Recent Advances in Wheat Allelopathy

  • Hanwen Wu
  • Min An
  • De Li Liu
  • Jim Pratley
  • Deirdre Lemerle


Wheat (Triticum aestivum), as one of the world’s important crops, has been studied in depth for its allelopathic potential in weed management. Research on wheat allelopathy has progressed rapidly from the initial evaluation of allelopathic potential to the identification of allelochemicals and genetic markers associated with wheat allelopathy. Allelopathic activity varied among wheat accessions. Significant varietal differences in the production of allelochemicals were also found. In comparison with weakly allelopathic accessions, strongly allelopathic accessions produced significantly higher amounts of allelochemicals in the shoots or roots of young seedlings, and also exuded larger amounts of allelochemicals into the growth medium. Genetic markers associated with wheat allelopathy and plant cytochrome P450s encoding the biosynthesis of wheat allelochemicals have been identified. Recent advances in metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will greatly assist in the identification of novel allelopathy genes. Ultimately, the allelopathy genes could be manipulated to regulate the biosynthesis of allelochemicals, thereby resulting in better weed suppression via elevated levels of allelopathic potential in commercial wheat cultivars.


Phenolic Acid Wheat Straw Root Exudate Wheat Seedling Hydroxamic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aharoni, A. and Vorst, O. (2001) DNA microarrays for functional plant genomics. Plant Mol. Biol. 48, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hamdi, B., Inderjit, Olofsdotter, M. and Streibig, J. (2001) Laboratory bioassay for phytotoxicity, an example from wheat straw. Agron. J. 93, 43–48.Google Scholar
  3. Alsaadawi, I.S., Zwain, K.H.Y. and Shahata, H.A. (1998) Allelopathic inhibition of growth of rice by wheat residues. Allelopathy. J. 5, 163–169.Google Scholar
  4. Alsaadawi, I.S. (2001) Allelopathy influence of decomposing wheat residues in agroecosystems. J. Crop Prod. 4, 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks, P.A., and Robinson, E.L. (1980) Effect of straw mulch on preemergence herbicides. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 33, 286.Google Scholar
  6. Belz, R. and Hurle, K. (2001) Tracing the source – do allelochemicals in root exudates of wheat correlate with cultivar-specific weed-suppressing ability? Proc. Br. Crop Prot. Conf. – Weeds. 4D-4, 317–320.Google Scholar
  7. Belz, R. and Hurle, K. (2004) A novel laboratory screening bioassay for crop seedling allelopathy. J. Chem. Ecol. 30, 175–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertholdsson, N.O. (2004) Variation in allelopathic activity in spring wheat. In: Proceedings of Second European Allelopathy Symposium – Allelopathy, from understanding to application. Pulawy, Poland, June 4, p. 22.Google Scholar
  9. Bertholdsson, N.O. (2005) Early vigour and allelopathy – two useful traits for enhanced barley and wheat competitiveness with weeds. Weed Res. 45, 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blum, U., Gerig, T.M., Worsham, A.D., Holappa, L.D. and King, L.D. (1992) Allelopathic activity in wheat-conventional and wheat-no-till soils, development of soil extract bioassays. J. Chem. Ecol. 18, 2191–2221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blum, U., King, L.D. and Brownie, C. (2002) Effects of wheat residues on dicotyledonous weed emergence in a simulated no-till system. Allelopathy J. 9, 159–176.Google Scholar
  12. Coja, T., Idinger, J., Blümel, S. (2006) Effects of the benzoxazolinone boa, selected degradation products and structure related pesticides on soil organisms. Ecotoxicology. 15, 61–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Copaja, S.V., Niemeyer, H.M. and Wratten, S.D. (1991) Hydroxamic acid levels in Chilean and British wheat seedlings. Ann. Appl. Biol. 118, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Copaja, S.V., Nicol, D. and Wratten, S.D. (1999) Accumulation of hydroxamic acids during wheat germination. Phytochemistry. 50, 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dilday, R.H., Yan, W.G., Moldenhauer, K.A.K. and Gravois, K.A. (1998) Allelopathic activity in rice for controlling major aquatic weeds. In: M. Olofsdotter (Ed.), Allelopathy in Rice, Los Banos, IRRI, Philippines, pp. 7–26.Google Scholar
  16. Dong, L.Y., Wang, M.H., Wu, S.W. and Shen, J.L. (2005) Isolation and identification of allelochemicals from wheat and allelopathy on Leptochloa chinensis in direct-seeding rice field. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 19, 551–555.Google Scholar
  17. Duke, S.O., Scheffler, B.E., Dayan, F.E. and Ota, E. (2001) Strategies for using transgenes to produce allelopathic crops. Weed Tech. 15, 826–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ebana, K., Yan, W.G., Dilday, R.H., Namai, H. and Okuno, K. (2001) Analysis of QTL associated with the allelopathic effect of rice using water-soluble extracts. Breeding Sci. 51, 47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fay, P.K. and Duke, W.B. (1977) An assessment of allelopathic potential in Avena germplasm. Weed Sci. 25, 224–228.Google Scholar
  20. Fomsgaard, I.S., Mortensen, A.G. and Carlsen, S.C.K. (2004) Microbial transformation products of benzoxazinone and benzoxazinone allelochemicals – a review. Chemosphere. 54, 1025–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Forkmann, G. and Martens, S. (2001) Metabolic engineering and applications of flavonoids. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 12, 155–160.Google Scholar
  22. Frey, M., Chomet, P., Glawischnig, E., Stettner, C., Grün, S., Winklmair, A., Eisenreich, W., Bacher, A., Meeley, R.B., Briggs, S.P., Simcox, K. and Gierl, A. (1997) Analysis of a chemical plant defense mechanism in grasses. Science. 277, 696–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frey, M., Huber, K., Park, W.J., Sicker, D., Lindberg, P., Meeley, R.B., Simmons, C.R., Yalpani, N. and Gierl, A. (2003) A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase is integrated in DIMBOA-biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 62, 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaspar, E.M. and Neves, H.C. (1993) Steroidal constituent from mature wheat straw. Phytochemistry. 34, 523–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaspar, E.M. and Neves, H.C. (1995) Chemical constituents in allelopathic straw of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Allelopathy. J. 2, 79–87.Google Scholar
  26. Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L. and Fernandez-Quintanilla, C. (2004) Modelling the population dynamics of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) under various weed management systems. Crop Prot. 23, 723–729.Google Scholar
  27. Goodacre, R., Vaidyanathan, S., Dunn, W.B., Harrigan, G.G. and Kell, D.B. (2004) Metabolomics by numbers, acquiring and understanding global metabolite data. Trends Biotech. 22, 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guenzi, W.D., McCalla, T.M. and Norstadt, F.A. (1967) Presence and persistence of phytotoxic substances in wheat, oat, corn and sorghum residues. Agron. J. 59, 163–165.Google Scholar
  29. Haig, T. (2001) Application of hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques to plant allelopathy research. J. Chem. Ecol. 27, 2363–2396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hairston, J.E., Sanford, J.O., Pope, D.F. and Horneck, D.A. (1987) Soybean-wheat doublecropping, implications from straw management and supplemental nitrogen. Agron. J. 79, 281–286.Google Scholar
  31. Hashem, A. and Adkins, S.W. (1998) Allelopathic effects of Triticum speltoides on two important weeds of wheat. Plant Prot. Quart. 13, 33–35.Google Scholar
  32. Huang, Z., Haig, T., Wu, H., An, M. and Pratley, J. (2003) Correlation between phytotoxicity on annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and production dynamics of allelochemicals within root exudates of an allelopathic wheat. J. Chem. Ecol. 29, 2263–2279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jensen, B.L., Courtois, B., Shen, L.S., Li, Z.K., Olofsdotter, M. and Mauleon, R.P. (2001) Locating genes controlling allelopathic effects against barnyardgrass in upland rice. Agron. J. 93, 21–26.Google Scholar
  34. Jia, C.H., Kudsk, P. and Mathiassen, S.K. (2006) Joint action of benzoxazinone derivatives and phenolic acids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 1049–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lemerle, D., Verbeek, B., Cousens, R.D. and Coombes, N.E. (1996) The potential for selecting spring wheat varieties strongly competitive against weeds. Weed Res. 36, 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li, X.J., Wang, G.Q., Li, B.H. and Blackshaw, R.E. (2005) Allelopathic effects of winter wheat residues on germination and growth of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) and corn yield. Allelopathy J. 15, 41–48.Google Scholar
  37. Liebl, R.A. and Worsham, A.D. (1983) Inhibition of pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.) and certain other weed species by phytotoxic components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw. J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 1027–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lodhi, M.A.K., Bilal, R. and Malik, K.A. (1987) Allelopathy in agroecosystems, wheat phytotoxicity and its possible roles in crop rotation. J. Chem. Ecol. 13, 1881–1891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lovett, J.V., Hoult, A.H.C. and Christen, O. (1994) Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley. IV. Hordenine production by different barley lines. J. Chem. Ecol. 20, 1945–1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lynch, J.M. (1977) Phytotoxicity of acetic acid produced in the anaerobic decomposition of wheat straw. J. Appl. Bact. 42, 81–87.Google Scholar
  41. Lynch, J.M. (1978) Production and phytotoxicity of acetic acid in anaerobic soils containing plant residues. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 131–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lynch, J.M., Gunn, K.B. and Panting, L.M. (1980) On the concentration of acetic acid in straw and soil. Plant Soil. 56, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Macias, F.A., Castellano, D. and Molinillo, J.M.G. (2000) Search for a standard bioassay for allelochemicals. Selection of standard target species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 2512–2521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Macías, F.A., Oliveros-Bastidas, A., Marín, D., Castellano, D., Simonet, A.M., Molinillo, J.M.G. (2005) Degradation studies on benzoxazinoids, soil degradation of (2R)-2-O-, -D-Glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-(2 H)-1, 4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one (DIBOA-Glc) and its degradation products, phytotoxic allelochemicals from gramineae. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 554–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mathiassen, S.K., Kudsk, P. and Mogensen, B.B. (2006) Herbicidal effects of soil-incorporated wheat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 1058–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mattice, J.D., Dilday, R.H. and Skulman, B.W. (1999) Using HPLC to predict which accessions of rice will inhibit growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Book of Abstracts,Second World Congress on AllelopathyCritical Analysis and Future Prospects, August 8–13, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada, p. 133.Google Scholar
  47. Nakagawa, E., Amano, T., Hirai, N. and Iwamura, H. (1995) Non-induced cyclic hydroxamic acids in wheat during juvenile stage of growth. Phytochemistry. 38, 1349–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nakano, H., Morita, S., Shigemori, H. and Hasegawa, K. (2006) Plant growth inhibitory compounds from aqueous leachate of wheat straw. Plant Growth Regul. 48, 215–219.Google Scholar
  49. Narwal, S.S., Sarmah, M.K. and Nandal, D.P. (1997) Allelopathic effects of wheat residues on growth and yield of fodder crops. Allelopathy J. 4, 111–120.Google Scholar
  50. Neves, H.C. and Gaspar, E.M. (1990) Identification of active compounds in wheat straw extracts with allelopathic activity by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FTIR. J. High Resol. Chrom. 13, 550–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nicol, D., Copaja, S.V., Wratten, S.D. and Niemeyer, H.M. (1992) A screen of worldwide wheat cultivars for hydroxamic acid levels and aphid antixenosis. Ann. Appl. Biol. 121, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Niemeyer, H.M. (1988) Hydroxamic acid content of Triticum species. Euphytica 37, 289–293.Google Scholar
  53. Niemeyer, H.M. and Jerez, J.M. (1997) Chromosomal location of genes for hydroxamic acid accumulation in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) using wheat aneuploids and wheat substitution lines. Heredity. 79, 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nimbal, C.I., Pederson, J., Yerkes, C.N., Weston, L.A. and Weller, S.C. (1996) Phytotoxicity and distribution of sorgoleone in grain sorghum germplasm. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 1343–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nomura, T., Ishihara, A., Imaishi, H., Endo, T.R., Ohkawa, H. and Iwamura, H. (2002) Molecular characterization and chromosomal localization of cytochrome P450 genes involved in the biosynthesis of cyclic hydroxamic acids in hexaploid wheat. Mol. Genet. Genom. 267, 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nomura, T., Ishihara, A., Imaishi, H., Ohkawa, H., Endo, T.R. and Iwamura, H. (2003) Rearrangement of the genes for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinones in the evolution of Triticeae species, Planta. 217, 776–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ohlrogge, J. and Benning, C. (2000) Unraveling plant metabolism by EST analysis. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 224–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Olofsdotter, M., Navarez, D.C. and Moody, K. (1995) Allelopathic potential in rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm. Ann. Appl. Biol. 127, 543–560.Google Scholar
  59. Olofsdotter, M., Jensen, L.B. and Courtois, B. (2002a) Improving crop competitive ability using allelopathy – an example from rice. Plant Breed. 121, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Olofsdotter, M., Rebulanan, M., Madrid, A., Wang, D.L., Navarez, D. and Olk, D.C. (2002b) Why phenolic acids are unlikely primary allelochemicals in rice. J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Opoku, G., Vyn, T.J. and Voroneym R.P. (1997) Wheat straw placement effects on total phenolic compounds in soil and corn seedling growth. Can. J. Plant Sci. 77, 301–305.Google Scholar
  62. Panchuk, M.A. and Prutenskayam N.I. (1973) On the problem of the presence of allelopathic properties in wheat-wheat grass hybrids and their initial forms. In: A.M. Grodzinsky (Ed.), Physiological-Biochemical Basis of Plant Interactions in Phytocenoces. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp. 44–47.Google Scholar
  63. Perez, F.J. (1990) Allelopathic effect of hydroxamic acids from cereals on Avena sativa and A. fatua. Phytochemistry. 29, 773–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Putnam, A.R. and Defrank, J. (1983) Use of phytotoxic plant residues for selective weed control. Crop Prot. 2, 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rad, U., Hüttl, R., Lottspeich, F., Gierl, A. and Frey, M. (2001) Two glucosyltransferases are involved in detoxification of benzoxazinoids in maize. Plant J. 28, 633–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Romeo, J.T., and Weidenhamer, J.D. (1999) Bioassays for allelopathy in terrestrial plants. In: K.F. Haynes and J.G. Millar (Eds.), Methods in Chemical Ecology. Vol. 2. Bioassay Methods. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Norvell, MA, pp. 179–211.Google Scholar
  67. Salomonsson, A.C., Theander, O. and Aman, P. (1978) Quantitative determination by GLC of phenolic acids as ethyl derivatives in cereal straw. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 830–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schulz, M., Friebe, A., Kuck, P., Seipel, M. and Schnabl, H. (1994) Allelopathic effects of living Quackgrass (Agropyron repens L.). Identification of inhibitory allelochemicals exuded from rhizome borne roots. Angewandte Botanik. 68, 195–200.Google Scholar
  69. Shilling, D.G., Liebl, R.A. and Worsham, A.D. (1985) Rye (Secale cereale L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mulch, the suppression of certain broadleaved weeds and the isolation and identification of phytotoxins. In: A.R. Putnam and C.S. Tang (Eds.), The Science of Allelopathy. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA, pp. 243–271.Google Scholar
  70. Spruell, J.A. (1984) Allelopathic potential of wheat accessions. Diss. Abst. Int., B Sci. and Eng. 45, 1102B.Google Scholar
  71. Steinsiek, J.W., Oliver, L.R. and Collins, F.C. (1982) Allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw on selected weed species. Weed Sci. 30, 495–497.Google Scholar
  72. Tang, C.S. and Waiss, A.C. (1978) Short-chain fatty acids as growth inhibitors in decomposing wheat straw. J. Chem. Ecol. 4, 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thilsted, E. and Murray, D.S. (1980) Effect of wheat straw on weed control in no-tillage soybeans. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 33, 42.Google Scholar
  74. Villagrasa, M., Guillamón, M., Labandeira, A., Taberner, A., Eljarrat, E. and Barceló, D. (2006) Benzoxazinoid allelochemicals in wheat, distribution among foliage, roots, and seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 1009–1015.Google Scholar
  75. Wallace, J.M. and Whitehand, L.C. (1980) Adverse synergistic effects between acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the growth of wheat seedling roots. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 445–446.Google Scholar
  76. Weckwerth, W. (2003) Metabolomics in systems biology. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54, 669–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weston, L.A. 1990. Cover crop and herbicide influence on row crop seedling establishment in no-tillage culture. Weed Sci. 38, 166–171.Google Scholar
  78. Worsham, A.D. (1984) Crop residues kill weeds. Allelopathy at work with wheat and rye. Crops and Soils Mag. 37, 18–20.Google Scholar
  79. Wu, H., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and Haig, T. (1999a) Crop cultivars with allelopathic capability. Weed Res. 39, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (1999b) Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one by GC/MS/MS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Chrom. A. 864, 315–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wu, H., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and Haig, T. (2000a) Laboratory screening for allelopathic potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). Austr. J. Agric. Res. 51, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wu, H., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and Haig, T. (2000b) Evaluation of seedling allelopathy in 453 wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions by Equal-Compartment-Agar-Method. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 51, 937–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2000c) Distribution and exudation of allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 2141–2154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2000d) Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Variation of phenolic acids in root tissues. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 5321–5325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2001a) Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variation of phenolic acids in shoot tissues. J. Chem. Ecol. 27, 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2001b) Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Production and exudation of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one. J. Chem. Ecol. 27, 1691–1700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2001c) Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cultivar difference in the exudation of phenolic acids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 3742–3745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu, H., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and Haig, T. (2001d) Allelopathy in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Ann. Appl. Biol. 139, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2001e) Screening methods for the evaluation of crop allelopathic potential. Bot. Rev. 67, 403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu, H., Haig, T., Pratley, J., Lemerle, D. and An, M. (2002) Chemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the suppression of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 4567–4571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wu, H., Pratley, J. and Haig, T. (2003a) Phytotoxic effects of wheat extracts on a herbicide-resistant biotype of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 4610–4616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wu, H., Pratley, J., Ma, W. and Haig, T. (2003b) Quantitative trait loci and molecular markers associated with wheat allelopathy. Theor. Appl. Genet. 107, 1477–1481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zuniga, G.E., Copaja, S.V., Bravo, H.R. and Argandona, V.H. (1990) Hydroxamic acids accumulation by wheat callus. Phytochemistry. 29, 2139–2141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zuo, S.P., Ma, Y.Q., Inanaga, S. and Li, X.W. (2005a) Allelopathic effect of wheat stubbles with different genotypes on weed suppression. Acta Phytophyl. Sin. 32, 195–200.Google Scholar
  95. Zuo, S.P., Ma, Y.Q., Deng, X.P. and Li, X.W. (2005b) Allelopathy in wheat genotypes during the germination and seedling stages. Allelopathy J. 15, 21–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanwen Wu
    • 1
  • Min An
    • 2
  • De Li Liu
    • 1
  • Jim Pratley
    • 2
  • Deirdre Lemerle
    • 1
  1. 1.E.H. Graham Center for Agricultural InnovationWagga Wagga Agricultural InstituteWagga WaggaAustralia
  2. 2.E.H. Graham Center for Agricultural Innovation (a collaborative alliance between Charles Sturt University and NSW Department of Primary Industries)Wagga WaggaAustralia

Personalised recommendations