Integrating Concepts: Demonstration of a Multilevel Model for Exploring the Rise of Mutualism Value Orientations in Post-industrial Society

  • Michael J Manfredo


In the early 1990s, I conducted a survey of public values toward wildlife for the Colorado Division of Wildlife. The purpose of the study was to inform statewide wildlife planning. The planning was being conducted, in part, to identify new agency directions and embrace new stakeholders for wildlife in Colorado. The survey we conducted was one of our first uses of the concept of wildlife value orientations (see Bright, Manfredo, & Fulton, 2000; Fulton, Manfredo, & Lipscomb, 1996). After completion of the study, I was invited to report the findings at a formal meeting of the Colorado Wildlife Commission, the group with regulatory authority over wildlife in the state. That small group of people, appointed by the governor, is charged with representing the interests of the public in making decisions about wildlife in Colorado. Our findings showed that about three in ten Coloradoans held pro-animal-rights and antihunting beliefs. These results surprised members of the...


Wildlife Management Mutualism Orientation Micro Model Wildlife Conflict Domination Orientation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bright, A., Manfredo, M. J., & Fulton, D. (2000). Segmenting the public: An application of value orientations to wildlife planning in Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28(1), 218–226.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, T. L., Connelly, N. A., & Decker, D. J. (2006). Participation in and orientation of wildlife professionals toward consumptive wildlife use: A resurvey. HDRU Series Report No. 06-1. Ithaca, NY: Human Dimensions Research Unit.Google Scholar
  6. Buttel, F. H., & Humphrey, C. R. (2002). Sociological theory and the natural environment. In R. E. Dunlap, & W. Michelson (Eds.), Handbook of environmental sociology (pp. 33–69). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  7. Catton, W. R. Jr., & Dunlap, R. (1980). A new ecological paradigm for post-exuberant sociology. American Behavioral Scientist, 24, 15–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cochrane, W. W. (1993). The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dayer, A. A., Stinchfield, H. M., & Manfredo, M. J. (2007). Stories about wildlife: Developing an instrument for identifying wildlife value orientations cross-culturally. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 307–315.Google Scholar
  10. Dillman, D.A., & Tremblay, K. R. (1977). The quality of life in rural America. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 429, 115–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dizard, J. E. (2003). Mortal stakes: Hunters and hunting in contemporary America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  12. Douglas, M. (1990). The pangolin revisited: A new approach to animal symbolism. In R. G. Willis (Ed.), Signifying Animals: Human Meaning in the Natural World (pp. 25–36). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  13. Dunlap, R. E. (2002). An enduring concern: Light stays green for environmental protection. Policy Perspective, September/October, 13(5), 10–14.Google Scholar
  14. Fiske, A. P. (1992). The four elementary forms of sociality: Framework for a unified theory of social relations. Psychological Review, 99, 689–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fulton, D. C., Manfredo, M. J., & Lipscomb, J. (1996). Wildlife value orientations: A conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1(2), 24–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hand, C. M., & Van Liere, K. D. (1984). Religion, mastery-over-nature, and environmental concern. Social Forces, 63, 555–570.Google Scholar
  17. Heberlein, T. A. (1991). Changing attitudes and funding for wildlife: Preserving the sporthunter. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 19, 528–534.Google Scholar
  18. Herman, D. J. (2003). The hunter’s aim: The cultural politics of American sport hunters, 1880–1910. Journal of Leisure Research, 35, 455–474.Google Scholar
  19. Hofstede, G. (2002). The pitfalls of cross-national survey research: A reply to the article by Spector et al. on the psychometric properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 170–173.Google Scholar
  20. Homer, P. M., & Kahle, L. R. (1988). A structural equation test of the Value-Attitude-Behavior Hierarchy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 638–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial societies. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65(1), 19–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change and Democracy: The human development sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ingold, T. (1994). From trust to domination: An alternative history of human-animal relations. In A. Manning, & J. Serpell (Eds.), Animals and human society: Changing perspectives (pp. 1–22). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Jacobs, M. H. (2007). Wildlife value orientations in the Netherlands. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 359–365.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobson, L. (2006). Ballot measure wrap-up. The Rothenberg Political Report. Retrieved Tuesday, November 21, 2006 from
  28. Kaczensky, P. (2007). Wildlife value orientations of rural Mongolians. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 317–329.Google Scholar
  29. Katcher, A., & Wilkins, G. (1993). Dialogue with animals: Its nature and culture. In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis (pp. 173–200). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kellert, S. R. (1976). Perceptions of animals in American society. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 41, 533–546.Google Scholar
  31. Kluckholn, C. (1951). Values and value orientations in the Theory of Action. In T. Parsons, & E. A. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general Theory of Action (pp. 388–433). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kluckholn, F. R., & Strodtbeck, F. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston: Row, Peterson, & Co.Google Scholar
  33. Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M., Bernard, M. M., & Luke, M. A. (2003). Ideologies, values, and behavior. In J. Delamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 283–308). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Manfredo, M. J., & Zinn, H. C. (1996). Population change and its implications for wildlife management in the new west: A case study of Colorado. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1, 62–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manfredo, M. J., Teel, T. L., & Bright, A. D. (2004). Application of the concepts of values and attitudes in human dimensions of natural resources research. In M. J. Manfredo, J. J. Vaske, D. Field, & P. J. Brown (Eds.), Society and Natural Resources: A summary of knowledge prepared for the 10th International Symposium on Society and Natural Resources (pp. 271–282). Jefferson, MO: Modern Litho.Google Scholar
  36. Manfredo, M. J., Teel, T., & Henry, K. (2007). Modernization and the rise of mutualism in human-wildlife relationships. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  37. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  38. Milton, K. (1996). Environmentalism and cultural theory: Exploring the role of Anthropology in environmental discourse. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Minnis, D. L. (1998). Wildlife policy-making by the electorate: An overview of citizen-sponsored ballot measures on hunting and trapping. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26, 75–83.Google Scholar
  40. Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  41. Muth, R. M., & Jamison, W. V. (2000). On the destiny of deer camps and duck blinds: The rise of the animal rights movement and the future of wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 841–851.Google Scholar
  42. Organ, J. F., & Fritzell, E. K. (2000). Trends in consumptive recreation and the wildlife profession. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 780–787.Google Scholar
  43. Peyton, R. B. (2000). Wildlife management: Cropping to manage or managing to crop? Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 774–779.Google Scholar
  44. Pratto, F. (1999). The puzzle of continuing group inequality: Piecing together psychological, social and cultural forces in social dominance theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 191–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Raadik, J., & Cottrell, S. (2007). Wildlife value orientations: An Estonian case study. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 347–357.Google Scholar
  46. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  47. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, methods, and applications (Vol. 18, Cross Cultural Research and Methodology Series, pp. 85–119). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Basic human values: Their content and structure across cultures. In A. Tamayo, & J. Porto (Eds.), Vialores e Trabalho. Brazil: Editora Universidade de Brasilis.Google Scholar
  50. Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5, 136–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Serpell, J. A. (2003). Anthropomorphism and anthropomorphic selection – Beyond the ‘cute response’. Society and Animals, 11(1), 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sidanius, J. (1993). The psychology of group conflict and the dynamics of oppression: A social dominance perspective. In S. Iyengar, & W. McGuire (Eds.), Explorations in Political Psychology (pp. 183–219). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., van Laar, C., & Levin, S. (2004). Social dominance theory: Its agenda and method. Political Psychology, 25, 845–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Snijders, T. A., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Tanakanjana, N., & Saranet, S. (2007). Wildlife value orientations in Thailand: preliminary findings. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 339–345.Google Scholar
  56. Teel, T. L., Dayer, A. A., Manfredo, M. J., & Bright, A. D. (2005). Regional results from the research project entitled “Wildlife Values in the West.” (Project Rep. No. 58). Project Report for the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit.Google Scholar
  57. Teel, T. L., Manfredo, M. J., & Stinchfield, H. S. (2005). The need and theoretical basis for exploring wildlife value orientations cross-culturally. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 297–307.Google Scholar
  58. Teel, T. L., & Manfredo, M. J. (2007a). Exploring the predictive validity of the wildlife value orientation concept across a diverse set of wildlife-related issues. Unpublished manuscript. Google Scholar
  59. Teel, T. L. & Manfredo, M. J. (2007b). Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  60. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  61. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2007). 2006 National survey of fishing, hunting, and wildlife- associated recreation: National overview. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  62. Vaske, J. J., Shelby, L. B., & Manfredo, M. J. (2006). Bibliometric reflections on the first decade of Human Dimensions of Wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(2), 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vining, J. (2003). The connection to other animals and caring for nature. Human Ecology Review, 10(2), 87–99.Google Scholar
  64. Werner, C. M., Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1997). Environmental psychology. In J. Berry, M. H. Segal, & C. Kagitibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 3, Social Behavior and Applications, pp. 255–290). Boston: Allan and Bacon.Google Scholar
  65. White, L. (1967). The historical roots of our ecologic crisis. Science, 155, 1203–1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wildavsky, A. B. (1991). The rise of radical egalitarianism. Washington, DC: The American University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Willis, R. (Ed.). (1990). Signifying animals: Human meaning in the natural world. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Zinn, H. C., & Shen, X. S. (2007). Wildlife value orientations in China. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12(5), 331–338.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations