Multiple Contextual Levels of Risk for Peer Victimization: A Review with Implications for Prevention and Intervention Efforts

  • Noel A. Card
  • Jenny Isaacs
  • Ernest V. E. Hodges

In this chapter we will discuss the importance of considering risk—and alternatively, protective—factors for peer victimization that occur at multiple levels of children’s ecological context, with the goal that this review will be useful for both basic research and prevention and intervention efforts. We will begin by defining peer victimization and identifying several well-established personal characteristics that place children at greater or lesser risk for being the targets of their peers’ aggression. However, the majority of our review of risk and protective factors will focus on features of the child’s context, and we will separate these contextual influences into those occurring across five levels of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological taxonomy. We will then discuss the implications of these ecological risk and protective factors for prevention and intervention efforts and review prior prevention and intervention studies that have considered multiple contextual levels. We will conclude that studies that have failed to consider higher levels of contextual risk factors have been less effective than is desired and will offer suggestions for considering these ecological factors in future empirical and applied work.


Aggressive Behavior Prevention Program Attachment Style School Violence Good Behavior Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noel A. Card
    • 1
  • Jenny Isaacs
    • 2
  • Ernest V. E. Hodges
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Family Studies and Human DevelopmentUniversity of ArizonaUSA
  2. 2.PsychologyYeshiva College of Yeshiva UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySt. John's UniversityUSA

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