Values, Ideology, and Value Orientations

  • Michael J Manfredo


Think about an experience that you had with wildlife that made you happy. How would you describe that experience? Would it, for example, involve watching animals, hunting for animals, saving or protecting animals, or showing affection to animals? How was the animal treated? Was the animal an object for human use, or was it depicted as a potential companion? Did the animal arouse affection? Do you see the animal through the eyes of science, or does your story suggest religious or spiritual meaning?

Each story a person tells us when asked this question indicates the individual’s thought processes, and we have used this story-telling approach to detect people’s wildlife value orientations in a recent global study (see Dayer, Stinchfield, & Manfredo, 2007). The stories people tell indicate something about their values.

Values are critical because they (a) represent an individual’s personal goals and standards for determining good and bad or right and wrong, (b) guide a person...


Micro Model Perceive Behavioral Control Orientation Concept Domination Orientation Mutualism Scale 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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