A., G. Fedak, C.A. St-Pierre and A. Comeau (1990) A novel intergeneric hybrid in the Triticeae: Triticum aestivum × Psathyrostachys juncea. Theor. Appl. Genet. 79, 45–48. (cited after Wei et al. 1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Podyma, W. (1998) Rye genetic resources in European genebanks. In: T. Gass, W. Podyma, J. Puchalski and S.A. Eberhart (Compilers), Challenges in Rye Germplasm Conservation. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
  80. Rabinovich, S.V. (1998) Importance of wheat-rye translocations for breeding modern cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. Euphytica 100, 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schubert, V. (2000) Die Sammlung und Charakterisierung pflanzlicher genetischer Ressourcen und ihre Nutzung im Rahmen der Züchtungsforschung bei Weizen. Diss. Botanicae 352. J. Cramer Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin, Stuttgart, 116 pp.Google Scholar
  82. Shamov, D.P. (2000) European Agropyron Database. In: L. Maggioni, P. Marum, N.R. Sackville Hamilton, M. Huldén and E. Lipman (Compilers), Report of a Working Group on Forages, Seventh Meeting, 18–20 November 1999, Elvas, Portugal. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, p. 59.Google Scholar
  83. SINGER (2008) System-wide Information Network for Genetic Resources. Accessed Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  84. Spagnoletti Zeuli, P.L. and C.O. Qualset (1993) Evaluation of five strategies for obtaining a core subset from a large genetic resource collection of durum wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 87, 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Spagnoletti Zeuli, P.L.S. and C.O. Qualset (1995). The durum wheat core collection and the plant breeder. In: T. Hodgkin, A.H.D. Brown, Th.J.L. van Hintum and E.A.V. Morales (Eds.), Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources. John Wiley and Sons, UK, pp. 213–228.Google Scholar
  86. Stehno, Z., I. Faberová, L. Dotlačil, S. Martynov and T. Dobrotvorskaya (2006) Genealogical analysis in the Czech spring wheat collection and its use for the creation of core collection. Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed. 42, 117–125.Google Scholar
  87. Szigat, G., M. Herrmann and H. Rapke (1998) Integration von Bastarden mit der Wildgerste Hordeum bulbosum in den Zuchtprozeß von Wintergerste. Schriften Genet. Ressourcen 8, 267–271.Google Scholar
  88. Tanaka, T. (1976) Tanaka’s Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigohu Publ. Co., Tokyo.Google Scholar
  89. TNC-GRIN (2008) Taxonomic Nomenclature Checker - GRIN [online]. Accessed Jan/Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  90. Tzvelev, N.N. (1976) Zlaki SSSR. Poaceae URSS. Nauka Leningrad. 788 pp. (in Russian)Google Scholar
  91. USDA-ARS (2008) World Economic Plants Report from USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Accessed 20 Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  92. Valkoun, J. (compiler) (2008) Global Strategy for the ex situ conservation and use of barley germplasm. Unpublished draft.Google Scholar
  93. Wei, J.-Z., W.F. Campbell and R.R.-C. Wang (1997) Genetic variability in Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea) assessed by RAPD. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 44, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yahiaoui, S., E. Igartua, M. Moralejo, L. Ramsay, J.L. Molina-Cano, F.J. Ciudad, J.M. Lasa, M.P. Gracia and A.M. Casas (2008) Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys. Theor. Appl. Genet. 11, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zaczyński, M. (2007) The Rye Central Crop Database. In: G. Kleijer, R. Häner and H. Knüpffer (Compilers), Triticale and Rye Genetic Resources in Europe. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy, pp. 2–4.Google Scholar
  96. Zaharieva, M., S. Santoni and J. David (2001) Use of RFLP markers to study genetic diversity and to build a core-collection of the wild wheat relative Ae. geniculata Roth (= Ae. ovata L.). Genet. Sel. Evol. 33(Suppl. 1), S269–S288.Google Scholar
  97. Zeven, A.C. and N.C. Zeven-Hissink (1976) Genealogies of 14000 Wheat Cultivars. Netherlands Cereal Centre, Wageningen; International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre, Mexico.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genebank DepartmentLeibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)D-06466 GaterslebenGermany

Personalised recommendations