Postsynaptic Targeting of Protein Kinases and Phosphatases

  • Stefan Strack
  • Johannes W. Hell


NMDA Receptor AMPA Receptor Dendritic Spine Postsynaptic Site Postsynaptic Target 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adesnik H and Nicoll RA. Conservation of glutamate receptor 2-containing AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation. J Neurosci 27: 4598–4602, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akyol Z, Bartos JA, Merrill MA, Faga LA, Jaren OR, Shea MA, and Hell JW. Apocalmodulin binds with its C-terminal domain to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 C0 region. J Biol Chem 279: 2166–2175, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen PB, Ouimet CC, and Greengard P. Spinophilin, a novel protein phosphatase 1 binding protein localized to dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 9956–9961, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen PB, Zachariou V, Svenningsson P, Lepore AC, Centonze D, Costa C, Rossi S, Bender G, Chen G, Feng J, Snyder GL, Bernardi G, Nestler EJ, Yan Z, Calabresi P, and Greengard P. Distinct roles for spinophilin and neurabin in dopamine-mediated plasticity. Neuroscience 140: 897–911, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alonso A, Sasin J, Bottini N, Friedberg I, Friedberg I, Osterman A, Godzik A, Hunter T, Dixon J, and Mustelin T. Protein tyrosine phosphatases in the human genome. Cell 117: 699–711, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    An R, Heath BM, Higgins JP, Koch WJ, Lefkowitz RJ, and Kass RS. Beta2-adrenergic receptor overexpression in the developing mouse heart: evidence for targeted modulation of ion channels. J Physiol 516 (Pt 1): 19–30, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aramburu J, Garcia-Cozar F, Raghavan A, Okamura H, Rao A, and Hogan PG. Selective inhibition of NFAT activation by a peptide spanning the calcineurin targeting site of NFAT. Mol Cell 1: 627–637, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Avraham H, Park SY, Schinkmann K, and Avraham S. RAFTK/Pyk2-mediated cellular signalling. Cell Signal 12: 123–133, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avraham S, London R, Fu Y, Ota S, Hiregowdara D, Li J, Jiang S, Pasztor LM, White RA, Groopman JE, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK) from megakaryocytes and brain. J Biol Chem 270: 27742–27751, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baillie GS, Sood A, McPhee I, Gall I, Perry SJ, Lefkowitz RJ, and Houslay MD. beta-Arrestin-mediated PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase recruitment regulates betaadrenoceptor switching from Gs to Gi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 940–945, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balijepalli RC, Foell JD, Hall DD, Hell JW, and Kamp TJ. From the Cover: Localization of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels to a caveolar macromolecular signaling complex is required for beta2-adrenergic regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 7500–7505, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banke TG, Bowie D, Lee H, Huganir RL, Schousboe A, and Traynelis SF. Control of GluR1 AMPA receptor function by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Neurosci 20: 89–102, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barnes AP, Smith FD, 3rd, VanDongen HM, VanDongen AM, and Milgram SL. The identification of a second actin-binding region in spinophilin/neurabin II. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 124: 105–113, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barnes GN, Slevin JT, and Vanaman TC. Rat brain protein phosphatase 2A: an enzyme that may regulate autophosphorylated protein kinases. J Neurochem 64: 340–353, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barria A and Malinow R. NMDA receptor subunit composition controls synaptic plasticity by regulating binding to CaMKII. Neuron 48: 289–301, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barria A, Muller D, Derkach V, Griffith LC, and Soderling TR. Regulatory phosphorylation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors by CaM-KII during long-term potentiation. Science 276: 2042–2045, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barsacchi R, Heider H, Girault J, and Meldolesi J. Requirement of pyk2 for the activation of the MAP kinase cascade induced by Ca(2+) (but not by PKC or G protein) in PC12 cells. FEBS Lett 461: 273–276, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bauman AL, Soughayer J, Nguyen BT, Willoughby D, Carnegie GK, Wong W, Hoshi N, Langeberg LK, Cooper DM, Dessauer CW, and Scott JD. Dynamic regulation of cAMP synthesis through anchored PKA-adenylyl cyclase V/VI complexes. Mol Cell 23: 925–931, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bayer KU, De Koninck P, Leonard AS, Hell JW, and Schulman H. Interaction with the NMDA receptor locks CaMKII in an active conformation. Nature 411: 801–805, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bayer KU, LeBel E, McDonald GL, O’Leary H, Schulman H, and De Koninck P. Transition from reversible to persistent binding of CaMKII to postsynaptic sites and NR2B. J Neurosci 26: 1164–1174, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bean BP, Nowycky MC, and Tsien RW. β-Adrenergic modulation of calcium channels in frog ventricular heart cells. Nature 307: 371–375, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beattie EC, Carroll RC, Yu X, Morishita W, Yasuda H, von Zastrow M, and Malenka RC. Regulation of AMPA receptor endocytosis by a signaling mechanism shared with LTD. Nat Neurosci 3: 1291–1300, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beene DL and Scott JD. A-kinase anchoring proteins take shape. Curr Opin Cell Biol 19: 192–198, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belmeguenai A and Hansel C. A role for protein phosphatases 1, 2A, and 2B in cerebellar long-term potentiation. J Neurosci 25: 10768–10772, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benke TA, Luthi A, Isaac JT, and Collingridge GL. Modulation of AMPA receptor unitary conductance by synaptic activity. Nature 393: 793–797, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bielas SL, Serneo FF, Chechlacz M, Deerinck TJ, Perkins GA, Allen PB, Ellisman MH, and Gleeson JG. Spinophilin facilitates dephosphorylation of doublecortin by PP1 to mediate microtubule bundling at the axonal wrist. Cell 129: 579–591, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bito H, Deisseroth K, and Tsien RW. CREB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: a Ca(2+)- and stimulus duration-dependent switch for hippocampal gene expression. Cell 87: 1203–1214, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blitzer RD, Connor JH, Brown GP, Wong T, Shenolikar S, Iyengar R, and Landau EM. Gating of CaMKII by cAMP-regulated protein phosphatase activity during LTP. Science 280: 1940–1942, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Borgkvist A and Fisone G. Psychoactive drugs and regulation of the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32 cascade in striatal medium spiny neurons. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31: 79–88, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boustany LM and Cyert MS. Calcineurin-dependent regulation of Crz1p nuclear export requires Msn5p and a conserved calcineurin docking site. Genes Dev 16: 608–619, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brady AE, Wang Q, Colbran RJ, Allen PB, Greengard P, and Limbird LE. Spinophilin stabilizes cell surface expression of alpha 2B-adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem 278: 32405–32412, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Braithwaite SP, Paul S, Nairn AC, and Lombroso PJ. Synaptic plasticity: one STEP at a time. Trends Neurosci29: 452–458, 2006.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brandon EP, Idzerda RL, and McKnight GS. PKA isoforms, neural pathways, and behaviour: making the connection. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7: 397–403, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bredt DS and Nicoll RA. AMPA receptor trafficking at excitatory synapses. Neuron 40: 361–379, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bultynck G, Heath VL, Majeed AP, Galan J, Haguenauer-Tsapis R, and Cyert MS. Slm1 and slm2 are novel substrates of the calcineurin phosphatase required for heat stressinduced endocytosis of the yeast uracil permease. Mol Cell Biol 26: 4729–4745, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Burgin KE, Waxham MN, Rickling S, Westgate SA, Mobley WC, and Kelly PT. In situ hybridization histochemistry of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in developing rat brain. J Neurosci 10: 1788–1798, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carlisle Michel JJ and Scott JD. AKAP mediated signal transduction. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42: 235–257, 2002.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ceulemans H and Bollen M. Functional diversity of protein phosphatase-1, a cellular economizer and reset button. Physiol Rev 84: 1–39, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chan SF and Sucher NJ. An NMDA receptor signaling complex with protein phosphatase 2A. J Neurosci 21: 7985–7992, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chang BY, Conroy KB, Machleder EM, and Cartwright CA. RACK1, a receptor for activated C kinase and a homolog of the beta subunit of G proteins, inhibits activity of src tyrosine kinases and growth of NIH 3T3 cells. Mol Cell Biol 18: 3245–3256, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chen C and Leonard JP. Protein tyrosine kinase-mediated potentiation of currents from cloned NMDA receptors. J Neurochem 67: 194–200, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen-Izu Y, Xiao RP, Izu LT, Cheng H, Kuschel M, Spurgeon H, and Lakatta EG. G(i)-dependent localization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor signaling to L-type Ca(2+) channels. Biophys J 79: 2547–2556, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cheng JJ, Chao YJ, and Wang DL. Cyclic strain activates redox-sensitive proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 277: 48152–48157, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cho US and Xu W. Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme. Nature 445: 53–57, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coghlan VM, Perrino BA, Howard M, Langeberg LK, Hicks JB, Gallatin WM, and Scott JD. Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein. Science 267: 108–111, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Colbran RJ and Brown AM. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II and synaptic plasticity. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14: 318–327, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Colbran RJ and Soderling TR. Calcium/calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation sites of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Studies on the effect of phosphorylation of threonine 305/306 and serine 314 on calmodulin binding using synthetic peptides. J Biol Chem 265: 11213–11219, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Colledge M, Dean RA, Scott GK, Langeberg LK, Huganir RL, and Scott JD. Targeting of PKA to glutamate receptors through a MAGUK-AKAP complex. Neuron 27: 107–119, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Colledge M, Snyder EM, Crozier RA, Soderling JA, Jin Y, Langeberg LK, Lu H, Bear MF, and Scott JD. Ubiquitination regulates PSD-95 degradation and AMPA receptor surface expression. Neuron 40: 595–607, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Collingridge GL, Isaac JT, and Wang YT. Receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Nat Rev Neurosci 5: 952–962, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Conti M, Richter W, Mehats C, Livera G, Park JY, and Jin C. Cyclic AMP-specific PDE4 phosphodiesterases as critical components of cyclic AMP signaling. J Biol Chem 278: 5493–5496, 2003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Csortos C, Zolnierowicz S, Bako E, Durbin SD, and DePaoli-Roach AA. High complexity in the expression of the B’ subunit of protein phosphatase 2A0. Evidence for the existence of at least seven novel isoforms. J Biol Chem 271: 2578–2588, 1996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Czirjak G and Enyedi P. Targeting of calcineurin to an NFAT-like docking site is required for the calcium-dependent activation of the background K+ channel, TRESK. J Biol Chem 281: 14677–14682, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dan B, Servais L, Boyd SG, Wagstaff J, and Cheron G. From electrophysiology to chromatin: a bottom-up approach to Angelman syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 1030: 599–611, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Davare MA, Avdonin V, Hall DD, Peden EM, Burette A, Weinberg RJ, Horne MC, Hoshi T, and Hell JW. A beta2 adrenergic receptor signaling complex assembled with the Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 [see comments]. [erratum appears in Science 2001 Aug 3; 293(5531): 804]. Science 293: 98–101, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davare MA, Horne MC, and Hell JW. Protein Phosphatase 2A is associated with class C L-type calcium channels (Cav1.2) and antagonizes channel phosphorylation by cAMPdependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 275: 39710–39717, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    De Koninck P and Schulman H. Sensitivity of CaMKII to the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. Science 279: 227–230, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dell’Acqua ML, Dodge KL, Tavalin SJ, and Scott JD. Mapping the protein phosphatase-2B anchoring site on AKAP79. Binding and inhibition of phosphatase activity are mediated by residues 315–360. J Biol Chem 277: 48796–48802, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dell’Acqua ML, Faux MC, Thorburn J, Thorburn A, and Scott JD. Membrane-targeting sequences on AKAP79 bind phosphatidylinositol-4, 5- bisphosphate. EMBO J 17: 2246–2260, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Della Rocca GJ, van Biesen T, Daaka Y, Luttrell DK, Luttrell LM, and Lefkowitz RJ. Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by G protein-coupled receptors. Convergence of Gi- and Gq-mediated pathways on calcium/calmodulin, Pyk2, and Src kinase. J Biol Chem 272: 19125–19132, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Derkach V, Barria A, and Soderling TR. Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 3269–3274, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    DeSouza N, Reiken S, Ondrias K, Yang YM, Matkovich S, and Marks AR. Protein kinase A and two phosphatases are components of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor macromolecular signaling complex. J Biol Chem 277: 39397–39400, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dikic I, Tokiwa G, Lev S, Courtneidge SA, and Schlessinger J. A role for Pyk2 and Src in linking G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase activation. Nature 383: 547–549, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dodge KL, Khouangsathiene S, Kapiloff MS, Mouton R, Hill EV, Houslay MD, Langeberg LK, and Scott JD. mAKAP assembles a protein kinase A/PDE4 phosphodiesterase cAMP signaling module. EMBO J 20: 1921–1930, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide 2006.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dodge-Kafka KL, Soughayer J, Pare GC, Carlisle Michel JJ, Langeberg LK, Kapiloff MS, and Scott JD. The protein kinase A anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways. Nature 437: 574–578, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dosemeci A, Gollop N, and Jaffe H. Identification of a major autophosphorylation site on postsynaptic density-associated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 269: 31330–31333, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dosemeci A and Reese TS. Inhibition of endogenous phosphatase in a postsynaptic density fraction allows extensive phosphorylation of the major postsynaptic density protein. J Neurochem 61: 550–555, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dosemeci A, Tao-Cheng JH, Vinade L, Winters CA, Pozzo-Miller L, and Reese TS. Glutamate-induced transient modification of the postsynaptic density.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 10428–10432, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Earp H, Huckle W, Dawson T, Li X, Graves L, and Dy R. Angiotensin II activates at least two tyrosine kinases in rat liver epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 270: 28440–28447, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ehlers MD. Reinsertion or degradation of AMPA receptors determined by activitydependent endocytic sorting. Neuron 28: 511–525, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Elgersma Y. Genetic engineering cures mice of neurological deficits: prospects for treating Angelman syndrome. Pharmacogenomics 8: 539–541, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Elgersma Y, Fedorov NB, Ikonen S, Choi ES, Elgersma M, Carvalho OM, Giese KP, and Silva AJ. Inhibitory autophosphorylation of CaMKII controls PSD association, plasticity, and learning. Neuron 36: 493–505, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Esteban JA, Shi SH, Wilson C, Nuriya M, Huganir RL, and Malinow R. PKA phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits controls synaptic trafficking underlying plasticity. Nat Neurosci 6: 136–143, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Eto M, Bock R, Brautigan DL, and Linden DJ.Cerebellar long-term synaptic depression requires PKC-mediated activation of CPI-17, a myosin/moesin phosphatase inhibitor. Neuron 36: 1145–1158, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fan G, Shumay E, Wang H, and Malbon CC. The scaffold protein gravin (cAMPdependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) binds the beta 2-adrenergic receptor via the receptor cytoplasmic Arg-329 to Leu-413 domain and provides a mobile scaffold during desensitization. J Biol Chem 276: 24005–24014, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Feng J, Yan Z, Ferreira A, Tomizawa K, Liauw JA, Zhuo M, Allen PB, Ouimet CC, and Greengard P. Spinophilin regulates the formation and function of dendritic spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 9287–9292, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fink CC, Bayer KU, Myers JW, Ferrell JE, Jr., Schulman H, and Meyer T. Selective regulation of neurite extension and synapse formation by the beta but not the alpha isoform of CaMKII. Neuron 39: 283–297, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fukunaga K, Muller D, Ohmitsu M, Bako E, DePaoli-Roach AA, and Miyamoto E. Decreased protein phosphatase 2A activity in hippocampal long-term potentiation. J Neurochem 74: 807–817, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gardoni F, Bellone C, Cattabeni F, and Di Luca M. Protein kinase C activation modulates alpha-calmodulin kinase II binding to NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. J Biol Chem 276: 7609–7613, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gardoni F, Caputi A, Cimino M, Pastorino L, Cattabeni F, and Di Luca M. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is associated with NR2A/B subunits of NMDA receptor in postsynaptic densities. J Neurochem 71: 1733–1741, 1998.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gardoni F, Schrama LH, Kamal A, Gispen WH, Cattabeni F, and Di Luca M. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity involves competition between Ca2+/calmodulindependent protein kinase II and postsynaptic density 95 for binding to the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor. J Neurosci 21: 1501–1509, 2001.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gardoni F, Schrama LH, van Dalen JJ, Gispen WH, Cattabeni F, and Di Luca M. AlphaCaMKII binding to the C-terminal tail of NMDA receptor subunit NR2A and its modulation by autophosphorylation. FEBS Letters 456: 394–398, 1999.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giese KP, Fedorov NB, Filipkowski RK, and Silva AJ. Autophosphorylation at Thr286 of the alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II in LTP and learning. Science 279: 870–873, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gingrich JR, Pelkey KA, Fam SR, Huang Y, Petralia RS, Wenthold RJ, and Salter MW. Unique domain anchoring of Src to synaptic NMDA receptors via the mitochondrial protein NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 6237–6242, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Girault JA, Costa A, Derkinderen P, Studler JM, and Toutant M. FAK and PYK2/CAKbeta in the nervous system: a link between neuronal activity, plasticity and survival? Trends Neurosci 22: 257–263, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gleason MR, Higashijima S, Dallman J, Liu K, Mandel G, and Fetcho JR. Translocation of CaM kinase II to synaptic sites in vivo. Nature Neurosci 6: 217–218, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gomez LL, Alam S, Smith KE, Horne E, and Dell’Acqua ML. Regulation of A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150-cAMP-dependent protein kinase postsynaptic targeting by NMDA receptor activation of calcineurin and remodeling of dendritic actin. J Neurosci 22: 7027–7044, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gorski JA, Gomez LL, Scott JD, and Dell’Acqua ML. Association of an A-kinaseanchoring protein signaling scaffold with cadherin adhesion molecules in neurons and epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 16: 3574-3590, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grossman SD, Hsieh-Wilson LC, Allen PB, Nairn AC, and Greengard P. The actinbinding domain of spinophilin is necessary and sufficient for targeting to dendritic spines. Neuromol Med 2: 61–69, 2002.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Groth RD, Dunbar RL, and Mermelstein PG.Calcineurin regulation of neuronal plasticity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 311: 1159–1171, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Grover LM and Teyler TJ. Two components of long-term potentiation induced by different patterns of afferent activation. Nature 347: 477–479, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hall DD, Davare MA, Shi M, Allen ML, Weisenhaus M, McKnight GS, and Hell JW. Critical role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring to the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 via A-kinase anchor protein 150 in neurons. Biochemistry 46: 1635–1646, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hall DD, Feekes JA, Arachchige Don AS, Shi M,Hamid J, Chen L, Strack S, Zamponi GW, Horne MC, and Hell JW. Binding of protein phosphatase 2A to the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 next to Ser1928, its main PKA site, is critical for Ser1928 dephosphorylation. Biochemistry 45: 3448–3459, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hayashi Y, Shi SH, Esteban JA, Piccini A, Poncer JC, and Malinow R. Driving AMPA receptors into synapses by LTP and CaMKII: requirement for GluR1 and PDZ domain interaction. Science 287: 2262–2267, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Healy AM, Zolnierowicz S, Stapleton AE, Goebl M, DePaoli-Roach AA, and Pringle JR. CDC55, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in cellular morphogenesis: identification, characterization, and homology to the B subunit of mammalian type 2A protein phosphatase. Mol Cell Biol 11: 5767–5780, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hell JW, Westenbroek RE, Breeze LJ, Wang K, Chavkin C, and Catterall WA. Nmethyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced proteolytic conversion of postsynaptic class C Ltype calcium channels in hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 3362–3367, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hendrix P, Mayer-Jackel RE, Cron P, Goris J, Hofsteenge J, Merlevede W, and Hemmings BA. Structure and expression of a 72-kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. Evidence for different size forms produced by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem 268: 15267–15276, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hojjati MR, van Woerden GM, Tyler WJ, Giese KP, Silva AJ, Pozzo-Miller L, and Elgersma Y. Kinase activity is not required for alphaCaMKII-dependent presynaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses. Nat Neurosci 10: 1125–1127, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Honkanen RE and Golden T. Regulators of serine/threonine protein phosphatases at the dawn of a clinical era? Curr Med Chem 9: 2055–2075, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hoogland TM and Saggau P. Facilitation of L-type Ca2+ channels in dendritic spines by activation of beta2 adrenergic receptors. J Neurosci 24: 8416–8427, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Horne EA and Dell’Acqua ML. Phospholipase C is required for changes in postsynaptic structure and function associated with NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression. J Neurosci 27: 3523–3534, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hsieh-Wilson LC, Allen PB, Watanabe T, Nairn AC, and Greengard P. Characterization of the neuronal targeting protein spinophilin and its interactions with protein phosphatase-1. Biochemistry 38: 4365–4373, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hu XD, Huang Q, Yang X, and Xia H.Differential regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking by neurabin-targeted synaptic protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic transmission and long-term depression in hippocampus. J Neurosci 27: 4674–4686, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Huai Q, Kim HY, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Mondragon A,Liu JO, and Ke H. Crystal structure of calcineurin-cyclophilin-cyclosporin shows common but distinct recognition of immunophilin-drug complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 12037–12042, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Huang Y, Lu W, Ali DW, Pelkey KA, Pitcher GM, Lu YM, Aoto H, Roder JC, Sasaki T, Salter MW, and MacDonald JF. CAKbeta/Pyk2 kinase is a signaling link for induction of long-term potentiation in CA1 hippocampus. Neuron 29: 485–496, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hudmon A and Schulman H. Structure-function of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Biochem J 364: 593–611, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 109.
    Janssens V and Goris J. Protein phosphatase 2A: a highly regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling. Biochem J 353: 417–439, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 110.
    Johnson BD, Brousal JP, Peterson BZ, Gallombardo PA, Hockerman GH, Lai Y, Scheuer T, and Catterall WA. Modulation of the cloned skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel by anchored cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Neurosci 17: 1243–1255, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 111.
    Jurevicius J, Skeberdis VA, and Fischmeister R. Role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoforms in cAMP compartmentation following beta2-adrenergic stimulation of ICa,L in frog ventricular myocytes. J Physiol 551: 239–252, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 112.
    Kalia LV, Pitcher GM, Pelkey KA, and Salter MW. PSD-95 is a negative regulator of the tyrosine kinase Src in the NMDA receptor complex. EMBO J 25: 4971–4982, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 113.
    Kennedy MB, Bennett MK, and Erondu NE.Biochemical and immunochemical evidence that the "major postsynaptic density protein" is a subunit of a calmodulindependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 7357–7361, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 114.
    Khanna R, Zougman A, and Stanley EF. A proteomic screen for presynaptic terminal Ntype calcium channel (CaV2.2) binding partners. J Biochem Mol Biol 40: 302–314, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 115.
    Klauck TM, Faux MC, Labudda K, Langeberg LK, Jaken S, and Scott JD. Coordination of three signaling enzymes by AKAP79, a mammalian scaffold protein.Science 271: 1589–1592, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 116.
    Kohr G and Seeburg PH. Subtype-specific regulation of recombinant NMDA receptorchannels by protein tyrosine kinases of the src family. J Physiol 492: 445–452, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 117.
    Krupp JJ, Vissel B, Thomas CG, Heinemann SF, and Westbrook GL. Calcineurin acts via the C-terminus of NR2A to modulate desensitization of NMDA receptors. Neuropharmacol 42: 593–602, 2002.Google Scholar
  117. 119.
    Lan JY, Skeberdis VA, Jover T, Grooms SY, Lin Y, Araneda RC, Zheng X, Bennett MV, and Zukin RS. Protein kinase C modulates NMDA receptor trafficking and gating. Nat Neurosci 4: 382–390, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 120.
    Launey T, Endo S, Sakai R, Harano J, and Ito M. Protein phosphatase 2A inhibition induces cerebellar long-term depression and declustering of synaptic AMPA receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 676–681, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 121.
    Lee HK, Barbarosie M, Kameyama K, Bear MF, and Huganir RL. Regulation of distinct AMPA receptor phosphorylation sites during bidirectional synaptic plasticity. Nature 405: 955–959, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 108.
    Hulme JT, Lin TW, Westenbroek RE, Scheuer T, and Catterall WA. Beta-adrenergic regulation requires direct anchoring of PKA to cardiac CaV1.2 channels via a leucine zipper interaction with A kinase-anchoring protein 15. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 13093–13098, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Krupp JJ, Vissel B, Thomas CG, Heinemann SF, and Westbrook GL. Interactions of calmodulin and alpha-actinin with the NR1 subunit modulate Ca2+-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptors. J Neurosci 19:1165–1178, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Leonard AS, Bayer K-U, Merrill M, Lim I, Shea MA, Schulman H, and Hell JW. Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-Daspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin and a-actinin. J Biol Chem 277: 48441–48448, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Leonard AS, Davare MA, Horne MC, Garner CC, and Hell JW. SAP97 is associated with the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor GluR1 subunit. J Biol Chem 273: 19518–19524, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leonard AS, Lim IA, Hemsworth DE, Horne MC, and Hell JW. Calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II is associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 3239–3244, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lev S, Moreno H, Martinez R, Canoll P, Peles E, Musacchio JM, Plowman GD, Rudy B, and Schlessinger J. Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions. Nature 376: 737–745, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Li H, Rao A, and Hogan PG. Structural delineation of the calcineurin-NFAT interaction and its parallels to PP1 targeting interactions. J Mol Biol 342: 1659–1674, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Li H, Zhang L, Rao A, Harrison SC, and Hogan PG. Structure of calcineurin in complex with PVIVIT peptide: portrait of a low-affinity signalling interaction. J Mol Biol 369: 1296–1306, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Li X, Dy RC, Cance WG, Graves LM, and Earp HS. Interactions between two cytoskeleton-associated tyrosine kinases: calcium-dependent tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem 274: 8917–8924, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lieberman DN and Mody I. Regulation of NMDA channel function by endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase. Nature 369: 235–239, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lim IA, Hall DD, and Hell JW. Selectivity and promiscuity of the first and second PDZ domains of PSD- 95 and synapse-associated protein 102. J Biol Chem 277: 21697–21711, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lim IA, Merrill MA, Chen Y, and Hell JW.Disruption of the NMDA receptor-PSD-95 interaction in hippocampal neurons with no obvious physiological short-term effect. Neuropharmacol 45: 738–754, 2003.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lin F, Wang H, and Malbon CC. Gravin-mediated formation of signaling complexes in beta 2-adrenergic receptor desensitization and resensitization. J Biol Chem 275: 19025–19034, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lin JW, Ju W, Foster K, Lee SH, Ahmadian G, Wyszynski M, Wang YT, and Sheng M. Distinct molecular mechanisms and divergent endocytotic pathways of AMPA receptor internalization. Nat Neurosci 3: 1282–1290, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lin Y, Jover-Mengual T, Wong J, Bennett MV, and Zukin RS. PSD-95 and PKC converge in regulating NMDA receptor trafficking and gating. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 19902–19907, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    135. Lisman J and Raghavachari S. A unified model of the presynaptic and postsynaptic changes during LTP at CA1 synapses. Sci STKE 2006: re11, 2006.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lisman J, Schulman H, and Cline H. The molecular basis ofCaMKII function in synaptic and behavioral memory. Nat Neurosci 3: 175–190, 2002.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lledo PM, Hjelmstad GO, Mukherji S, Soderling TR, Malenka RC, and Nicoll RA. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and long-term potentiation enhance synaptic transmission by the same mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 11175–11179, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lu CS, Hodge JJ, Mehren J, Sun XX, and Griffith LC. Regulation of the Ca2+/CaMresponsive pool of CaMKII by scaffold-dependent autophosphorylation. Neuron 40: 1185–1197, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lu W and Ziff EB. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron 47: 407–421, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lu WY, Jackson MF, Bai D, Orser BA, and MacDonald JF. In CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus protein kinase C regulates calcium-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptors. J Neurosci 20: 4452–4461, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lu WY, Xiong ZG, Lei S, Orser BA, Dudek E, Browning MD, and MacDonald JF. Gprotein-coupled receptors act via protein kinase C and Src to regulate NMDA receptors. Nat Neurosci 2: 331–338, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lu Y, Allen M, Halt AR, Weisenhaus M, Dallapiazza RF, Hall DD, Usachev YM, McKnight GS, and Hell JW. Age-dependent requirement of AKAP150-anchored PKA and GluR2-lacking AMPA Receptors in LTP. EMBO J 26: 4879–4890, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lu YM, Roder JC, Davidow J, and Salter MW. Src activation in the induction of longterm potentiation in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Science 279: 1363–1367, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ma OK and Sucher NJ. Molecular interaction of NMDA receptor subunit NR3A with protein phosphatase 2A. Neuroreport 15: 1447–1450, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    MacMillan LB, Bass MA, Cheng N, Howard EF,Tamura M, Strack S, Wadzinski BE, and Colbran RJ. Brain actin-associated protein phosphatase 1 holoenzymes containing spinophilin, neurabin, and selected catalytic subunit isoforms. J Biol Chem 274: 35845–35854, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Malenka RC and Bear MF. LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches. Neuron 44: 5–21, 2004.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Malenka RC, Kauer JA, Perkel DJ, Mauk MD, Kelly PT, Nicoll RA, and Waxham MN. An essential role for postsynaptic calmodulin and protein kinase activity in long-term potentiation. Nature 340: 554–557, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Malinow R and Malenka RC. AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Annu Rev Neurosci 25: 103–126, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Malinow R, Schulman H, and Tsien RW. Inhibition of postsynaptic PKC or CaMKII blocks induction but not expression of LTP. Science 245: 862–866, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Man H-Y, Sekine-Aizawa Y, and Huganir R.Regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor trafficking through PKA phosphorylation of the Glu receptor 1 subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 3579–3584, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Manning G, Whyte DB, Martinez R, Hunter T, and Sudarsanam S. The protein kinase complement of the human genome. Science 298: 1912–1934, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mansuy IM. Calcineurin in memory and bidirectional plasticity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 311: 1195–1208, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Martin SJ, Grimwood PD, and Morris RG. Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Annu Rev Neurosci 23: 649–711, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Marx SO, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Gaburjakova M, Gaburjakova J, Yang YM, Rosemblit N, and Marks AR. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of ryanodine receptors: a novel role for leucine/isoleucine zippers. J Cell Biol 153: 699–708, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mayer RE, Hendrix P, Cron P, Matthies R, Stone SR, Goris J, Merlevede W, Hofsteenge J, and Hemmings BA. Structure of the 55-kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A: evidence for a neuronal-specific isoform. Biochemistry 30: 3589–3597, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    McAvoy T, Allen PB, Obaishi H, Nakanishi H, Takai Y, Greengard P, Nairn AC, and Hemmings HC, Jr. Regulation of neurabin I interaction with protein phosphatase 1 by phosphorylation. Biochemistry 38: 12943–12949, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    McCright B, Rivers AM, Audlin S, and Virshup DM. The B56 family of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunits encodes differentiation-induced phosphoproteins that target PP2A to both nucleus and cytoplasm. J Biol Chem 271: 22081–22089, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    McCright B and Virshup DM. Identification of a new family of protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits. J Biol Chem 270: 26123–26128, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Menegon A, Burgaya F, Baudot P, Dunlap D, Girault J, and Valtorta F. FAK and PYK2/CAKbeta, two related tyrosine kinases highly expressed in the central nervous system: similarities and differences in the expression pattern. Eur J Neurosci 11: 3777–3788, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Merrill MA, Chen Y, Strack S, and Hell JW. Activity-driven postsynaptic translocation of CaMKII. Trends Pharmacol Sci 26: 645–653, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Merrill MA, Malik Z, Akyol Z, Bartos JA, Leonard AS, Hudmon A, Shea MA, and Hell JW. Displacement of alpha-Actinin from the NMDA Receptor NR1 C0 Domain By Ca(2+)/Calmodulin Promotes CaMKII Binding. Biochemistry 46: 8485–8497, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Meyer T, Hanson PI, Stryer L, and Schulman H. Calmodulin trapping by calciumcalmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Science 256: 1199–1202, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Migues PV, Lehmann IT, Fluechter L, Cammarota M, Gurd JW, Sim AT, Dickson PW, and Rostas JA. Phosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr253 occurs in vivo and enhances binding to isolated postsynaptic densities. J Neurochem 98: 289–299, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mochly-Rosen D and Gordon AS. Anchoring proteins for protein kinase C: a means for isozyme selectivity. FASEB J 12: 35–42, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Morishita W, Connor JH, Xia H, Quinlan EM, Shenolikar S, and Malenka RC. Regulation of synaptic strength by protein phosphatase 1. Neuron 32: 1133–1148, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mulkey RM, Endo S, Shenolikar S, and Malenka RC. Involvement of a calcineurin/inhibitor-1 phosphatase cascade in hippocampal long-term depression. Nature 369: 486–488, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mullasseril P, Dosemeci A, Lisman JE, and Griffith LC. A structural mechanism for maintaining the ‘on-state’ of the CaMKII memory switch in the post-synaptic density. J Neurochem 103: 357–364, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Muly EC, Allen P, Mazloom M, Aranbayeva Z, Greenfield AT, and Greengard P. Subcellular distribution of neurabin immunolabeling in primate prefrontal cortex: comparison with spinophilin. Cereb Cortex 14: 1398–1407, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Muly EC, Smith Y, Allen P, and Greengard P. Subcellular distribution of spinophilin immunolabeling in primate prefrontal cortex: localization to and within dendritic spines. J Comp Neurol 469: 185–197, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Nakanishi H, Obaishi H, Satoh A, Wada M, Mandai K, Satoh K, Nishioka H, Matsuura Y, Mizoguchi A, and Takai Y. Neurabin: a novel neural tissue-specific actin filamentbinding protein involved in neurite formation. J Cell Biol 139: 951–961, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Namgaladze D, Hofer HW, and Ullrich V. Redox control of calcineurin by targeting the binuclear Fe(2+)-Zn(2+) center at the enzyme active site. J Biol Chem 277: 5962–5969, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Nishizuka Y. Protein kinase C and lipid signaling for sustained cellular responses. FASEB J 9: 484–496, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Obermair GJ, Szabo Z, Bourinet E, and Flucher BE. Differential targeting of the L-type Ca2+ channel alpha1C (CaV1.2) to synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments in hippocampal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 19: 2109–2122, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Oh MC and Derkach VA. Dominant role of the GluR2 subunit in regulation of AMPA receptors by CaMKII. Nat Neurosci 8: 853–854, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Oh MC, Derkach VA, Guire ES, and Soderling TR. Extrasynaptic Membrane Trafficking Regulated by GluR1 Serine 845 Phosphorylation Primes AMPA Receptors for Long-term Potentiation. J Biol Chem 281: 752–758, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Okamoto K, Nagai T, Miyawaki A, and Hayashi Y. Rapid and persistent modulation of actin dynamics regulates postsynaptic reorganization underlying bidirectional plasticity. Nat Neurosci 7: 1104–1112, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Okamoto K, Narayanan R, Lee SH, Murata K, and Hayashi Y. The role of CaMKII as an F-actin-bundling protein crucial for maintenance of dendritic spine structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 6418–6423, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Oliver CJ, Terry-Lorenzo RT, Elliott E, Bloomer WA, Li S, Brautigan DL, Colbran RJ, and Shenolikar S. Targeting protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the actin cytoskeleton: the neurabin I/PP1 complex regulates cell morphology. Mol Cell Biol 22: 4690–4701, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Oliveria SF, Dell’acqua ML, and Sather WA. AKAP79/150 Anchoring of Calcineurin Controls Neuronal L-Type Ca(2+) Channel Activity and Nuclear Signaling. Neuron 55: 261–275, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Omkumar RV, Kiely MJ, Rosenstein AJ, Min K-T, and Kennedy MB. Identification of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. J Biol Chem 271: 31670–31678, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Osterrieder W, Brum G, Hescheler J, Trautwein W, Flockerzi V, and Hofmann F. Injection of subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase into cardiac myocytes modulates Ca2+ current. Nature 298: 576–578, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Otey CA and Carpen O. Alpha-actinin revisited: a fresh look at an old player. Cell Motil Cytoskel 58: 104–111, 2004.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Otmakhov N, Tao-Cheng JH, Carpenter S, Asrican B, Dosemeci A, Reese TS, and Lisman J. Persistent accumulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in dendritic spines after induction of NMDA receptor-dependent chemical long-term potentiation. J Neurosci 24: 9324–9331, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Pallas DC, Weller W, Jaspers S, Miller TB, Lane WS, and Roberts TM. The third subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a 55-kilodalton protein which is apparently substituted for by T antigens in complexes with the 36- and 63-kilodalton PP2A subunits, bears little resemblance to T antigens. J Virol 66: 886–893, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Paoletti P and Neyton J. NMDA receptor subunits: function and pharmacology. Curr Opin Pharmacol 7: 39–47, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Park SY, Avraham HK, and Avraham S. RAFTK/Pyk2 Activation Is Mediated by Transacting Autophosphorylation in a Src-independent Manner. J Biol Chem 279: 33315–33322, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Patton BL, Miller SG, and Kennedy MB. Activation of type II calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin is inhibited by autophosphorylation of threonine within the calmodulin-binding domain. J Biol Chem 265: 11204–11212, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Paul S and Lombroso PJ. Receptor and nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the nervous system. Cell Mol Life Sci 60: 2465–2482, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pawson T and Nash P. Assembly of cell regulatory systems through protein interaction domains. Science 300: 445–452, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Peng J, Kim MJ, Cheng D, Duong DM, Gygi SP, and Sheng M. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of rat forebrain postsynaptic density fractions by mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem 279: 21003–21011, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Penzes P, Johnson RC, Sattler R, Zhang X, Huganir RL, Kambampati V, Mains RE, and Eipper BA. The neuronal Rho-GEF Kalirin-7 interacts with PDZ domain-containing proteins and regulates dendritic morphogenesis. Neuron 29: 229–242, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Perry SJ, Baillie GS, Kohout TA, McPhee I, Magiera MM, Ang KL, Miller WE, McLean AJ, Conti M, Houslay MD, and Lefkowitz RJ. Targeting of cyclic AMP degradation to beta 2-adrenergic receptors by beta-arrestins. Science 298: 834–836, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Plant K, Pelkey KA, Bortolotto ZA, Morita D, Terashima A, McBain CJ, Collingridge GL, and Isaac JT. Transient incorporation of native GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors during hippocampal long-term potentiation. Nature Neurosci 9: 602–604, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Priel A, Kolleker A, Ayalon G, Gillor M, Osten P, and Stern-Bach Y. Stargazin reduces desensitization and slows deactivation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors. J Neurosci 25: 2682–2686, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Raman IM, Tong G, and Jahr CE. Beta-adrenergic regulation of synaptic NMDA receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Neuron 16: 415–421, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Reuter H. Calcium channel modulation by neurotransmitters, enzymes and drugs. Nature 301: 569–574, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Robison AJ, Bartlett RK, Bass MA, and Colbran RJ. Differential Modulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II Activity by Regulated Interactions with N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor NR2B Subunits and {alpha}-Actinin. J Biol Chem 280: 39316–39323, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Robison AJ, Bass MA, Jiao Y, Macmillan LB, Carmody LC, Bartlett RK, and Colbran RJ. Multivalent Interactions of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II with the Postsynaptic Density Proteins NR2B, Densin-180, and {alpha}-Actinin-2. J Biol Chem 280: 35329–35336, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Rochais F, Abi-Gerges A, Horner K, Lefebvre F, Cooper DM, Conti M, Fischmeister R, and Vandecasteele G. A specific pattern of phosphodiesterases controls the cAMP signals generated by different Gs-coupled receptors in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Circ Res 98: 1081–1088, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ron D, Chen CH, Caldwell J, Jamieson L, Orr E, and Mochly-Rosen D. Cloning of an intracellular receptor for protein kinase C: a homolog of the beta subunit of G proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 839–843, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Rongo C and Kaplan JM. CaMKII regulates the density of central glutamatergic synapses in vivo. Nature 402: 195–199, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Rosenberg OS, Deindl S, Sung RJ, Nairn AC, and Kuriyan J. Structure of the autoinhibited kinase domain of CaMKII and SAXS analysis of the holoenzyme. Cell 123: 849–860, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Rosenmund C, Carr DW, Bergeson SE, Nilaver G, Scott JD, and Westbrook GL. Anchoring of protein kinase A is required for modulation of AMPA/kainate receptors on hippocampal neurons. Nature 368: 853–856, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Rubin CS. A kinase anchor proteins and the intracellular targeting of signals carried by cyclic AMP. Biochim Biophys Acta 1224: 467–479, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ryan XP, Alldritt J, Svenningsson P, Allen PB, Wu GY, Nairn AC, and Greengard P. The Rho-specific GEF Lfc interacts with neurabin and spinophilin to regulate dendritic spine morphology. Neuron 47: 85–100, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Salter MW and Kalia LV. Src kinases: a hub for NMDA receptor regulation. Nat Rev Neurosci 5: 317–328, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Saraf A, Virshup DM, and Strack S. Differential expression of the B’beta regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A modulates tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and catecholamine synthesis. J Biol Chem 282: 573–580, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Sarrouilhe D, di Tommaso A, Metaye T, and Ladeveze V. Spinophilin: from partners to functions. Biochimie 88: 1099–1113, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Sasaki H, Nagura K, Ishino M, Tobioka H, Kotani K, and Sasaki T. Cloning and characterization of cell adhesion kinase beta, a novel protein-tyrosine kinase of the focal adhesion kinase subfamily. J Biol Chem 270: 21206–21219, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Satoh A, Nakanishi H, Obaishi H, Wada M, Takahashi K, Satoh K, Hirao K, Nishioka H, Hata Y, Mizoguchi A, and Takai Y. Neurabin-II/spinophilin. An actin filamentbinding protein with one pdz domain localized at cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion sites. J Biol Chem 273: 3470–3475, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Seabold GK, Burette A, Lim IA, Weinberg RJ, and Hell JW. Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 and SAP102. J Biol Chem 278: 15040–15048, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Shen K and Meyer T. Dynamic control of CaMKII Translocation in hippocampal neurons by NMDA receptor stimulation. Science 284: 162–166, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Shen K, Teruel MN, Connor JH, Shenolikar S, and Meyer T. Molecular memory by reversible translocation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Nature Neurosci 3: 881–886, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Shen K, Teruel MN, Subramanian K, and Meyer T. CaMKIIbeta functions as an F-actin targeting module that localizes CaMKIIalpha/beta heterooligomers to dendritic spines. Neuron 21: 593–606, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Shi J, Townsend M, and Constantine-Paton M. Activity-dependent induction of tonic calcineurin activity mediates a rapid developmental downregulation of NMDA receptor currents. Neuron 28: 103–114, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Shih M, Lin F, Scott JD, Wang HY, and Malbon CC. Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases and phosphatases and the role of gravin. J Biol Chem 274: 1588–1595, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Silva AJ, Paylor R, Wehner JM, and Tonegawa S. Impaired spatial learning in alphacalcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice. Science 257: 206–211, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Silva AJ, Stevens C, Tonegawa S, and Wang Y. Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- calmodulin kinase II mutant mice. Science 257: 201–206, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Skeberdis VA, Chevaleyre V, Lau CG, Goldberg JH, Pettit DL, Suadicani SO, Lin Y, Bennett MV, Yuste R, Castillo PE, and Zukin RS. Protein kinase A regulates calcium permeability of NMDA receptors. Nat Neurosci 9: 501–510, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Smith KE, Gibson ES, and Dell’Acqua ML. cAMP-dependent protein kinase postsynaptic localization regulated by NMDA receptor activation through translocation of an A-kinase anchoring protein scaffold protein. J Neurosci 26: 2391–2402, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Snyder GL, Galdi S, Fienberg AA, Allen P, Nairn AC, and Greengard P. Regulation of AMPA receptor dephosphorylation by glutamate receptor agonists. Neuropharmacology 45: 703–713, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Sorokin A, Kozlowski P, Graves L, and Philip A. Protein-tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates endothelin-induced p38 MAPK activation in glomerular mesangial cells. J Biol Chem 276: 21521–21528, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Staudinger J, Lu J, and Olson EN. Specific interaction of the PDZ domain protein PICK1 with the COOH terminus of protein kinase C-alpha. J Biol Chem 272: 32019–32024, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Steinberg SF and Brunton LL. Compartmentation of G protein-coupled signaling pathways in cardiac myocytes. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 41: 751–773, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Strack S, Barban MA, Wadzinski BE, and Colbran RJ. Differential inactivation of postsynaptic density-associated and soluble Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. J Neurochem 68: 2119–2128, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Strack S, Chang D, Zaucha JA, Colbran RJ, and Wadzinski BE. Cloning and characterization of B delta, a novel regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. FEBS Lett 460: 462–466, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Strack S, Choi S, Lovinger DM, and Colbran RJ. Translocation of autophosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to the postsynaptic density. J Biol Chem 272: 13467–13470, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Strack S and Colbran RJ. Autophosphorylation-dependent targeting of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. J Biol Chem 273: 20689–20692, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Strack S, McNeill RB, and Colbran RJ. Mechanism and regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II targeting to the NR2B subunit of the Nmethyl- D-aspartate receptor. J Biol Chem 275: 23798–23806, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Strack S, Robison AJ, Bass MA, and Colbran RJ. Association of calcium/calmodulindependent kinase II with developmentally regulated splice variants of the postsynaptic density protein densin-180. J Biol Chem 275: 25061–25064, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Strack S, Zaucha JA, Ebner FF, Colbran RJ, and Wadzinski BE. Brain protein phosphatase 2A: developmental regulation and distinct cellular and subcellular localization by B subunits. J Compar Neurol 392: 515–527, 1998.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Sun XX, Hodge JJ, Zhou Y, Nguyen M, and Griffith LC. The eag potassium channel binds and locally activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem 279: 10206–10214, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Svenningsson P, Nishi A, Fisone G, Girault JA, Nairn AC, and Greengard P. DARPP-32: an integrator of neurotransmission. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 44: 269–296, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Tanabe O, Nagase T, Murakami T, Nozaki H, Usui H, Nishito Y, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, and Takeda M. Molecular cloning of a 74-kDa regulatory subunit (B" or delta) of human protein phosphatase 2A. FEBS Lett 379: 107–111, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Tao J, Shumay E, McLaughlin S, Wang HY, and Malbon CC. Regulation of AKAPmembrane interactions by calcium. J Biol Chem 281: 23932–23944, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tasken KA, Collas P, Kemmner WA, Witczak O, Conti M, and Tasken K. Phosphodiesterase 4D and protein kinase a type II constitute a signaling unit in the centrosomal area. J Biol Chem 276: 21999–22002, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Tavalin SJ, Colledge M, Hell JW, Langeberg LK, Huganir RL, and Scott JD. Regulation of GluR1 by the A-kinase anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) signaling complex shares properties with long-term depression. J Neurosci 22: 3044–3051, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Tehrani MA, Mumby MC, and Kamibayashi C. Identification of a novel protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit highly expressed in muscle. J Biol Chem 271: 5164–5170, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Terrak M, Kerff F, Langsetmo K, Tao T, and Dominguez R. Structural basis of protein phosphatase 1 regulation. Nature 429: 780–784, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Terry-Lorenzo RT, Roadcap DW, Otsuka T, Blanpied TA, Zamorano PL, Garner CC, Shenolikar S, and Ehlers MD. Neurabin/protein phosphatase-1 complex regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis and maturation. Mol Biol Cell 16: 2349–2362, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Thalhammer A, Rudhard Y, Tigaret CM, Volynski KE, Rusakov DA, and Schoepfer R. CaMKII translocation requires local NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signaling. EMBO J 25: 5873–5883, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Thiagarajan TC, Lindskog M, and Tsien RW.Adaptation to synaptic inactivity in hippocampal neurons. Neuron 47: 725–737, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Tomita S, Adesnik H, Sekiguchi M, Zhang W, Wada K, Howe JR, Nicoll RA, and Bredt DS. Stargazin modulates AMPA receptor gating and trafficking by distinct domains. Nature 435: 1052–1058, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Tomita S, Stein V, Stocker TJ, Nicoll RA, and Bredt DS. Bidirectional synaptic plasticity regulated by phosphorylation of stargazin-like TARPs. Neuron 45: 269–277, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Tong G and Jahr CE. Regulation of glycine-insensitive desensitization of the NMDA receptor in outside-out patches. J Neurophysiol 72: 754–761, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Tong G, Shepherd D, and Jahr CE. Synaptic desensitization of NMDA receptors by calcineurin. Science 267: 1510–1512, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Townsend M, Liu Y, and Constantine-Paton M. Retina-driven dephosphorylation of the NR2A subunit correlates with faster NMDA receptor kinetics at developing retinocollicular synapses. J Neurosci 24: 11098–11107, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Tsukada M, Prokscha A, Oldekamp J, and Eichele G. Identification of neurabin II as a novel doublecortin interacting protein. Mech Dev 120: 1033–1043, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Tu H, Tang TS, Wang Z, and Bezprozvanny I. Association of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5- Trisphosphate Receptor with AKAP9 (Yotiao) and Protein Kinase A. J Biol Chem 279: 19375–19382, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Turetsky D, Garringer E, and Patneau DK. Stargazin modulates native AMPA receptor functional properties by two distinct mechanisms. J Neurosci 25: 7438–7448, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    van Woerden GM, Harris KD, Hojjati MR, Gustin RM, Qiu S, de Avila Freire R, Jiang YH, Elgersma Y, and Weeber EJ. Rescue of neurological deficits in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome by reduction of alphaCaMKII inhibitory phosphorylation. Nat Neurosci 10: 280–282, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Vigil D, Blumenthal DK, Brown S, Taylor SS, and Trewhella J. Differential Effects of Substrate on Type I and Type II PKA Holoenzyme Dissociation.Biochemistry 43: 5629–5636, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Voorhoeve PM, Hijmans EM, and Bernards R.Functional interaction between a novel protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit, PR59, and the retinoblastoma-related p107 protein. Oncogene 18: 515–524, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Walikonis RS, Jensen ON, Mann M, Provance DW, Jr., Mercer JA, and Kennedy MB. Identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density fraction by mass spectrometry. J Neurosci 20: 4069–4080, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, Jeng CJ, Asuncion FJ, and Kennedy MB. Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulindependent protein kinase II and (alpha)-actinin. J Neurosci 21: 423–433, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wang HY, Tao J, Shumay E, and Malbon CC. G-Protein-coupled receptor-associated Akinase anchoring proteins: AKAP79 and AKAP250 (gravin). Eur J Cell Biol 85: 643–650, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Wang Q, Zhao J, Brady AE, Feng J, Allen PB,Lefkowitz RJ, Greengard P, and Limbird LE. Spinophilin blocks arrestin actions in vitro and in vivo at G protein-coupled receptors. Science 304: 1940–1944, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Wang X, Zeng W, Kim MS, Allen PB, Greengard P, and Muallem S. Spinophilin/neurabin reciprocally regulate signaling intensity by G protein-coupled receptors. EMBO J 26: 2768–2776, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Wang X, Zeng W, Soyombo AA, Tang W, Ross EM, Barnes AP, Milgram SL, Penninger JM, Allen PB, Greengard P, and Muallem S. Spinophilin regulates Ca2+ signalling by binding the N-terminal domain of RGS2 and the third intracellular loop of G-protein-coupled receptors. Nat Cell Biol 7: 405–411, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Wang YT and Salter MW. Regulation of NMDA receptors by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Nature 369: 233–235, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Weeber EJ, Jiang YH, Elgersma Y, Varga AW, Carrasquillo Y, Brown SE, Christian JM, Mirnikjoo B, Silva A, Beaudet AL, and Sweatt JD. Derangements of hippocampal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in a mouse model for Angelman mental retardation syndrome. J Neurosci 23: 2634–2644, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Westphal RS, Tavalin SJ, Lin JW, Alto NM, Fraser IDC, Langeberg LK, Sheng M, and Scott JD. Regulation of NMDA receptors by an associated phosphatase-kinase signaling complex. Science 285: 93–96, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Willoughby D, Wong W, Schaack J, Scott JD, and Cooper DM. An anchored PKA and PDE4 complex regulates subplasmalemmal cAMP dynamics. EMBO J 25: 2051–2061, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Wong W and Scott JD. AKAP signalling complexes: focal points in space and time. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5: 959–970, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Wu SS, Jacamo RO, Vong SK, and Rozengurt E. Differential regulation of Pyk2 phosphorylation at Tyr-402 and Tyr-580 in intestinal epithelial cells: roles of calcium, Src, Rho kinase, and the cytoskeleton. Cell Signal 18: 1932–1940, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Wyszynski M, Lin J, Rao A, Nigh E, Beggs AH, Craig AM, and Sheng M. Competitive binding of a-actinin and calmodulin to the NMDA receptor. Nature 385: 439–442, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J, and Huganir RL. Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron 22: 179–187, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Xiao RP, Cheng H, Zhou YY, Kuschel M, and Lakatta EG. Recent advances in cardiac beta(2)-adrenergic signal transduction. Circ Res 85: 1092–1100, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Xiong ZG, Pelkey KA, Lu WY, Lu YM, Roder JC, MacDonald JF, and Salter MW. Src potentiation of NMDA receptors in hippocampal and spinal neurons is not mediated by reducing zinc inhibition. J Neurosci 19: RC37, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Xu Y, Xing Y, Chen Y, Chao Y, Lin Z, Fan E, Yu JW, Strack S, Jeffrey PD, and Shi Y. Structure of the protein phosphatase 2A holoenzyme.Cell 127: 1239–1251, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Yaka R, Thornton C, Vagts AJ, Phamluong K, Bonci A, and Ron D. NMDA receptor function is regulated by the inhibitory scaffolding protein, RACK1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 5710–5715, 2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Yamashita T, Inui S, Maeda K, Hua DR, Takagi K, Fukunaga K, and Sakaguchi N. Regulation of CaMKII by alpha4/PP2Ac contributes to learning and memory. Brain Res 1082: 1–10, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Yan Z, Fedorov SA, Mumby MC, and Williams RS. PR48, a novel regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, interacts with Cdc6 and modulates DNA replication in human cells. Mol Cell Biol 20: 1021–1029, 2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    274. Yang S, Fletcher WH, and Johnson DA. Regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase: Enzyme activation without dissociation. Biochem: 6267–6271, 1995.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Yu H, Li X, Marchetto GS, Dy R, Hunter D, Calvo B, Dawson TL, Wilm M, Anderegg RJ, Graves LM, and Earp HS. Activation of a novel calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase. Correlation with c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Biol Chem 271: 29993–29998, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Yu X-M, Askalan R, Keil II GJ, and Salter MW. NMDA channel regulation by channelassociated protein tyrosine kinase Src. Science 275: 674–678, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Zhang S, Ehlers MD, Bernhardt JP, Su CT, and Huganir RL. Calmodulin mediates calcium-dependent inactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Neuron 21: 443–453, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Zhou YY, Cheng H, Bogdanov KY, Hohl C, Altschuld R, Lakatta EG, and Xiao RP. Localized cAMP-dependent signaling mediates beta 2-adrenergic modulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Am J Physiol 273: H1611–H1618, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Zito K, Knott G, Shepherd GM, Shenolikar S, and Svoboda K. Induction of spine growth and synapse formation by regulation of the spine actin cytoskeleton. Neuron 44: 321–334, 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Zolnierowicz S, Csortos C, Bondor J, Verin A, Mumby MC, and DePaoli-Roach AA. Diversity in the regulatory B-subunits of protein phosphatase 2A: identification of a novel isoform highly expressed in brain. Biochem 33: 11858–11867, 1994.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Zolnierowicz S, Van Hoof C, Andjelkovic N, Cron P, Stevens I, Merlevede W, Goris J, and Hemmings BA. The variable subunit associated with protein phosphatase 2A0 defines a novel multimember family of regulatory subunits. Biochem J 317 (Pt 1): 187–194, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Strack
    • 1
  • Johannes W. Hell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations