Advertisement

Anthocyanins pp 108-167 | Cite as

Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Plant Cell Cultures: A Potential Source of Natural Colourants

  • Simon Deroles
Chapter

Abstract

Increasing concern over the use of artificial food colourants has resulted in a steady increase in demand for anthocyanins as a natural alternative. Anthocyanins offer a range of colours from red to blue as well as orange. In addition they offer the added benefit of therapeutic and medicinal properties such as: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and chemoprotectant activities. Anthocyanins have been implicated lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Anthocyanins are present in may plant tissues and there is much research on finding new sources for the production of natural colourants. Currently most anthocyanins colourants are isolated from grape skins, as well as red cabbage, black carrots and sweet potato. Over the last 30 years researchers have also explored the idea of generating plant cell cultures for the production of natural colourants. This offers the advantages of consistent supply and quality as well as the opportunity to control the type of pigment produced. In spite of the amount of interest in this field no commercially viable system has been developed. This review describes current progress on the development of cell cultures within individual plant species for the production of anthocyanins. It details the processes that enhance anthocyanin production as well as factors that place limits on final yield. Finally it also offers ideas on techniques to overcome the production barriers leading to commercial viability.

Keywords

Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Anthocyanin Content Plant Cell Culture Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Anthocyanin Accumulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Afifi, M., El-Kereamy, A., Legrand, V., Chervin, C., Monje, M.C., Nepveu, F. and Roustan, J.P. (2003) Control of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway gene expression by eutypine, a toxin from Eutypa lata, in grape cell tissue cultures. J. Plant Physiol. 160, 971–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akashi, T., Saito, N., Hirota, H. and Ayabe, S.I. (1997) Anthocyanin-producing dandelion callus as a chalcone synthase source in recombinant polyketide reductase assay. Phytochemistry 46, 283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alami, I. and Clerivet, A. (2000) Cyanidin 3-glucoside accumulation in plane tree (Platanus acerifolia) cell-suspension cultures. Biotech. Lett. 22, 87–89.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, O.M. and Jordhein, M. (2006) The anthocyanins. In: O.M. Andersen and K.R. Markham (Eds.). Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. London, CRC Press: 471–552.Google Scholar
  5. Asada, Y., Sakamoto, K. and Furuya, T. (1994) A minor anthocyanin from cultured cells of Aralia cordata. Phytochemistry 35, 1471–1473.Google Scholar
  6. Asano, S., Ohtsubo, S., Nakajima, M., Kusunoki, M., Kaneko, K., Katayama, H. and Nawa, Y. (2002) Production of anthocyanins by habituated cultured cells of Nyoho strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Food Sci. Tech. Res. 8, 64–69.Google Scholar
  7. Aumont, V., Larronde, F., Richard, T., Budzinski, H., Decendit, A., Deffieux, G., Krisa, S. and Mérillon, J.M. (2004) Production of highly 13C-labeled polyphenols in Vitis vinifera cell bioreactor cultures. J. Biotech. 109, 287–294.Google Scholar
  8. Bailly, C., Cormier, F. and Do, C.B. (1997) Characterization and activities of S-adenosyl-l-methionine:cyanidin 3-giucoside 3’-O-methyltransferase in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures. Plant Sci. 122, 81–89.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, D.C., Dougall, D.K., Gläβgen, W.E., Johnson, S.C., Metzger, J.W., Rose, A. and Seitz, H.U. (1994) Effects of supplied cinnamic acids and biosynthetic intermediates on the anthocyanins accumulated by wild carrot suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 39, 79–91.Google Scholar
  10. Basu, P. and Chand, S. (1996) Anthocyanin accumulation in Hyoscyamus muticus L. tissue cultures. J. Biotech. 52, 151–159.Google Scholar
  11. Blando, F., Gerardi, C. and Nicoletti, I. (2004) Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) anthocyanins as ingredients for functional foods. J. Biomed. Biotech. 2004, 253–258.Google Scholar
  12. Blando, F., Scardino, A.P., De Bellis, L., Nicoletti, I. and Giovinazzo, G. (2005) Characterization of in vitro anthocyanin-producing sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) callus cultures. Food Res. Int. 38, 937–942.Google Scholar
  13. Bridle, P. and Timberlake, C.F. (1996) Anthocyanins as natural food colourants – selected aspects. Food Chem. 58, 103–109.Google Scholar
  14. Calderon, A.A., Pedreno, M.A., Munoz, R. and Ros Barcelo, A. (1993) Evidence for non-vacuolar localization of anthocyanoplasts (anthocyanin-containing vesicles) in suspension cultured grapevine cells. Phyton 54, 91–98.Google Scholar
  15. Callebaut, A., Decleire, M. and Vandermeiren, K. (1993). I Ajuga repens (Bugle): in vitro production of anthocyanins. In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (Ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 24: 1–22.Google Scholar
  16. Callebaut, A., Hendrickx, G., Voets, A.M. and Motte, J.C. (1990a) Anthocyanins in cell cultures of Ajuga reptans. Phytochemistry 29, 2153–2158.Google Scholar
  17. Callebaut, A., Hendrickx, G., Voets, A.M. and Perwez, C. (1988) Production of anthocyanins by cell cultures of Ajuga reptans. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent 53, 1713–1715.Google Scholar
  18. Callebaut, A., Terahara, N., De Haan, M. and Decleire, M. (1997) Stability of anthocyanin composition in Ajuga reptans callus and cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 50, 195–201.Google Scholar
  19. Callebaut, A., Terahara, N. and Decleire, M. (1996) Anthocyanin acyltransferases in cell cultures of Ajuga reptans. Plant Sci. 118, 109–118.Google Scholar
  20. Callebaut, A., Voets, A.M. and Motte, J.C. (1990b) Anthocyanin production by plant cell cultures on media based on milk whey. Biotech. Lett. 12, 215–218.Google Scholar
  21. Ceoldo, S., Levi, M., Marconi, A.M., Baldan, G., Giarola, M. and Guzzo, F. (2005) Image analysis and in vivo imaging as tools for investigation of productivity dynamics in anthocyanin-producing cell cultures of Daucus carota. New Phytologist 166, 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi, M. and Park, Y. (1997) Selection of a high anthocyanin-producing cell line from callus cultures of hybrid poplar (Populus alba L. × P. glandulosa Uyeki). Forest Gen. 4, 253–257.Google Scholar
  23. Colijn, C.M., Jonsson, L.M.V., Schram, A.W. and Kool, A.J. (1981) Synthesis of malvidin and petunidin in pigmented tissue cultures of Petunia hybrida. Protoplasma 107, 63–68.Google Scholar
  24. Comey, N., Hook, I. and Sheridan, H. (1992) Enhancement of anthocyanin production in cell cultures and hairy roots of Leontopodium alpinum. Planta Medica 58(7 SUPPL.).Google Scholar
  25. Conn, S., Zhang, W. and Franco, C. (2003) Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) selectively bind acylated anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera L. (grapevine) suspension culture. Biotech. Lett. 25, 835–839.Google Scholar
  26. Cormier, F., Couture, R., Do, C.B., Pham, T.Q. and Tong, V.H. (1997) Properties of anthocyanins from grape cell culture. J. Food Sci. 62, 246–248.Google Scholar
  27. Cormier, F., Crevier, H.A. and Do, C.B. (1990) Effects of sucrose concentration on the accumulation of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera) cell suspension. Canadian J. Bot. 68, 1822–1825.Google Scholar
  28. Cormier, F., Do, C.B. and Moresoli, C. (1992) Anthocyanin release from grape (Vitis vinefera L.) cell suspension. Biotech. Lett. 14, 1029–1034.Google Scholar
  29. Cormier, F., Do, C.B. and Nicolas, Y. (1994) Anthocyanin production in selected cell lines of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 30, 171–173.Google Scholar
  30. Crouch, N.R., Staden, L.F.v., Staden, J.v., Drewes, F.E., Drewes, S.E. and Meyer, H.J. (1993) Accumulation of cyanidin-3-glucoside in callus and cell cultures of Oxalis reclinata. J. Plant Physiol. 142, 109–111.Google Scholar
  31. Curtin, C., Zhang, W. and Franco, C. (2003) Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation. Biotech. Lett. 25, 1131–1135.Google Scholar
  32. Davies, K.M. (Ed.) (2004) Plant pigments and their manipulation. Annual Plant Reviews. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  33. Davies, K.M. and Schwinn, K.E. (2006) Molecullar biology and biotechnology of flavonoid biosynthesis. In: O.M. Andersen and K.R. Markham (Eds.) Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. London, CRC Press: 143–218.Google Scholar
  34. Davies, M.E. (1972) Polyphenol synthesis in cell suspension cultures of Paul’s Scarlet rose. Planta 104, 50–65.Google Scholar
  35. Decendit, A. and Mérillon, J.M. (1996) Condensed tannin and anthocyanin production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Rep. 15, 762–765.Google Scholar
  36. Decendit, A., Ramawat, K.G., Waffo, P., Deffieux, G., Badoc, A. and Mérillon, J.M. (1996) Anthocyanins, catechins, condensed tannins and piceid production in Vitis vinifera cell bioreactor cultures. Biotech. Lett. 18, 659–662.Google Scholar
  37. Dedaldechamp, F. and Uhel, C. (1999) Induction of anthocyanin synthesis in nonpigmented grape cell suspensions by acting on DFR substrate availability or precursors level. Enz. Microb. Tech. 25, 316–321.Google Scholar
  38. Dedaldechamp, F., Uhel, C. and Macheix, J.J. (1995) Enhancement of anthocyanin synthesis and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) activity in response to phosphate deprivation in grape cell suspensions. Phytochemistry 40, 1357–1360.Google Scholar
  39. Delgado-Vargas, F., Jimenez, A.R. and Paredes-Lopez, O. (2000) Natural pigments: Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains - characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nut. 40, 173–289.Google Scholar
  40. Deroles, S., Smith, M.A.L. and Lee, C. (2002) Factors affecting transformation of cell cultures from three dicotyledonous pigment-producing species using microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 70, 69–76.Google Scholar
  41. Do, C.B. and Cormier, F. (1990) Accumulation of anthocyanins enhanced by a high osmotic potential in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cell suspensions. Plant Cell Rep. 9, 143–146.Google Scholar
  42. Do, C.B. and Cormier, F. (1991a) Accumulation of peonidin 3-glucoside enhanced by osmotic stress in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cell suspension. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 24, 49–54.Google Scholar
  43. Do, C.B. and Cormier, F. (1991b) Effects of low nitrate and high sugar concentrations on anthocyanin content and composition of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cell suspension. Plant Cell Rep. 9, 500–504.Google Scholar
  44. Do, C.B. and Cormier, F. (1991c) Effects of high ammonium concentrations on growth and anthocyanin formation in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cell suspension cultured in a production medium. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 27, 169–174.Google Scholar
  45. Do, C.B., Cormier, F. and Nicolas, Y. (1995) Isolation and characterization of a UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase from grape cell suspension cultures (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant Sci. 112, 43–51.Google Scholar
  46. Dougall, D.K. (1989) Sinapic acid stimulator of anthocyanin accumulation in carrot cell cultures. Plant Sci. 60, 259–262.Google Scholar
  47. Dougall, D.K., Baker, D.C., Gakh, E.G., Redus, M.A. and Whittemore, N.A. (1998) Studies on the stability and conformation of monoacylated anthocyanins part 2 – Anthocyanins from wild carrot suspension cultures acylated with supplied carboxylic acids. Carbohydrate Res. 310, 177–189.Google Scholar
  48. Dougall, D.K. and Frazier, G.C. (1989) Nutrient utilization during biomass and anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of wild carrot cells. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 18, 95–104.Google Scholar
  49. Downham, A. and Collins, P. (2000) Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 35, 5–22.Google Scholar
  50. Durzan, D.J., Hansen, K. and Peng, C. (1991) Anthocyanin production in cell suspension cultures of Prunus cerasus cv. Vladimir. Adv. Hort. Sci. 5, 3–10.Google Scholar
  51. Edahiro, J. and Seki, M. (2006) Phenylpropanoid metabolite supports cell aggregate formation in strawberry cell suspension culture. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 102, 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Edahiro, J., Yamada, M., Seike, S., Kakigi, Y., Miyanaga, K., Nakamura, M., Kanamori, T. and Seki, M. (2005b) Separation of cultured strawberry cells producing anthocyanins in aqueous two-phase system. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100, 449–454.Google Scholar
  53. Edahiro, J.I., Nakamura, M., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (2005a) Enhanced accumulation of anthocyanin in cultured strawberry cells by repetitive feeding of L-phenylalanine into the medium. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 99, 43–47.Google Scholar
  54. Endress, R. (1994) Plant cells as producers of secondary compounds. In: R. Endress (Ed.) Plant Cell Biotechnology. Berlin, Springer-Verlag: 121–255.Google Scholar
  55. Fang, Y., Smith, M.A.L. and Pépin, M.F. (1998) Benzyl adenine restores anthocyanin pigmentation in suspension cultures of wild Vaccinium pahalae. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 54, 113–122.Google Scholar
  56. Fang, Y., Smith, M.A.L. and Pépin, M.F. (1999) Effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate in elicited anthocyanin-producing cell cultures of ohelo (Vaccinium pahalae). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 35, 106–113.Google Scholar
  57. Francis, F.J. (1989) Food colourants: Anthocyanins. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nut. 28, 273–314.Google Scholar
  58. Frankel, E.N., Kanner, J., German, J.B., Parks, E. and Kinsella, J.E. (1993) Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341, 454–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Frankel, E.N., Waterhouse, A.L. and Teissedre, P.L. (1995) Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Ag. Food Chem. 43, 890–894.Google Scholar
  60. Gläβgen, W.E., Rose, A., Madlung, J., Koch, W., Gleitz, J. and Seitz, H.U. (1998) Regulation of enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot cell cultures in response to treatment with ultraviolet light and fungal elicitors. Planta 204, 490–498.Google Scholar
  61. Gläβgen, W.E., Seitz, H.U. and Metzger, J.W. (1992b) High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of anthocyanins from plant tissues and cell cultures of Daucus carota L. Biol. Mass Spec. 21, 271–277.Google Scholar
  62. Gläβgen, W.E., Wray, V., Strack, D., Metzger, J.W. and Seitz, H.U. (1992a) Anthocyanins from cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota. Phytochemistry 31, 1593–1601.Google Scholar
  63. Gleitz, J., Schnitzler, J.P., Steimle, D. and Seitz, H.U. (1991) Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor. Planta 184, 362–367.Google Scholar
  64. Gleitz, J. and Seitz, H.U. (1989) Induction of chalcone synthase in cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L. spp. sativus) by ultraviolet light: evidence for two different forms of chalcone synthase. Planta 179, 323–330.Google Scholar
  65. Godoy-Hernandez, G. and Loyola-Vargas, V.M. (1997) Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on secondary metabolism of Catharanthus roseus tumor suspension cultures. Plant Cell Rep. 16, 287–290.Google Scholar
  66. Gould, K.S. and Lister, C. (2006). Flavonoid functions in plants. In: O.M. Andersen and K.R. Markham (Eds.) Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. London, CRC Press: 397–442.Google Scholar
  67. Gronbaek, M., Deis, A., Sorensen, T., Becker, U., Schnor, P. and Jensen, G. (1995) Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits. British Med. J. 310, 1165–1169.Google Scholar
  68. Grotewold, E., Chamberlin, M., Snook, M., Siame, B., Butler, L., Swenson, J., Maddock, S., St. Clair, G. and Bowen, B. (1998) Engineering secondary metabolism in maize cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors. Plant Cell 10, 721–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Grusak, M.A., Rogers, R.B., Yousef, G.G., Erdman Jr, J.W. and Lila, M.A. (2004) An enclosed-chamber labeling system for the safe 14C-enrichment of phytochemicals in plant cell suspension cultures. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 40, 80–85.Google Scholar
  70. Guardiola, J., Iborra, J.L. and Canovas, M. (1995) A model that links growth and secondary metabolite production in plant cell suspension cultures. Biotech. Bioeng. 46, 291–297.Google Scholar
  71. Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Poortinga, A.M., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., van der Plas, L.H.W. and van Walraven, H.S. (1991b) Effect of elicitors on the plasmamembrane of Petunia hybrida cell suspensions. Plant Physiol. 96, 1261–1267.Google Scholar
  72. Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Wagner, A.M., Segers, G., van der Plas, L.H.W., Oostdam, A. and van Walraven, H.S. (1994) Cytoplasmic acidifcation and secondary metabolite production in different plant cell suspensions. Plant Physiol. 106, 723–7330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hagendoorn, M.J.M., Zethof, J.L.M., Hunnik, E.v. and Plas, L.H.W.v.d. (1991a) Regulation of anthocyanin and lignin synthesis in Petunia hybrida cell suspensions. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 27, 141–147.Google Scholar
  74. Hall, R.D. and Yeoman, M.M. (1982) Anthocyanin production in cell cultures of Catharanthus roseus. In: A. Fujiwara (Ed.) Plant Tissue Culture 1982, Tokyo, Japanese Association for Plant Tissue Culture: 281–282.Google Scholar
  75. Hall, R.D. and Yeoman, M.M. (1986a) Factors determining anthocyanin yield in cell cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.)G. Don. New Phytologist 103, 33–43.Google Scholar
  76. Hall, R.D. and Yeoman, M.M. (1986b) Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the accumulation of anthocyanins in cell cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. J. Exp. Bot. 37, 48–60.Google Scholar
  77. Harborne, J.B., Mayer, A.M. and Bar-Nun, N. (1983) Identification of the major anthocyanin of carrot cells in tissue culture as cyanidin 3-(sinapoylxylosylglucosylgalactoside). Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 1055–1056.Google Scholar
  78. Heinzmann, U. and Seitz, U. (1977) Synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in anthocyanin-containing and anthocyanin-free callus cells of Daucus carota L. Planta 135, 63–67.Google Scholar
  79. Hemingson, J.C. and Collins, R.P. (1982) Anthocyanins present in cell cultures of Daucus carota. J. Nat. Prod. 45, 385–389.Google Scholar
  80. Hinderer, W., Petersen, M. and Seitz, H.U. (1984) Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid in cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 160, 544–549.Google Scholar
  81. Hirasuna, T.J., Shuler, M.L., Lackney, V.K. and Spanswick, R.M. (1991) Enhanced anthocyanin production in grape cell cultures. Plant Sci. 78, 107–120.Google Scholar
  82. Hirner, A.A., Veit, S. and Seitz, H.U. (2001) Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in UV-A-irradiated cell cultures of carrot and in organs of intact carrot plants. Plant Sci. 161, 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hiroaka, N., Kodama, T. and Tomita, K. (1986) Selection of Bulpeurum falcatum callus line producing anthocyanins in darkness. J. Nat. Prod. 49, 470–474.Google Scholar
  84. Hirose, M., Yamakawa, T., Kodama, T. and Komamine, A. (1990) Accumulation of betacyanin in Phytolacca americana cells and of anthocyanin in Vitis sp. cells in relation to cell division in suspension cultures. Plant Cell Physiol. 31, 267–271.Google Scholar
  85. Honda, H., Hiraoka, K., Nagamori, E., Omote, M., Kato, Y., Hiraoka, S., Kobiyashi, T. (2002) Enhanced anthocyanin production from grape callus in an air-lift type bioreactor using a viscous additive-supplemented medium. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 94, 135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hong, Y.C., Read, P.E., Harlander, S.K. and Labuza, T.P. (1989) Development of a tissue culture system from immature strawberry fruits. J. Food Sci. 54, 388–392.Google Scholar
  87. Hook, I. (1994) Secondary metabolites in hairy root cultures of Leontopodium alpinum Cass. (edelweiss). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 38, 321–326.Google Scholar
  88. Hopp, W. and Seitz, H.U. (1987) The uptake of acylated anthocyanin into isolated vacuoles from a cell suspension culture of Daucus carota. Planta 170, 74–85.Google Scholar
  89. How, F. and Smith, M.A. (2003) Effect of light/dark cycling on growth and anthocyanin production of Ajuga reptans in callus culture. J. Ag. Res. China 52, 291–296.Google Scholar
  90. Iborra, J.L., Guardiola, J., Montaner, S., Canovas, M. and Manjon, A. (1994) Enhanced accumulation of anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cells immobilized in polyurethane foam. Enz. Microb. Tech. 16, 416–419.Google Scholar
  91. Ilan, A. and Dougall, D.K. (1992) The effect of growth retardants on anthocyanin production in carrot cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Rep. 11, 304–309.Google Scholar
  92. Ilan, A. and Dougall, D.K. (1994) Effects of gibberellic acid and uniconazole on the activities of some enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot cell cultures. J. Plant Growth Reg. 13, 213–220.Google Scholar
  93. Ilan, A., Zanewich, K.P., Rood, S.B. and Dougall, D.K. (1994) Gibberellic acid decreases anthocyanin accumulation in wild carrot cell suspension cultures but does not alter 3’-nucleotidase activity. Physiol. Plant. 92, 47–52.Google Scholar
  94. Ishikawa, A., Kitamura, Y., Ozeki, Y., Itoh, Y., Yamada, A. and Watanabe, M. (2005) Post-stress metabolism involves umbelliferone production in anthocyanin-producing and non-producing cells of Glehnia littoralis suspension cultures. J. Plant Physiol. 162, 703–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jang, J.C., Leon, P., Zhou, L. and Sheen, J. (1997) Hexokinase as a sugar sensor in higher plants. Plant Cell 9, 5–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kakegawa, K., Hattori, E., Koike, K. and Takeda, K. (1991) Induction of anthocyanin synthesis and related enzyme activities in cell cultures of Centaurea cyanus by UV-light irradiation. Phytochemistry 30, 2271–2273.Google Scholar
  97. Kakegawa, K., Kaneko, Y., Hattori, E., Koike, K. and Takeda, K. (1987) Cell cultures of Centaurea cyanus produce malonated anthocyanin in UV light. Phytochemistry 26, 2261–2263.Google Scholar
  98. Kakegawa, K., Suda, J., Sugiyama, M. and Komamine, A. (1995) Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Vitis in relation to cell division. Physiol. Plant. 94, 661–666.Google Scholar
  99. Kanabus, J., Bressen, R.A. and Carpita, N.C. (1986) Carbon assimilation in carrot cells in liquid culture. Plant Physiol. 82, 363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kinnersley, A.M. and Dougall, D.K. (1980) Increase in anthocyanin yield from wild-carrot cell cultures by a selection system based on cell-aggregate size. Planta 149, 200–204.Google Scholar
  101. Kitamura, Y. (1998) The production of anthocyanin and furanocoumarin defense compounds by cultured cells of Glehnia littoralis. Recent Res. Dev. Phytochem. 2, 397–412.Google Scholar
  102. Kitamura, Y., Ohta, M., Ikenaga, T. and Watanabe, M. (2002) Responses of anthocyanin-producing and non-producing cells of Glehnia littoralis to radical generators. Phytochemistry 59, 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Knobloch, K.H., Bast, G. and Berlin, J. (1982) Medium- and light-induced formation of serpentine and anthocyanins in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Phytochemistry 21, 591–594.Google Scholar
  104. Kobayashi, Y., Akita, M., Sakamoto, K., Liu, H., Shigeoka, T., Koyano, T., Kawamura, M. and Furuya, T. (1993) Large-scale production of anthocyanin by Aralia cordata cell suspension cultures. App. Microb. Biotech. 40, 215–218.Google Scholar
  105. Kokubo, T., Ambe-Ono, Y., Nakamura, M., Ishida, H., Yamakawa, T. and Kodama, T. (2001) Promotive effect of auxins on UDP-glucose: flavonol glucosyltransferase activity in Vitis sp cell cultures. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 91, 564–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Konczak, I., Okuno, S., Yoshimoto, M. and Yamakawa, O. (2004) Caffeoylquinic acids generated in vitro in a high-anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line. J. Biomed. Biotech. 2004, 287–292.Google Scholar
  107. Konczak, I., Terahara, N., Yoshimoto, M., Nakatani, M., Yoshinaga, M. and Yamakawa, O. (2005) Regulating the composition of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in a sweetpotato cell culture towards production of polyphenolic complex with enhanced physiological activity. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 16, 377–388.Google Scholar
  108. Konczak-Islam, I., Nakatani, M., Yoshinaga, M. and Yamakawa, O. (2001) Effect of ammonium ion and temperature on anthocyanin composition in sweet potato cell suspension culture. Plant Biotech. 18, 109–117.Google Scholar
  109. Konczak-Islam, I., Okuno, S., Yoshimoto, M. and Yamakawa, O. (2003a) Composition of phenolics and anthocyanins in a sweet potato cell suspension culture. Biochem. Eng. J. 14, 155–161.Google Scholar
  110. Konczak-Islam, I., Yoshimoto, M., Hou, D.X., Terahara, N. and Yamakawa, O. (2003b) Potential chemopreventive properties of anthocyanin-rich aqueous extracts from in vitro produced tissue of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.). J. Ag. Food Chem. 51(20), 5916–5922.Google Scholar
  111. Konczak-Islam, I., Yoshinaga, M., Nakatani, M., Terahara, N. and Yamakawa, O. (2000) Establishment and characteristics of an anthocyanin-producing cell line from sweet potato storage root. Plant Cell Rep. 19, 472–477.Google Scholar
  112. Krisa, S., Vitrac, X., Decendit, A., Larronde, F., Deffieux, G. and Mérillon, J.M. (1999a) Obtaining Vitis vinifera cell cultures producing higher amounts of malvidin-3-O-β-glucoside. Biotech. Lett. 21, 497–500.Google Scholar
  113. Krisa, S., Waffo Téguo, P., Decendit, A., Deffieux, G., Vercauteren, J. and Mérillon, J.M. (1999b) Production of 13C-labelled anthocyanins by Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 51, 651–656.Google Scholar
  114. Kurata, H., Mochizuki, A., Okuda, N., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (2000) Intermittent light irradiation with second- or hour-scale periods controls anthocyanin production by strawberry cells. Enz. Microb. Tech. 26, 621–629.Google Scholar
  115. Larronde, F., Krisa, S., Decendit, A., Chèze, C., Deffieux, G. and Mérillon, J.M. (1998) Regulation of polyphenol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures by sugars. Plant Cell Rep. 17, 946–950.Google Scholar
  116. Leweke, B. and Forkmann, G. (1982) Genetically controlled anthocyanin synthesis in cell cultures of Matthiola incana. Plant Cell Rep. 1, 98–100.Google Scholar
  117. Lila, M.A. (2004) Anthocyanins and human health: an in vitro investigative approach. J. Biomed. Biotech. 2004, 306–313.Google Scholar
  118. Luczkiewcz, M. and Cisowski, W. (2001) Optimisation of the second phase of a two phase growth system for anthocyanin accumulation in callus cultures of Rudbeckia hirta. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 65, 57–68.Google Scholar
  119. Madhavi, D.L., Bomser, J., Smith, M.A.L. and Singletary, K. (1998) Isolation of bioactive constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) fruits and cell cultures. Plant Sci. 131, 95–103.Google Scholar
  120. Madhavi, D.L., Juthangkoon, S., Lewen, K., Berber-Jimenez, M.D. and Smith, M.A.L. (1996) Characterization of anthocyanins from Ajuga pyramidalis metallica crispa cell cultures. J. Ag. Food Chem. 44, 1170–1176.Google Scholar
  121. Madhavi, D.L., Smith, M.A. and Berber-Jimenez, M.D. (1995) Expression of anthocyanins in callus cultures of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait). J. Food Sci. 60, 351–355.Google Scholar
  122. Madhusudhan, R. and Ravishankar, G.A. (1996) Gradient of anthocyanin in cell aggregates of Daucus carota in suspension cultures. Biotech. Lett. 18, 1253–1256.Google Scholar
  123. Makunga, N.P., van Staden, J. and Cress, W.A. (1997) The effect of light ad 2,4-D on anthocyanin production in Oxalis reclinata callus. Plant Growth Reg. 23, 153–158.Google Scholar
  124. Markham, K.R., Gould, K.S., Winefield, C.S., Mitchell, K.A., Bloor, S.J. and Boase, M.R. (2000) Anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions - their nature and sifnificance in flower colouration. Phytochemistry 55, 327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Marshall, G.B., Smith, M.A.L., Lee, C.K.C., Deroles, S.C. and Davies, K.M. (2002) Differential gene expression between pigmented and non-pigmented cell culture lines of Daucus carota. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 70, 91–97.Google Scholar
  126. Matsumoto, T., Nishida, K., Noguchi, M. and Tamaki, E. (1973) Some factors affecting the anthocyanin formation by Populus cells in suspension culture. Ag. Biol. Chem. 37, 561–567.Google Scholar
  127. Meyer, H.J. and van Staden, J. (1995) The in vitro production of anthocyanin from callus cultures of Oxalis linearis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 40, 55–58.Google Scholar
  128. Meyer, J.E., Pépin, M.F. and Smith, M.A.L. (2002) Anthocyanin production from Vaccinium pahalae: limitations of the physical microenvironment. J. Biotech. 93, 45–57.Google Scholar
  129. Miura, H., Kitamura, Y., Ikenaga, T., Mizobe, K., Shimizu, T., Nakamura, M., Kato, Y., Yamada, T., Maitani, T. and Goda, Y. (1998) Anthocyanin production of Glehnia littoralis callus cultures. Phytochemistry 48, 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Miyanaga, K., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (2000a) Quantitative determination of cultured strawberry-cell heterogeneity by image analysis: effects of medium modification on anthocyanin accumulation. Biochem. Eng. J. 5, 201–207.Google Scholar
  131. Miyanaga, K., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (2000b) Analysis of pigmentation in individual cultured plant cells using an image processing system. Biotech. Letters 22, 977–981.Google Scholar
  132. Mizukami, H., Tomita, K., Ohashi, H. and Hiraoka, N. (1988) Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Plant Cell Rep. 7, 553–556.Google Scholar
  133. Mori, T. and Sakura, M. (1999) Preparation of conditioned medium to stimulate anthocyanin production using suspension cultures of Fragaria ananassa cells. World J. Microb. Biotech. 15, 635–637.Google Scholar
  134. Mori, T. and Sakurai, M. (1994) Production of anthocyanin from strawberry cell suspension cultures: effects of sugar and nitrogen. J. Food Sci. 59, 588–593.Google Scholar
  135. Mori, T. and Sakurai, M. (1995) Effects of riboflavin and increased sucrose on anthocyanin production in suspended strawberry cell cultures. Plant Sci. 110, 147–153.Google Scholar
  136. Mori, T. and Sakurai, M. (1996) Riboflavin affects anthocyanin synthesis in nitrogen culture using strawberry suspended cells. J. Food Sci. 61, 698–702.Google Scholar
  137. Mori, T. and Sakurai, M. (1998) Conditioned medium from heterogeneous plants (rose and grape) on cell growth and anthocyanin synthesis of Fragaria ananassa. Biotech. Lett. 20, 73–75.Google Scholar
  138. Mori, T., Sakurai, M. and Sakuta, M. (2000) Changes in PAL, CHS, DAHP synthase (DS-Co and DS-Mn) activity during anthocyanin synthesis in suspension culture of Fragaria ananassa. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cult. 62, 135–139.Google Scholar
  139. Mori, T., Sakurai, M. and Sakuta, M. (2001) Effects of conditioned medium on activities of PAL, CHS, DAHP synthase (DS-Co and DS-Mn) and anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of Fragaria ananassa. Plant Sci. 160, 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mori, T., Sakurai, M., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1994a) Use of auxin and cytokinin to regulate anthocyanin production and composition in suspension cultures of strawberry cell. J. Sci. Food Agric. 65, 271–276.Google Scholar
  141. Mori, T., Sakurai, M., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1994b) Effects of conditioning factor on anthocyanin production in strawberry suspension cultures. J. Sci. Food Agric. 66, 381–388.Google Scholar
  142. Mori, T., Sakurai, M., Shigeta, J.I., Yoshida, K. and Kondo, T. (1993) Formation of anthocyanins from cells cultured from different parts of strawberry plants. J. Food Sci. 58, 788–792.Google Scholar
  143. Moumou, Y., Trotin, F., Dubois, J., Vasseur, J. and El-Boustani, E. (1992) Influence of culture conditions on polyphenol production by Fagopyrum esculentum tissue cultures. J. Nat. Prod. 55, 33–38.Google Scholar
  144. Nagamori, E., Hiraoka, K., Honda, H. and Kobayashi, T. (2001) Enhancement of anthocyanin production from grape (Vitis vinifera) callus in a viscous additive-supplemented medium. Biochem. Eng. J. 9, 59–65.Google Scholar
  145. Nagarajan, R.P., Keshavarz, E. and Gerson, D.F. (1989) Optimization of anthocyanin yield in a mutated carrot cell line (Daucus carota) and its implications in large scale production. J. Ferm. Bioeng. 68, 102–106.Google Scholar
  146. Nakamura, M., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1998) Enhanced anthocyanin methylation by growth limitation in strawberry suspension culture. Enz. Micro. Tech. 22, 404–408.Google Scholar
  147. Nakamura, M., Takeuchi, Y., Miyanaga, K., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1999) High anthocyanin accumulation in the dark by strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) callus. Biotech. Lett. 21, 695–699.Google Scholar
  148. Narayan, M.S., Thimmaraju, R. and Bhagyalakshmi, N. (2005) Interplay of growth regulators during solid-state and liquid-state batch cultivation of anthocyanin producing cell line of Daucus carota. Proc. Biochem. 40, 351–358.Google Scholar
  149. Narayan, M.S. and Venkataraman, L.V. (2000) Characterisation of anthocyanins derived from carrot (Daucus carota) cell culture. Food Chem. 70, 361–363.Google Scholar
  150. Narayan, M.S. and Venkataraman, L.V. (2002) Effect of sugar and nitrogen on the production of anthocyanin in cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells. J. Food Sci. 67, 84–86.Google Scholar
  151. Nawa, Y., Asano, S., Motoori, S. and Ohtani, T. (1993) Production of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and proanthocyanidins by cultured cells of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 57, 770–774.Google Scholar
  152. Noe, W. and Seitz, H.U. (1982) Induction of de novo synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by l-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid in suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 154, 454–458.Google Scholar
  153. Nozue, M., Baba, S., Kitamura, Y., Xu, W., Kubo, H., Nogawa, M., Shioiri, H. and Kojima, M. (2003) VP24 found in anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs) of sweet potato cells is a member of a metalloprotease family. Biochem. Eng. J. 14, 199–205.Google Scholar
  154. Nozue, M., Kawai, J. and Yoshitama, K. (1987) Selection of a high anthocyanin-producing cell line of sweet potato cell cultures and identification of pigments. J. Plant Physiol. 129, 81–88.Google Scholar
  155. Nozue, M., Kubo, H., Nishimura, M., Katou, A., Hattori, C., Usuda, N., Nagata, T. and Yasuda, H. (1993) Characterization of intravacuolar pigmented structures in anthocyanin-containing cells of sweet potato suspension cultures. Plant Cell Physiol. 34, 803–808.Google Scholar
  156. Nozue, M., Kubo, H., Nishimura, M. and Yasuda, H. (1995) Detection and characterization of a vacuolar protein (VP24) in anthocyanin-producing cells of sweet potato in suspension culture. Plant Cell Physiol. 36, 883–889.Google Scholar
  157. Nozue, M., Yamada, K., Nakamura, T., Kubo, H., Kondo, M. and Nishimura, M. (1997) Expression of a vacuolar protein (VP24) in anthocyanin-producing cells of sweet potato in suspension culture. Plant Physiol. 115, 1065–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nozue, M. and Yasuda, H. (1985) Occurrence of anthocyanoplasts in cell suspension cultures of sweet potato. Plant Cell Rep. 4, 252–255.Google Scholar
  159. Ozeka, Y. and Komamine, A. (1982). Induction of anthocyanin synthesis in a carrot suspension culture. Correlation of metabolic differentiation with morphological differentiation. Plant Tissue Cult. 1982, 355–356.Google Scholar
  160. Ozeki, Y. (1996) Regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in carrot suspension cultured cells. J. Plant Res. 109(1095), 343–351.Google Scholar
  161. Ozeki, Y., Davies, E. and Takeda, J. (1993) Structure and expression of chalcone synthase gene in carrot suspension cultured cells regulated by 2,4-D. Plant Cell Physiol. 34, 1029–1037.Google Scholar
  162. Ozeki, Y., Ito, Y., Sasaki, N., Oyanagi, M., Akimoto, H., Chikagawa, Y. and Takeda, J. (2000) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and the regulation of its expression in suspension cultured carrot cells. J. Plant Res. 113, 319–326.Google Scholar
  163. Ozeki, Y. and Komamine, A. (1981) Induction of anthocyanin synthesis in relation to embryogenesis in a carrot suspension culture: correlation of metabolic differentiation with morphological differentiation. Physiol. Plant. 53, 570–577.Google Scholar
  164. Ozeki, Y. and Komamine, A. (1985) Changes in activities of enzymes involved in general phenylpropanoid metabolism during the induction and reduction of anthocyanin synthesis in a carrot suspension culture as regulated by 2,4-D. Plant Cell Physiol. 26, 903–911.Google Scholar
  165. Ozeki, Y. and Komamine, A. (1986) Effects of growth regulators on the induction of anthocyanin synthesis in carrot suspension cultures. Plant Cell Physiol. 27, 1361–1368.Google Scholar
  166. Ozeki, Y., Komamine, A., Noguchi, T. and Sankawa, U. (1987) Changes in activities of enzymes involved in flavonoid metabolism during the initiation and suppression of anthocyanin synthesis in carrot suspension cultures regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Physiol. Plant. 69, 123–128.Google Scholar
  167. Ozeki, Y., Komamine, A. and Tanaka, Y. (1990) Induction and repression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase enzyme proteins and mRNAs in carrot cell suspension cultures regulated by 2,4-D. Physiol. Plant. 78, 400–408.Google Scholar
  168. Ozeki, Y. and Takeda, J. (1994) Regulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes in carrot suspension cultured cells. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 38, 221–225.Google Scholar
  169. Park, H.-H., Kang, S.K., Lee, J.H., Choi, J.Y., Lee, Y.S., Kwon, I.B. and Yu, J.H. (1989) Production of anthocyanins by Vitis hybrid cell culture. Korean J. Microbiol. Bioeng. 17, 257–262.Google Scholar
  170. Pasqua, G., Monacelli, B., Mulinacci, N., Rinaldi, S., Giaccherini, C., Innocenti, M. and Vinceri, F.F. (2005) The effect of growth regulators and sucrose on anthocyanin production in Camptotheca acuminata cell cultures. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 43, 293–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Pepin, M.F., Archambault, J., Chavarie, C. and Cormier, F. (1995) Growth kinetics of Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures: I. Shake flask cultures. Biotech. Bioeng. 47, 131–138.Google Scholar
  172. Pepin, M.F., Smith, M.A. and Reid, J.F. (1999) Application of imaging tools to plant cell culture: relationship between plant cell aggregation and flavonoid production. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 35, 290–295.Google Scholar
  173. Petersen, M. and Seitz, H.U. (1986) UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase in anthocyanin-containing cell cultures from Daucus carota L. J. Plant Physiol. 125, 383–390.Google Scholar
  174. Plata, N., Konczak-Islam, I., Jayram, S., McClelland, K., Woolford, T. and Franks, P. (2003) Effect of methyl jasmonate and p-coumaric acid on anthocyanin composition in a sweet potato cell suspension culture. Biochem. Eng. J. 14, 171–177.Google Scholar
  175. Qu, J., Zhang, W., Yu, X. and Jin, M. (2005) Instability of anthocyanin accumulation in Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux suspension cultures. Biotech. Bioproc. Eng. 10, 155–161.Google Scholar
  176. Rajendran, L., Ravishankar, G.A., Venkataraman, L.V. and Prathiba, K.R. (1992) Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota as influenced by nutrient stress and osmoticum. Biotech. Lett. 14, 707–712.Google Scholar
  177. Rajendran, L., Suvarnalatha, G., Ravishankar, G.A. and Venkataraman, L.V. (1994) Enhancement of anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota L. under the influence of fungal elicitors. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 42, 227–231.Google Scholar
  178. Ramachandra Rao, S. and Ravishankar, G.A. (2002) Plant cell cultures: chemical factories of secondary metabolites. Biotech. Adv. 20, 101–153.Google Scholar
  179. Ramachandra Rao, S., Sarada, R. and Ravishankar, G.A. (1996) Phycocyanin, a new elicitor for capsaicin and anthocyanin accumulation in plant cell cultures. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 46(5–6), 619–621.Google Scholar
  180. Rau, D. and Forkmann, G. (1986) Anthocyanin synthesis in tissue cultures of Callistephus chinensis (China aster). Plant Cell Rep. 5, 435–438.Google Scholar
  181. Renaud, S. and De Lorgeril, M. (1992) Wine, alchohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet 339, 1523–1526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Rose, A., Gläβgen, W.E., Hopp, W. and Seitz, H.U. (1996) Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 198, 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Saigne-Soulard, C., Richard, T., Mérillon, J.M. and Monti, J.P. (2006) 13C NMR analysis of polyphenol biosynthesis in grape cells: impact of various inducing factors. Analytica Chimica Acta 563(1–2 SPEC. ISS.), 137–144.Google Scholar
  184. Sakamoto, K., Iida, K., Sawamura, K., Hajiro, K., Asada, Y., Yoshikawa, T. and Furuya, T. (1993) Effects of nutrients on anthocyanin production in cultured cells of Aralia cordata. Phytochemistry 33, 357–360.Google Scholar
  185. Sakamoto, K., Iida, K., Sawamura, K., Hajiro, K., Asada, Y., Yoshikawa, T. and Furuya, T. (1994) Anthocyanin production in cultured cells of Aralia cordata Thunb. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 36, 21–26.Google Scholar
  186. Sakurai, M. and Mori, T. (1996) Stimulation of anthocyanin synthesis by conditioned medium produced by strawberry suspension cultures. J. Plant Physiol. 149, 599–604.Google Scholar
  187. Sakurai, M., Mori, T., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1996) Changes of anthocyanin composition by conditioned medium and cell inoculum size using strawberry suspension culture. Biotech. Lett. 18, 1149–1154.Google Scholar
  188. Sakurai, M., Mori, T., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1997b) Influence of conditioned medium on cyanidin and peonidin synthesis. J. Chem. Eng. Japan 30, 951–953.Google Scholar
  189. Sakurai, M., Ozeki, Y. and Mori, T. (1997a) Induction of anthocyanin accumulation in rose suspension-cultured cells by conditioned medium of strawberry suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 50, 211–214.Google Scholar
  190. Sakuta, M., Hirano, H., Kakegawa, K., Suda, J., Hirose, M., Joy, R.W.I., Sugiyama, M. and Komamine, A. (1994) Regulatory mechanisms of biosynthesis of betacyanin and anthocyanin in relation to cell division activity in suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 38, 167–169.Google Scholar
  191. Sato, K., Nakayama, M. and Shigeta, J.I. (1996) Culturing conditions affecting the production of anthocyanin in suspended cell cultures of strawberry. Plant Sci. 113, 91–98.Google Scholar
  192. Schwinn, K.E. and Davies, K.M. (2004). Flavonoids. In: K.M. Davies (Ed.) Plant Pigments and Their Maniupulation. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 14: 92–149.Google Scholar
  193. Seitz, H.U., Bach, M., Richter, S., Schnitzler, J.P. and Steimle, D.E. (1994) Elicitor-induced changes in the phenol metabolism of suspension-cultured carrot cells. Acta Hort. 381, 113–120.Google Scholar
  194. Shibli, R.A., Smith, M.A.L. and Kushad, M. (1997) Headspace ethylene accumulation effects on secondary metabolite production in Vaccinium pahalae cell culture. Plant Growth Reg. 23, 201–205.Google Scholar
  195. Shibli, R.A., Smith, M.A.L. and Shatnawi, M.A. (1999) Pigment recovery from encapsulated-dehydrated Vaccinium pahalae (ohelo) cryopreserved cells. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 55, 119–123.Google Scholar
  196. Skrzypek, Z., Swiatek, L. and Wysokinska, H. (1993) Investigations of the anthocyanins of Penstemon serrulatus cell suspension cultures. Planta Medica 59(7 SUPPL.).Google Scholar
  197. Smith, M.A.L., Madhavi, D.L., Fang, Y. and Tomczak, M.M. (1997) Continuous cell culture and product recovery from wild Vaccinium pahalae germplasm. J. Plant Physiol. 150, 462–466.Google Scholar
  198. Smith, M.A.L., Reid, H.F., Hansen, A.C., Li, Z. and Madhavi, D.L. (1995) Non-destructive machine vision analysis of pigment-producing cell cultures. J. Biotech. 40, 1–11.Google Scholar
  199. Stickland, R.G. and Sunderland, N. (1972) Production of anthocyanins, flavonols and chlorogenic acids by cultured callus tissues of Haplopappus gracilis. Ann. Bot. 36, 443–457.Google Scholar
  200. Suda, I., Furuta, S., Nishiba, Y., Yamakawa, O., Matsugano, K. and Sugita, K. (1997) Hepato-protective activity of purple coloured sweet potato juice. Sweetpotato Res. Front 4, 3.Google Scholar
  201. Sudha, G. and Ravishankar, G.A. (2003a) Elicitation of anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota and involvement of calcium channel modulators. Cur. Sci. 84, 775–779.Google Scholar
  202. Sudha, G. and Ravishankar, G.A. (2003b) Influence of putrescine on anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota mediated through calcium ATPase. Acta Physiol. Plant. 25, 69–75.Google Scholar
  203. Sudha, G. and Ravishankar, G.A. (2003c) Elicitation of anthocyanin production in callus cultures of Daucus carota and the involvement of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Acta Physiol. Plant. 25, 249–256.Google Scholar
  204. Suvarnalatha, G., Rajendran, L., Ravishankar, G.A. and Venkataraman, L.V. (1994) Elicitation of anthocyanin production in cell cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L) by using elicitors and abiotic stress. Biotech. Lett. 16, 1275–1280.Google Scholar
  205. Suzuki, M. (1995) Enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation by high osmotic stress and low pH in grape cells (Vitis hybrids). J. Plant Physiol. 147, 152–155.Google Scholar
  206. Takeda, J. (1988) Light-induced synthesis of anthocyanin in carrot cells in suspension. I. The factors affecting anthocyanin production. J. Exp. Bot. 39, 1065–1077.Google Scholar
  207. Takeda, J. (1990) Light-induced synthesis of anthocyanin in carrot cells in suspension. II. Effects of light and 2,4-D on induction and reduction of enzyme activities related to anthocyanin synthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 41(227), 749–755.Google Scholar
  208. Takeda, J. and Abe, S. (1992) Light-induced synthesis of anthocyanin in carrot cells in suspension-IV. The action spectrum. Photochem. Photobiol. 56, 69–74.Google Scholar
  209. Takeda, J., Abe, S., Hirose, Y. and Ozeki, Y. (1993) Effect of light and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the level of mRNAs for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase in carrot cells cultured in suspension. Physiol. Plant. 89, 4–10.Google Scholar
  210. Takeda, J., Obi, I. and Yoshida, K. (1994) Action spectra of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase expression in carrot cells in suspension. Physiol. Plant. 91, 517–521.Google Scholar
  211. Takeda, T., Inomata, M., Matsuoka, H., Hikuma, M. and Furusaki, S. (2003) Release of anthocyanin from strawberry cultured cells with heating treatment. Biochem. Eng. J. 15, 205–210.Google Scholar
  212. Tamura, H., Kumaoka, Y. and Sugisawa, H. (1989) Identification and quantitative variation of anthocyanins produced by cultured callus tissue of Vitis sp. Ag. Biol. Chem. 53, 1969–1970.Google Scholar
  213. Tanaka, N., Matsuura, E., Terahara, N. and Ishimaru, K. (1999) Secondary metabolites in transformed root cultures of Campanula glomerata. J. Plant Physiol. 155, 251–254.Google Scholar
  214. Terahara, N., Callebaut, A., Ohba, R., Nagata, T., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M. and Suzuki, M. (1996) Triacylated anthocyanins from Ajuga reptans flowers and cell cultures. Phytochemistry 42, 199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Terahara, N., Callebaut, A., Ohba, R., Nagata, T., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M. and Suzuki, M. (2001) Acylated anthocyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucosides from Ajuga reptans flowers and the corresponding cell cultures. Phytochemistry 58, 493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Terahara, N., Konczak, I., Ono, H., Yoshimoto, M. and Yamakawa, O. (2004) Characterization of acylated anthocyanins in callus induced from storage root of purple-fleshed sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas L. J. Biomed. Biotech. 2004, 279–286.Google Scholar
  217. Tholakalabavi, A., Zwiazek, J.J. and Thorpe, T.A. (1997) Osmotically-stressed poplar cell cultures: Anthocyanin accumulation, deaminase activity, and solute composition. J. Plant Physiol. 151, 489–496.Google Scholar
  218. Tsukaya, H., Ohshima, T., Naito, S., Chino, M. and Komeda, Y. (1991) Sugar-dependent expression of the CHS-A gene for chalcone synthase from Petunia in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 97, 1414–1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Verma, A.K., Chaudhary, U., Rakesh, K., Pant, A.K., Gaur, A.K. and Lakhchaura, B.D. (2000) anthocyanin, bisabolol and phenylammonialyase activity in cell cultures of Populus deltoides. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 38, 1050–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Verpoorte, R., van der Heijden, R., ten Hoopen, H.J.G. and Memelink, J. (1999) Metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolite pathways for the production of fine chemicals. Biotech. Lett. 21, 467–479.Google Scholar
  221. Vitrac, X., Krisa, S., Decendit, A., Vercauteren, J., Nührich, A., Monti, J.P., Deffieux, G. and Mérillon, J.M. (2002) Carbon-14 biolabelling of wine polyphenols in Vitis vinifera cell suspension cultures. J. Biotech. 95, 49–56.Google Scholar
  222. Vitrac, X., Larronde, F., Krisa, S., Decendit, A., Deffieux, G. and Mérillon, J.M. (2000) Sugar sensing and Ca2 + -calmodulin requirement in Vitis vinifera cells producing anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 53, 659–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vogelien, D.L., Hrazdina, G., Reeves, S. and Dougall, D.K. (1990) Phenotypic differences in anthocyanin accumulation among clonally related cultured cells of carrot. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 22, 213–222.Google Scholar
  224. Wang, J.W., Xia, Z.H., Chu, J.H. and Tan, R.X. (2004) Simultaneous production of anthocyanin and triterpenoids in suspension cultures of Perilla frutescens. Enz. Micro. Tech. 34, 651–656.Google Scholar
  225. Yamakawa, T., Ishida, H., Kato, S., Kodama, T. and Minoda, Y. (1983b) Formation and identification of anthocyanins in cultured cells of Vitis sp. Ag. Biol. Chem. 47, 997–1001.Google Scholar
  226. Yamakawa, T., Kato, S., Ishida, H., Kodama, T. and Minoda, Y. (1983a) Production of anthocyanins by Vitis cells in suspension culture. Ag. Biol. Chem. 47, 2185–2191.Google Scholar
  227. Yamakawa, T., Ohtsuka, H., Onomichi, K., Kodama, T. and Minoda, Y. (1982) Production of anthocyanin pigment by grape cell culture. In: A. Fujiwara (Ed.) Plant Tissue Culture 1982, Tokyo, Japanese Association for Plant Tissue Culture: 273–274.Google Scholar
  228. Yamakawa, T., Onomichi, K., Kodama, T. and Minoda, Y. (1985) Application of feeder layer method for improved colony formation of grape cells and protoplasts at low cell-density. Ag. Biol. Chem. 49, 3583–3585.Google Scholar
  229. Yamamoto, Y., Kadota, N., Mizuguchi, R. and Yamada, Y. (1983) Computer tracing of the pedigree of cultured Euphorbia millii cells that produce high levels of anthocyanin. Ag. Biol. Chem. 47, 1021–1026.Google Scholar
  230. Yamamoto, Y., Kinoshita, Y., Watanabe, S. and Yamada, Y. (1989) Anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of high-producing cells of Euphorbia millii. Ag. Biol. Chem. 53, 417–423.Google Scholar
  231. Yamamoto, Y. and Mizuguchi, R. (1982) Selection of a high and stable pigment-producing strain in cultured Euphorbia millii cells. Theo. App. Gen. 61, 113–116.Google Scholar
  232. Yamamoto, Y., Mizuguchi, R. and Yamada, Y. (1981) Chemical constituents of cultured cells of Euphorbia tirucalli and E. millii. Plant Cell Rep. 1, 29–30.Google Scholar
  233. Yeoman, M.M., Lindsey, K., Miedzybrodzka, M.B. and McLauchlan, W.R. (1982) Accumulation of secondary products as a facet of differentiation in plant cell and tissue cultures. In: M.M. Yeoman and D.E.S. Truman (Eds.) Differentiation In Vitro. British Society for Cell Biology, Symposium 4, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 65–82.Google Scholar
  234. Yousef, G.G., Seigler, D.S., Grusak, M.A., Rogers, R.B., Knight, C.T.G., Kraft, T.F.B., Erdman Jr, J.W. and Lila, M.A. (2004) Biosynthesis and characterization of 14C-enriched flavonoid fractions from plant cell suspension cultures. J. Ag. Food Chem. 52, 1138–1145.Google Scholar
  235. Zhang, H., Wang, L., Deroles, S.C., Bennett, R. and Davies, K.M. (2006) New insight into the structures and formation of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions in flower petals. BMC Plant Biol. 6, 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhang, W., Curtin, C., Kikuchi, M. and Franco, C. (2002a) Integration of jasmonic acid and light irradiation for enhancement of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures. Plant Sci. 162, 459–468.Google Scholar
  237. Zhang, W. and Furusaki, S. (1997) Regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in suspension cultures of strawberry cell by pH. Biotech. Lett. 19, 1057–1061.Google Scholar
  238. Zhang, W., Jin, M.F., Yu, X.J. and Yuan, Q. (2001) Enhanced anthocyanin production by repeated-batch culture of strawberry cells with medium shift. App. Microbiol. Biotech. 55, 164–169.Google Scholar
  239. Zhang, W., Seki, M. and Furusaki, S. (1997) Effect of temperature and its shift on growth and anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of strawberry cells. Plant Sci. 127, 207–214.Google Scholar
  240. Zhang, W., Seki, M., Furusaki, S. and Middelberg, A.P.J. (1998) Anthocyanin synthesis, growth and nutrient uptake in suspension cultures of strawberry cells. J. Ferm. Bioeng. 86, 72–78.Google Scholar
  241. Zhong, J.J., Fujiyama, K., Seki, T. and Yoshida, T. (1993b) On-line monitoring of cell concentration of Perilla frutescens in a bioreactor. Biotech. Bioeng. 42, 542–546.Google Scholar
  242. Zhong, J.J., Fujiyama, K., Seki, T. and Yoshida, T. (1994b) A quantitative analysis of shear effects on cell suspension and cell culture of Perilla frutescens in bioreactors. Biotech. Bioeng. 44, 649–654.Google Scholar
  243. Zhong, J.J., Konstantinov, K.B. and Yoshida, T. (1994c) Computer-aided on-line monitoring of physiological variables in suspended cell cultures of Perilla frutescens in a bioreactor. J. Ferm. Bioeng. 77, 445–447.Google Scholar
  244. Zhong, J.J., Seki, M., Kinoshita, S.-I. and Yoshida, T. (1992) Effects of surfactants on cell growth and pigment production in suspension cultures of Perilla frutescens. World J. Microbiol. Biochem. 8, 106–109.Google Scholar
  245. Zhong, J.J., Seki, T., Kinoshita, S.I. and Yoshida, T. (1991) Effect of light irradiation on anthocyanin production by suspended culture of Perilla frutescens. Biotech. Bioeng. 38, 653–658.Google Scholar
  246. Zhong, J.J., Xu, W.X. and Yoshida, T. (1994a) Effects of initial sucrose concentration on excretion of anthocyanin pigments in suspended cultures of Perilla frutescens cells. World J. Microbiol. Biochem. 10, 590–592.Google Scholar
  247. Zhong, J.J., Yoshida, M., Fujiyama, K., Seki, T. and Yoshida, T. (1993a) Enhancement of anthocyanin production by Perilla frutescens cells in a stirred bioreactor with internal light irradiation. J. Ferm. Bioeng. 75, 299–303.Google Scholar
  248. Zhong, J.J. and Yoshida, T. (1993) Effects of temperature on cell growth and anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of Perilla frutescens. J. Ferm. Bioeng. 76, 530–531.Google Scholar
  249. Zhong, J.J. and Yoshida, T. (1994). Rheological characteristics of suspended cultures of Perilla frutescens and their implications in bioreactor operation for anthocyanin production. Adv. Plant Biotech., 255–279.Google Scholar
  250. Zhong, J.J. and Yoshida, T. (1995) High-density cultivation of Perilla frutescens cell suspensions for anthocyanin production: effects of sucrose concentration and inoculum size. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 17, 1073–1079.Google Scholar
  251. Zubko, M.K., Muradov, A.Z., Patskovskii, Y.V. and Voronin, V.V. (1992) Selection of potato cell lines with constitutive anthocyan biosynthesis. Sov. Biotech. (Biotekhnologiya), 106–110.Google Scholar
  252. Zubko, M.K., Schmeer, K., Gläβgen, W.E., Bayer, E. and Seitz, H.U. (1993) Selection of anthocyanin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cell lines from calli derived from seedlings produced by gamma-irradiated seeds. Plant Cell Rep. 12, 555–558.Google Scholar
  253. Zwayyed, S.K., Frazier, G.C. and Dougall, D.K. (1991) Growth and anthocyanin accumulation in carrot cell suspension cultures growing on fructose, glucose, or their mixtures. Biotech. Prog. 7, 288–290.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research LtdNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations