Advertisement

Chemotherapy

  • Alfredo Berruti
  • Paola Sperone
  • Paola Perotti
  • Anna Ferrero
  • Luigi Dogliotti
  • Massimo Terzolo
Chapter

Abstract

The extreme rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has hampered the conduction of well-designed high-powered prospective studies testing the efficacy of systemic therapy. This limitation notwithstanding, there is evidence that chemotherapy has some activity in advanced ACC. Patients considered eligible for chemotherapy are generally patients with advanced/inoperable disease progressing with mitotane treatment or patients with ACC demonstrating a rapid pattern of tumor growth.

Keywords

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Weekly Paclitaxel Disease Response Single Institution Experience Metronomic Chemotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bates SE et al (1991) Mitotane enhances cytotoxicity of chemotherapy in cell lines expressing a multidrug resistance gene (mdr-1/P-glycoprotein) which is also expressed by adrenocortical carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:18–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Volante M et al (2008) Pathological and molecular features of adrenocortical carcinoma:an update. J Clin Pathol 61:787–793CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Decker RA et al (1991) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study 1879:mitotane and adriamycin in patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery 110:1006-1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chun HG et al (1983) Cisplatin for adrenal cortical carcinoma Cancer Treat Rep 67:513–514Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tattersall MH et al (1980) Cis-platinum treatment of metastatic adrenal carcinoma. Med J Aust 1:419–4121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grapski RT et al (1983) Cisplatin chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2:232Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haq MM et al (1980) Cytotoxic chemotherapy in adrenal cortical cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 64:909–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pommier RF, Brennan MF (1992) An eleven year experience with adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery 112:963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baudin E et al (2002) Use of a topoisomerase I inhibitor (irinotecan, CPT-11) in metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Oncol 13:1806–1809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    La Rocca RV et al (1990a) Suramin, a novel antitumor compound. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 37:893–898CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    La Rocca RV et al (1990b) Suramin in adrenal cancer: modulation of steroid hormone production, cytotoxicity in vitro, and clinical antitumor effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 71:497–504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arlt W et al (1994) Suramin in adrenocortical cancer: limited efficacy and serious toxicity. Clin Endocrinol 41:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flack MR et al (1993) Oral gossypol in the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:1019–1024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Montoya M et al (2008) Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res 40:302–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fallo F et al (1998) Paclitaxel is an effective antiproliferative agent on the human NCI-H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Chemotherapy 44:129–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lopes NM et al (1993) Cell kinetics and cell cycles effects of Taxol on human and hamster cell lines. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 32:235–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klauber N et al (1997) Inhibition of angiogenesis and breast cancer in mice by the microtubule inhibitors 2-methoxyestradiol and Taxol. Cancer Res 57:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seidman AD et al (2008) Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 non overexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol. 26:1642–1649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sisani M et al (2008) Lung metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma, partial response after weekly docetaxel in patient unresponsive to Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin and mitotane. XV national congress of the Italian Society of Urological Oncology, meeting abstractGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schneider B et al (2007) A phase I, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic dose escalation trial of weekly paclitaxel with interferon-alpha2b in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 59:261–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Desai N et al (2006) Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophorfree, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel. Clin Cancer Res 12:1317–1324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Demeure MJ et al (2008) Pre-clinical evidence for nab-paclitaxel efficacy in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer. J Clin Oncol 26(May 20 suppl); abstr 22070Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blum JL et al (2007) Phase II study of weekly albumin-bound paclitaxel for patients with metastatic breast cancer heavily pretreated with taxanes. Clin Breast Cancer 7:850–856CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rizvi NA et al (2008) Phase I/II trial of weekly intravenous 130-nm albumin-bound paclitaxel as initial chemotherapy in patients with stage IV non–small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:639–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schabel FM Jr et al (1979) cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) combination chemotherapy and cross-resistance studies with tumors of mice. Cancer Treat Rep 63:1459–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johnson DH, Greco FA (1986) Treatment of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with cisplatin and etoposide (VP-16). Cancer 58:2198–2202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zidan J et al (1996) Treatment of Metastatic Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma with Etoposide (VP-16) and Cisplatin After Failure with o,p’DDD: Clinical Case Reports. Am J Clin Oncol 19:229–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burgess MA et al (1993) Chemotherapy with cisplatinum and etoposide (VP16) for patients with advanced adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC). Proc Ann Soc Clin Oncol 12 :abstr 188Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williamson SK et al (2000) Phase II evaluation of cisplatin and etoposide followed by mitotane at disease progression in patients with locally advanced or metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Cancer 88: 1159–1165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schlumberger M et al (1991) 5-Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cisplatin as treatment for adrenal cortical carcinoma. Cancer 67:2997–3000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    van Slooten H, van Oosterom AT (1983) CAP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) regimen in adrenal cortical carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 67:377–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Menefee M et al (2006) The efficacy of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC). J Clin Oncol, 24 (June 20 Suppl): abstr 12033Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flynn SD et al (1992) P-glycoprotein expression and multidrug resistance in adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery 112:981–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Haak HR et al (1993) Expression of P-glycoprotein in relation to clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis of adrenocortical cancer. Eur J Cancer 29A:1036–1038CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Villa R et al (1999) Modulation of cytotoxic drug activity by mitotane and lonidamine in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol 14:133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bukowski RM et al (1993) Phase II trial of mitotane and cisplatin in patients with adrenal carcinoma:a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 11:161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khan TS et al (2000) Streptozocin and o,p’DDD in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer patients:long-term survival in its adjuvant use. Ann Oncol 11:1281–1287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bonacci R et al (1998) Cytotoxic therapy with etoposide and cisplatin in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Br J Cancer 78:546–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Berruti A et al (1998) Mitotane associated with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Italian Group for the Study of Adrenal Cancer. Cancer 83:2194–2200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berruti A et al (2005) Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma:a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer 12:657–666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sperone P et al (2006) Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane. J Endocrinol Invest 29:560–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abraham JS et al (2002) A phase II trial of combination chemotherapy and surgical resection for the treatment of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: continuous infusion doxorubicin, vincristine, and etoposide with daily mitotane as a P-glycoprotein antagonist. Cancer 94:2333–2343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fox E, Bates SE (2007) Tariquidar (XR9576) a P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump inhibitor. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 7:447–459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Menefee ME et al (2008) Effects of the P-glycoprotein (MDR1) antagonist tariquidar (XR-9576; TQD) on MDR1 function as well as the toxicity and efficacy of combined chemotherapy in patients with metastatic adrenocortical cancer (mACC). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol J Clin Oncol 26 (May 20 suppl): abstr 2543Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Barlaskar FM, Hammer GD (2007) The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 8:343–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Edgren M et al (1997) Biological characteristics of adrenocortical carcinoma: a study of p53, IGF, EGF-r, Ki-67 and PCNA in 17 adrenocortical carcinomas. Anticancer Res 17:1303–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kamio T et al (1990) Immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human adrenocortical carcinoma. Hum Pathol 21:277–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goel S et al (2007) EGFR inhibitor-mediated apoptosis in solid tumors. J Exp Ther Oncol 6:305–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cunningham D et al (2004) Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Eng J Med 351:337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Quinkler M et al (2008) Treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma with erlotinib plus gemcitabine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2057–2062CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Giantonio BJ et al (2007) Bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX4) for previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E3200. J Clin Oncol 25:1539–1544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kerbel RS, Kamen BA (2004) The anti-angiogenic basis of metronomic chemotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 4:423–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Adnane L et al (2006) Sorafenib (BAY 43–9006, Nexavar), a dual-action inhibitor that targets RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in tumor cells and tyrosine kinases VEGFR/PDGFR in tumor vasculature Methods Enzymol 407:597–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schteingart DE et al (2005) Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendation of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer 12:667–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Abiven G et al (2006) Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2650–2655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rabik CA, DolanME (2007) Molecular mechanisms of resistance and toxicity associated with platinating agents. Cancer Treat Rev 33:9–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ronchi C et al (2009) Expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 and prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy Endocr Relat Cancer 16:907–918Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfredo Berruti
    • 1
  • Paola Sperone
    • 1
  • Paola Perotti
    • 1
  • Anna Ferrero
    • 1
  • Luigi Dogliotti
    • 1
  • Massimo Terzolo
    • 2
  1. 1.Oncologia MedicaAzienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San LuigiOrbassanoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Medicina lnterna 1, AOU San Luigi GonzagaUniversity of TurinOrbassanoItaly

Personalised recommendations