Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

  • Muhammad A.B. Mallik
  • Robert D. Williams


Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and functioning as nematicides and insecticides. Many of the PGPR are fluorescent pseudomonads (Pseudomonas fluorescens), but other bacteria (Bacillus sp., Azotobacter sp., Acetobacter sp., Azospirillum sp.) are known as well. Many of these organisms have been formulated into biofertilizers and are commercially available. However, there is a disconnect between the demonstration of the growth-promoting activity of these organisms in laboratory and field studies versus their use in commercial production. The reason for this is two-fold. First, there have been inconsistent results between experimental studies and practical field applications where the growth-promoting activities of the rhizobacteria are masked by other environmental and management factors. Second, there is a lack of technology transfer and education, thus limiting the farmers’ use of biofertilizers. Here we review the role of rhizobacteria stimulating plant growth and their use as biofertilizers; indicate that the use of biofertilizers may be of more benefit in unproductive and stressful environments; and recommend that commercially available biofertilizers be evaluated in standardized field tests.


Nitrogen Fixation Root Colonization Soil Biol Plant Growth Promote Plant Growth Promote Rhizobacteria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad A.B. Mallik
    • 1
  • Robert D. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research and ExtensionLangston UniversityLangstonOklahoma
  2. 2.USDAUSA

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