Why the Hand?

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 629)


Cerebral Palsy Motor Control Hand Function Human Hand Finger Force 


  1. An KN, Chao EY, Cooney WP, and Linscheid RL. Normative model of human hand for biomechanical analysis. Journal of Biomechanics 12: 775–788, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aristotle. De partibus animalium, Book IV. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911.Google Scholar
  3. Bizzi E, D'Avella A, Saltiel P, and Tresch M. Modular organization of spinal motor systems. Neuroscientist 8: 437–442, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brand P and Hollister A. Clinical mechanics of the hand. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1999.Google Scholar
  5. Buchholz B and Armstrong TJ. A kinematic model of the human hand to evaluate its prehensile capabilities. Journal of Biomechanics 25: 149–162, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chao EYS and An KN. Determination of internal forces in human hand. J Engng Mech Div EM1: 255–272, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. Chao EYS, An KN, Cooney WP, and Linscheid RL. Biomechanics of the hand: A basic research study. Singapore: World Scientific, 1989.Google Scholar
  8. Cole KJ and Abbs JH. Grip force adjustments evoked by load force perturbations of a grasped object. J Neurophysiol 60: 1513–1522, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cole KJ, Rotella DL, and Harper JG. Tactile impairments cannot explain the effect of age on a grasp and lift task. Exp Brain Res 121: 263–269, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. d'Avella A and Bizzi E. Shared and specific muscle synergies in natural motor behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102: 3076–3081, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dennerlein JT, Diao E, Mote CD, Jr., and Rempel DM. Tensions of the flexor digitorum superficialis are higher than a current model predicts. J Biomech 31: 295–301, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gordon AM, Forssberg H, Johansson RS, and Westling G. Integration of sensory information during the programming of precision grip: comments on the contributions of size cues. Exp Brain Res 85: 226–229, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hajian AZ and Howe RD. Identification of the mechanical impedance at the human finger tip. J Biomech Eng 119: 109–114, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hogan N. The mechanics of multi-joint posture and movement control. Biol Cybern 52: 315–331, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johansson RS, Riso R, Häger C, and Bäkström L. Somatosensory control of precision grip during unpredictable loads. I. Changes in load force amplitude. Exp Brain Res 89: 181–189, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelly RM and Strick PL. Cerebellar loops with motor cortex and prefrontal cortex of a nonhuman primate. J Neurosci 23: 8432–8444, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lemon RN and Griffiths J. Comparing the function of the corticospinal system in different species: organizational differences for motor specialization? Muscle Nerve 32: 261–279, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loeb GE. Overcomplete musculature or underspecified tasks? Motor Control 4: 81–83; discussion 97–116, 2000.Google Scholar
  19. MacKenzie CL and Iberall T. The Grasping Hand: North-Holland, 1994.Google Scholar
  20. Marder E and Strick PL. Motor systems. Editorial Overview. Curr Opin Neurobiol 16: 601–603, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marzke MW. Origin of the human hand. Am J Phys Anthropol 34: 61–84, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marzke MW and Shrewsbury MM. The Oreopithecus thumb: pitfalls in reconstructing muscle and ligament attachments from fossil bones. J Hum Evol 51: 213–215, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray RM, Li Z, and Sastry SS. A mathematical introduction to robotic manipulation. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. Mussa-Ivaldi FA and Bizzi E. Motor learning through the combination of primitives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355: 1755–1769, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Napier JR. The prehensile movement of the hand. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 38B: 902–913, 1956.Google Scholar
  26. Paul C, Lipson H, and Valero-Cuevas FJ. Design and control of tensegrity robots for locomotion. IEEE Transactions on Robotics 22: 944–957, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scott SH. The role of primary motor cortex in goal-directed movements: insights from neurophysiological studies on non-human primates. Curr Opin Neurobiol 13: 671–677, 2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Soechting J and Flanders M. Organization of sequential typing movements. J Neurophysiol 67: 1275–1290, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Soechting JF and Lacquaniti F. An assessment of the existence of muscle synergies during load perturbations and intentional movements of the human arm. Exp Brain Res 74: 535–548, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Strick PL. Stimulating research on motor cortex. Nat Neurosci 5: 714–715, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ting LH, Kautz SA, Brown DA, Van der Loos HF, and Zajac FE. Bilateral integration of sensorimotor signals during pedaling. Ann N Y Acad Sci 860: 513–516, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Todorov E and Jordan MI. Optimal feedback control as a theory of motor coordination. Nat Neurosci 5: 1226–1235, 2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tresch MC, Cheung VC, and d'Avella A. Matrix factorization algorithms for the identification of muscle synergies: evaluation on simulated and experimental data sets. J Neurophysiol, 2006.Google Scholar
  34. Tresch MC, Saltiel P, and Bizzi E. The construction of movement by the spinal cord. Nat Neurosci 2: 162–167, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tubiana R. The Hand. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1981, p. 753.Google Scholar
  36. Valero-Cuevas FJ. An integrative approach to the biomechanical function and neuromuscular control of the fingers. J Biomech 38: 673–684, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Yi JW, Brown D, McNamara III RV, Paul C, and Lipson H. The tendon network of the fingers performs anatomical computation at a macroscopic scale. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 54, 2007.Google Scholar
  38. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Zajac FE, and Burgar CG. Large index-fingertip forces are produced by subject-independent patterns of muscle excitation. J Biomech 31: 693–703, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weiss EJ and Flanders M. Muscular and postural synergies of the human hand. J Neurophysiol 92: 523–535, 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilson FR. The hand: how its use shapes the brain, language, and human culture. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.Google Scholar
  41. Winslow JB. Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain. Paris: Guillaume Desprez et Jean Desessarte, 1732.Google Scholar
  42. Wolfe SW, Crisco JJ, Orr CM, and Marzke MW. The dart-throwing motion of the wrist: is it unique to humans? J Hand Surg [Am] 31: 1429–1437, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yokogawa R and Hara K. Measurement of distribution of maximum index-fingertip force in all directions at fingertip in flexion/extension plane. J Biomech Eng-Transactions of the Asme 124: 302–307, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zancolli E. Structural and dynamic bases of hand surgery. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations