The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis – Past, Present and Future

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 629)


This chapter is a brief account of fundamentals of the equilibrium-point hypothesis or more adequately called the threshold control theory (TCT). It also compares the TCT with other approaches to motor control. The basic notions of the TCT are reviewed with a major focus on solutions to the problems of multi-muscle and multi-degrees of freedom redundancy. The TCT incorporates cognitive aspects by explaining how neurons recognize that internal (neural) and external (environmental) events match each other. These aspects as well as how motor learning occurs are subjects of further development of the TCT hypothesis.


Equilibrium Point Internal Model Grip Force Motor Goal Muscle Spindle Afferents 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Montreal, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University; Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation, Montreal Rehabilitation Institute and Jewish Rehabilitation HospitalCanada

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