Assessment of Perioperative Fluid Balance

  • M. T. Ganter
  • C. K. Hofer
Conference paper


Incorrect fluid therapy in the perioperative period is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality [1]. Multiple factors have to be considered when devising a rational approach to fluid management for patients in the perioperative period. All available information related to patient’s pre-existing diseases, preoperative fluid status, surgical interventions, and intraoperative anesthetic management must be known. To complete the picture, in-depth clinical examination, hemodynamic monitoring and laboratory tests have to be performed (Table 1). Different fluid compartments cannot be measured easily in the clinical setting, except for the intravascular fluid space. Therefore, a patient’s volume status (normo-, hypo-and hypervolemia) is most frequently assessed according to cardiac filling, heart function and end-organ perfusion. Because every individual parameter per se is non-specific, these parameters may best complement each other and the clinical evaluation. For adequate assessment of a patient’s fluid balance, all available data have to be taken into account like the pieces of a puzzle. Furthermore, to optimize fluid status and avoid fluid overload, frequent re-evaluations are required, especially during a ‘fluid trial’, the intravenous administration of a specified amount of fluid over a short period of time.


Pulmonary Artery Catheter Stroke Volume Variation Extravascular Lung Water Pulmonary Artery Occlusion Pressure Cardiac Output Measurement 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. T. Ganter
    • 1
  • C. K. Hofer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AnesthesiologyUniversity HospitalZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineTriemli City HospitalZurichSwitzerland

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