Origin and Advances of the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

  • Anatol G. Feldman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 629)

This section is a collection of papers devoted to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis. The first chapter (by Feldman and Levin) is a brief account of the past and present status of the hypothesis with suggestions for further development. The EP hypothesis emerged in the unique scientific atmosphere created by a group of researchers that is now known in the West as the Russian School of Physiology. The group was founded in approximately 1959 by the famous mathematician, Israel Gelfand, with the purpose of attracting specialists in mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry and biology to join in what is now known as a multidisciplinary approach to biology in general and to the neural control of movement in particular. Two particularly talented scientists, Michael Tsetlin, a physicist, engineer and mathematician, and Victor Gurfinkel, a physician by training and former student of Nikolai Bernstein, were co-organizers of the group. The group also included, among many others, several...


Muscle Force Coriolis Force Muscle Spindle Load Torque Elbow Angle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Montreal, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill Univeristy; Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation, Montreal Rehabilitation Institute and Jewish Rehabilitation HospitalCanada

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