Advertisement

The Psychiatrist's Role After a School Shooting: The Emergency Room and Beyond

  • Elissa P. Benedek
  • Praveen Kambam

In recent years, our society has witnessed a sharp increase in abusive, violent, and sexually aggressive behavior by our youth. Violent crime by youth decreased for a period in the last few years of 1990s but, once again, is on the upswing. The violent crimes committed by these children and adolescents have been a consistent social problem despite targeted prevention programs and juvenile school-specific interventions becoming increasingly popular around the country. Violent crimes have increased 2.3% from 2004 to 2005 (U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2006). The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), investigating murders committed during the years 1974 through 2004, found that almost half of the offenders were under the age of 25 years, and 11% were under the age of 18 years. In 1994, FBI national self-report studies indicated that the highest risk for initiation of serious violent behavior occurred between the ages of 15 and 16, and the risk of initiating violent behavior after age 20 was much lower (Elliott, 1994).

Keywords

Emergency Room Violent Crime Media Coverage Violent Behavior School Violence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Mateen, C. (2002). Effects of witnessing violence on children and adolescents. In D. Schetky & E. P. Benedek (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Child and Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry (pp. 213–224). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  4. Benedek, E. P. (2002). Testifying: The expert witness in court. In D. Schetky & E. P. Benedek (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Child and Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry (pp. 33–34). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Bollen, K. A. & Phillips, D. P. (1982). Imitative suicides: A national study of the effects of television new stories. American Sociological Review 47, 802–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of the Surgeon General, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, American Association of Suicidology, Annenberg Public Policy Center (2001). Reporting on suicide: Recommendations for the media.Google Scholar
  7. Elliott, D. S. (1994). Youth violence: An overview. Congressional Program: Children and Violence, 15–20.Google Scholar
  8. Elliott, D. S., Hamburg, B. A., & Williams, K. R. (1998). Violence in American Schools. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Etzerdorfer, E., Sonneck, G., & Nagel-Kuess, S. (1992). Newspaper reports and suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 507–508.Google Scholar
  10. Etzersdorfer, E., Voracek, M., & Sonneck, G. (2001). A dose-response relationship of imitational suicides with newspaper distribution. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gould, M. S., Wallenstein, S., & Davidson, L. (1989). Suicide clusters: A critical review. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 19, 17–29.Google Scholar
  12. Gould, M. S., Wallenstein, S., & Kleinman, M. H. (1990a). Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gould, M. S., Wallenstein, S., & Kleinman, M. H. (1990b). Suicide clusters: An examination of age-specific effects. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 211–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gould, M., Jamieson, P., & Romer, D. (2003). Media contagion and suicide among the young. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1269–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kas, J. (1999). The loud echo of Littleton’s gunfire. US News and World Report, 126, 24.Google Scholar
  16. Kostinsky, S., Bixler, E. O., & Kettl, P. A. (2001). Threats of school violence in Pennsylvania after media coverage of the Columbine High School Massacre. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155, 994–1001.Google Scholar
  17. Layne, C. M., Pynoos, R. S., & Cardenas, J. (2001). Wounded adolescence: School-based group psychotherapy for adolescents who sustained or witnessed violent injury. In M. Shafii & S. Shafii (Eds.), School Violence: Contributing Factors, Management, and Prevention (pp. 163–186). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  18. Nader, K., Pynoos, R., Fairbanks, L., & Frederick, C. (1990). Children’s PTSD reactions one year after a sniper attack at their school. The American Journal of Psychology, 147(11), 1526–1530.Google Scholar
  19. Phillips, D. P., & Carstensen, L. L. (1986). Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 685–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rowan, B. (2001). Coping With School Violence: An Eyewitness Account. In Shaffi, M. & Shaffi, S. (Eds.). School Violence Assessment, Management, Prevention (pp. 117–128) Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  21. Saltzman, W. R., Pynoos, R. S., & Layne, C. M. (2001). Trauma and grief-focused intervention for adolescents exposed to community violence. Results of a school based screening and group treatment protocol. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(4), 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schetky, D. (2002). Risk assessment of violence in youths. In D. Schetky & E.P. Benedek (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Child and Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry (pp. 231–246). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Shaffi, M. & Shaffi, S. (2001). School Violence Assessment, Management, Prevention. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  24. Simon, R. I. (2001). Duty to foresee, forewarn, and protect against violent behavior. In M. Shaffi & S. Shaffi (Eds.), School Violence Assessment, Management, Prevention (pp. 201–215). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  25. Stack, S. (2000). Media impacts on suicide: A quantitative review of 293 findings. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 957–971.Google Scholar
  26. Surgeon General of the United States (1999). Mental health: A report by the Surgeon General (Chap. 3).Google Scholar
  27. Tardiff, K. T. (1999). Psychopharmacological and neurobiological issues in the treatment of violent youth. In D. J. Flannery & R. C. Huff (Eds.), Youth Violence Prevention, Intervention, and Social Policy. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  28. U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2005). Uniform Crime Report. Washington D.C.www.fbi.gov/ucr/uscius/offenses/violent_crime/index.html
  29. Wheeler, L. (1966). Toward a theory of behavioral contagion. Psychological Review, 73, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organization (2000). Preventing suicide: A resource for media professionals.www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/426.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elissa P. Benedek
    • 1
  • Praveen Kambam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MichiganUSA

Personalised recommendations