Advertisement

The Biological Context of Wildlife Values: Are There Etchings on the Slate?

  • Michael J Manfredo

Introduction

In this chapter, we examine the genetic influences on human response to wildlife. Musings about the nature of humans may seem unlikely to provide direction to wildlife professionals in their day-to-day dealings with wildlife; however, our beliefs about human nature shape our most basic assumptions about the cause of human action. What part of our response to wildlife is dictated by what we inherit and how we have evolved? Scientific thinking about the role of heritability has changed significantly over the past 25 years and has served to balance the mid-twentieth century view that most of our action and thought is shaped through cultural learning. For students of human–wildlife relationships, an examination of our biological foundations helps explore why our cognitive and emotional abilities have developed as they have. Clearly, wildlife are not merely incidental to this development. For example, authors such as Quammen (2003) and Hart and Sussman (2005) contend that the...

Keywords

Genetic Influence Evolutionary Psychology Behavioral Genetic Innate Tendency Aggressive Tendency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ardrey, R. (1961). African genesis. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  2. Ardrey, R. (1966). The territorial imperative. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  3. Arvey, R. D., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M. (1989). Job satisfaction: Environmental and genetic components. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, A., Philips, W., & Rutter, M. (1996). Autism: towards an integration of clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurobiological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250, 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouchard, T. J., & Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Genes, evolution and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31, 243–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burt, C. (1966). The genetic determination of differences in intelligence: a study of monozygotic twins reared together and apart. British Journal of Psychology, 57, 137–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buss, D. (1999). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Boston: Allyn Bacon.Google Scholar
  10. Caporael, L. R. (2001). Evolutionary psychology: Toward a unifying theory and hybrid science. Annual Review of Psychology, 52,607–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clossen, C. C. (1897). The hierarchy of European races. American Journal of Sociology, 3, 314–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J. H., Turner, J. H., & Velichkovsky, B. M. (1997). Biology and psychology. In P. Weingart, S. D. Mitchell, P. S. Richerson, & S. Maasen (Eds.). Human by nature: between biology and the social sciences. Manhwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  14. Cosmides, L., Tooby, J, & Barkow, J. H. (1992). Introduction: evolutionary psychology and conceptual integration. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Crelia, R. A., & Tesser, A. (1996). Attitude heritability and attitude reinforcement: a replication. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 803–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, & Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  18. Eaves, L. J., & Eysenck, H. J., & Martin, N. G. (1989). Genes, culture and personality: An empirical approach. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Freese, L. (1994). The song of sociobiology. Sociological Perspectives, 37, 337–374.Google Scholar
  20. Harris, M. (1999). Theories of culture in postmodern times. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  21. Harris, M. (2001). Cultural materialism: the struggle for a science of culture (updated edition). Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hart, D., & Sussman, R. W. (2005). Man the hunted.: Primates, predators, and human evolution. New York: Westview.Google Scholar
  23. Hawley, A. H. (1986). Human ecology: a theoretical essay. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Heerwagen, J. H. & Orians, G. (1993). Humans, habitats and aesthetics In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 138–172). Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  25. Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial societies. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65, 19–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jensen, A. R. (1969). Intelligence, learning ability and socioeconomic status. Journal of Special Education, 3, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Katcher, A., & Wilkins, G. (1993). Dialogue with animals: Its nature and culture. In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 173–200). Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  30. Keller, L. M., Bouchard, T. J., Arvey, R. D., Segal, N. L. & Davis, R. V. (1992). Work values: Genetic and environmental influences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kellert, S. R. (1993). The biological basis for human values of nature. In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 42–69). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kellert, S. R., & Wilson, E. O. (1993). The biophilia hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992). A population-based twin study of major depression in women: The impact of varying definitions of illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kennedy, J. S. (1992). New anthropomorphism. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lee, R. B., & Devore, I. (1968). Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Leopold, A. (1922). Goose music. In Leopold. L. B. (Ed.), Round river: from the journals of Aldo Leopold. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and environment in personality development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Lykken, D. T. (2006). The mechanism of emergenesis. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 5, 306–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J., McGue, M., & Tellegen, A. (1993). Heritability of interests: a twin study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 649–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Tellegen, A., & Bouchard, T. J. (1992). Emergenesis: Genetic traits that may not run in families. American Psychologist, 47, 1565–1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lykken, D (personal communication, date of communication needed).Google Scholar
  42. Mazur, A., & Robertson, L. S. (1972). Biology and social behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  43. Megarry, T. (1995). Society in prehistory. Washington Square: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  44. McGee, R. J., & Warms, R. L. (1996). Anthropological theory: an introductory history. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  45. McGuire, W. J. (1969). The nature of attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (2 nd ed., pp. 136–314). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  46. McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 233–346). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  47. Mithen, S. (1996). The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art, religion and science. New York: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  48. Morris, D. (1967). The naked ape. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  49. Olson, J. M., Vernon, P. A., Harris, J. A., & Jang, K. L. (2001). Heritability of attitudes: a study of twins. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 845–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Opler, M. E. (1945). The bio-social basis of thought in the Third Reich. American Sociological Review, 10, 776–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pinker, S. (2002). The blank slate: the modern denial of human nature. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  52. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & Rutter, M. (1997). Behavioral genetics (3rd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  53. Quammen, D. (2003). Monster of god: The man-eating predator in the jungles of history and the mind. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  54. Rose, R. J., & Ditto, W. B. (1983). A developmental-genetic analysis of common fears from early adolescence to early adulthood. Child Development, 54, 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rorty, R. (1979). Philosophy and the mirror of nature. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ruse, M. (1989). The Darwinian paradigm. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Bolton, P., & LeCouteur, A. (1993). Autism: Syndrome definition and possible genetic mechanisms. In R. Plomin, & G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature, nurture and psychology (pp. 269–284). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Murray, R., & Eaves, L. (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 291–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sahlins, M. (1976). The use and abuse of biology: An anthropological critique of sociobiology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  60. Saurin, J. (1993). Global environmental degradation, modernity, and environmental knowledge. Environmental Politics, 2(4), 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scarr, S., & Weinberg, R. A. (1981). The transmission of authoritarianism in families: Genetic resemblance in social-political attitudes? In S. Scarr (Ed.), Race, social class, and individual differences in IQ. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Schwabe, C. (1994). Animals in the ancient world. In A. Manning, & J. Serpell (Eds.), Animals and human society (pp. 36–58). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Serpell, J. A. (2003). Anthropomorphism and anthropomorphic selection – beyond the “cute response.” Society and Animals, 11(1), 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M. L., Meyer, J., Maes, H., Hewitt, J. K., Simonoff, E., et al. (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 803–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  66. Shepard, P. (1973). The tender carnivore and the sacred game. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  67. Smith, E. A., & Wishnie, M. (2000). Conservation in small-scale societies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 493–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Steward, J. (1977). Evolution and ecology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  69. Steward, J. H., Steward, J. C., & Murphy, R. F. (1977). Evolution and ecology: essays on social transformation. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  70. Tesser, A. (1993). The importance of heritability in psychological research: the case of attitudes. Psychological Review, 100, 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tesser, A., & Shaffer, D. (1990). Attitudes and attitude change. In M. R. Rosenzweig, & L. Porter (Eds.), Annual review of psychology (Vol. 41, pp. 479–523). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
  72. Thornhill, N., Tooby, J., and Cosmides, L. (1997). Introduction to evolutionary psychology. In P. Weingart, S. D. Mitchell, P. J. Richerson, & S. Maasen (Eds.), Human by nature: Between biology and the social sciences (pp. 212–238). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  73. Tiger, L. (1969). Men in groups. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  74. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 19–136). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Turner, J. H., Mulder, M. B., Cosmides, L., Giesen, B., Hodgson, G., Maryanski, A. M., et al. (1997). Looking back: historical and theoretical context of present practice. In P. Weingard, S. D. Mitchell, P. J. Richerson, & S. Maasen (Eds.), Human by nature: between biology and the social sciences (pp. 17–65). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Ulrich, R. S. (1993). Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes. In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophillia hypothesis (pp. 73–137). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  77. Washburn, S. L., & Lancaster, C. S. (1968). The evolution of hunting. In R. B. Lee, & I. Devore (Eds.), Man the Hunter (pp. 293–303). Chicago: Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
  78. Weiss, M. L., & Mann, A. E. (1990). Human biology and behavior: an anthropological perspective (5th ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  79. Waller, N. G., Kojetin, B. A., Bouchard, T. J. Jr., Lykken, D. T., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Genetic and environmental influences on religion interests, attitudes and values: A study of twins reared apart and together. Psychological Science, 1, 138–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia: The human bond with other species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wilson, E. O. (1993). Biophilia and the conservation ethic. In S. R. Kellert, & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis (pp. 31–41). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  83. Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience: the unity of knowledge. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  84. Wrangham, R., & Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic Males: Apes and the origins of human violence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations