Brain Tumors

  • Kyle E. Ferguson
  • Grant L. Iverson
  • Mike R. Schoenberg


A brain tumor, or neoplasm, is a growth of abnormal cells inside the skull cavity. Most tumors of the Central Nervous System (>90%) originate from glial cells (e.g., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells), and only rarely develop from neurons (1%) (Davis LE, King MK, Schultz JL, Fundamentals of neurologic disease, Demos Medical Publishing, New York, 2005; Kaye AH, Essential neurosurgery, 3rd edn, Blackwell, Oxford, 2005; Victor M, Ropper AH, Adams and Victor’s manual of neurology, 7th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002). Glial cells (glia) provide a number of metabolic, electrical, and mechanical support functions to neurons (Nolte J, The human brain: an introduction to its function anatomy, 5th edn, Mosby, St. Louis, 2002). Although brain tumors often disseminate and seed along the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, they rarely spread outside the central nervous system (Haberland C, Clinical neuropathology, Demos Medical Publishing, New York, 2007). The causes of brain tumors are generally unknown (Schiffer D, Brain tumor pathology: current diagnostic hotspots and pitfalls, Springer, Dordrecht, 2006).

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of adult and childhood brain tumors.

The chapter is organized into the following seven sections: (1) Types of Tumors, (2) Epidemiology, (3) Signs and Symptoms, (4) Diagnosis and Neuroimaging, (5), Classification and Survival Rates, (6) Treatment, and (7) Neuropsychological Assessment Issues.


Brain Tumor Executive Functioning Primary Brain Tumor Paraneoplastic Syndrome Metastatic Brain Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahles, T. A., Saykin, A. J., Furstenberg, C. T., Cole, B., Mott, L. A., Skalla, K., et al. (2002). Neuropsychologic impact of standard-dose systemic chemotherapy in long-term survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20(2), 485–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albright, A. L. (1993). Pediatric brain tumors. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 43(5), 272–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Brain Tumor Association (1993). ABTA dictionary for brain tumor patients. From Retrieved 10 Jan 2008.
  4. American Brain Tumor Association (2005). A primer of brain tumors (5th ed.). From Retrieved 8 Jan 2008.
  5. American Cancer Society. (2008). Cancer facts & figures 2008. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson-Hanley, C., Sherman, M. L., Riggs, R., Agocha, V. B., & Compas, B. E. (2003). Neuropsychological effects of treatments for adults with cancer: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9(7), 967–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong, C. L., Goldstein, B., Shera, D., Ledakis, G. E., & Tallent, E. M. (2003). The predictive value of longitudinal neuropsychologic assessment in the early detection of brain tumor recurrence. Cancer, 97(3), 649–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong, C. L., Gyato, K., Awadalla, A. W., Lustig, R., & Tochner, Z. A. (2004). A critical review of the clinical effects of therapeutic irradiation damage to the brain: The roots of controversy. Neuropsychology Review, 14(1), 65–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, C. L., Hunter, J. V., Ledakis, G. E., Cohen, B., Tallent, E. M., Goldstein, B. H., et al. (2002). Late cognitive and radiographic changes related to radiotherapy: Initial prospective findings. Neurology, 59(1), 40–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arthur, P. (2005). Brain and spinal tumors. In S. L. Chamberlin & B. Narins (Eds.), The gale encyclopedia of neurological disorders (pp. 176–180). Detroit: Thomson Gale.Google Scholar
  11. Behin, A., Hoang-Xuan, K., Carpentier, A. F., & Delattre, J. Y. (2003). Primary brain tumours in adults. Lancet, 361(9354), 323–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosma, I., Vos, M. J., Heimans, J. J., Taphoorn, M. J., Aaronson, N. K., Postma, T. J., et al. (2007). The course of neurocognitive functioning in high-grade glioma patients. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 9(1), 53–62.Google Scholar
  13. Bray, F., Sankila, R., Ferlay, J., & Parkin, D. M. (2002). Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 1995. European Journal of Cancer, 38(1), 99–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buizer, A. I., de Sonneville, L. M., & Veerman, A. J. (2009). Effects of chemotherapy on neurocognitive function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A critical review of the literature. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 52(4), 447–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carriage, M. T., & Henson, D. E. (1995). The histologic grading of cancer. Cancer, 75, 406–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castellon, S. A., Ganz, P. A., Bower, J. E., Petersen, L., Abraham, L., & Greendale, G. A. (2004). Neurocognitive performance in breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy and tamoxifen. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26(7), 955–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (2005, 2006). Primary brain tumors in the United States Statistical Report 1998–2002. From Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  18. Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (2008). Fact sheet. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from
  19. Chelune, G. J., Naugle, R. I., Luders, H., Sedlak, J., & Awad, I. A. (1993). Individual change after epilepsy surgery: Practice effects and base-rate information. Neuropsychology, 7, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crawford, J. R., MacDonald, T. J., & Packer, R. J. (2007). Medulloblastoma in childhood: New biological advances. Lancet Neurology, 6(12), 1073–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummings, J. L., & Trimble, M. R. (2002). Neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology (2nd ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, L. E., King, M. K., & Schultz, J. L. (2005). Fundamentals of neurologic disease. New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Debnam, J. M., Ketonen, L., Hamberg, L. M., & Hunter, G. J. (2007). Radiology of brain tumors: Structure and physiology. In F. DeMonte, M. R. Gilbert, A. Mahajan, & I. E. McCutcheon’s (Eds.), Tumors of the brain and spine (pp. 37–51). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. El-Zein, R., Bondy, M., & Wrensch, M. (2005). Epidemiology of brain tumors. In F. Ali-Osman (Ed.), Brain tumors (pp. 3–18). Totowa: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glosser, G., McManus, P., Munzenrider, J., Austin-Seymour, M., Fullerton, B., Adams, J., et al. (1997). Neuropsychological function in adults after high dose fractionated radiation therapy of skull base tumors. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 38(2), 231–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gregor, A., Cull, A., Traynor, E., Stewart, M., Lander, F., & Love, S. (1996). Neuropsychometric evaluation of long-term survivors of adult brain tumours: Relationship with tumour and treatment parameters. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 41(1), 55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haberland, C. (2007). Clinical neuropathology. New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Harder, H., Holtel, H., Bromberg, J. E., Poortmans, P., Haaxma-Reiche, H., Kluin-Nelemans, H. C., et al. (2004). Cognitive status and quality of life after treatment for primary CNS lymphoma. Neurology, 62(4), 544–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoppe-Hirsch, E., Renier, D., Lellouch-Tubiana, A., Sainte-Rose, C., Pierre-Kahn, A., & Hirsch, J. F. (1990). Medulloblastoma in childhood: Progressive intellectual deterioration. Child’s Nervous System, 6(2), 60–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Inskip, P. D., & Ron, E. (2006). Brain and other central nervous system cancer. In L. S. Freedman, B. K. Edwards, L. A. G. Ries, & J. L. Young (Eds.), Cancer incidence in four member countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan) of the Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC) compared with US SEER (pp. 111–120). Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. NIH Pub. No. 06-5873. From Retrieved 13 July 2008.
  31. Iverson, G. L., & Brooks, B. L. (2008a). Improving accuracy for identifying cognitive impairment. In M. R. Schoenberg & J. G. Scott (Eds.), The black book of neuropsychology: A syndrome-based approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Iverson, G. L., & Brooks, B. L. (2008b). New psychometric criteria for DSM-IV cognitive disorder NOS (abstract). Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.Google Scholar
  33. Iverson, G. L., Brooks, B. L., White, T., & Stern, R. A. (2008). Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): Introduction and advanced interpretation. In A. M. Horton Jr. & D. Wedding (Eds.), The neuropsychology handbook (3rd ed., pp. 279–343). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(1), 12–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jawahar, A., Willis, B. K., Smith, D. R., Ampil, F., Datta, R., & Nanda, A. (2002). Gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases: Do patients benefit from adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy? An 18-month comparative analysis. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 79(3–4), 262–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Hao, Y., Xu, J., Murray, T., et al. (2008). Cancer statistics, 2008. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 58(2), 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaleita, T. A., Wellisch, D. K., Cloughesy, T. F., Ford, J. M., Freeman, D., Belin, T. R., et al. (2004). Prediction of neurocognitive outcome in adult brain tumor patients. Journal of Neurooncology, 67(1–2), 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kannarkat, G., Lasher, E. E., & Schiff, D. (2007). Neurologic complications of chemotherapy agents. Current Opinion in Neurology, 20(6), 719–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Karajannis, M., Allen, J. C., & Newcomb, E. W. (2008). Treatment of pediatric brain tumors. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 217(3), 584–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaye, A. H. (2005). Essential neurosurgery (3rd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Kebudi, R., Ayan, I., Gorgun, O., Agaoglu, F. Y., Vural, S., & Darendeliler, E. (2005). Brain metastasis in pediatric extracranial solid tumors: Survey and literature review. Journal of Neurooncology, 71(1), 43–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keles, G. E., Cha, S., & Berger, M. S. (2007). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In G. H. Barnett (Ed.), High-grade gliomas: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 133–140). Totowa: Humana Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Keles, G. E., Tihan, T., Burton, E., & Berger, M. (2006). Low-Grade Astrocytoma. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 104–117). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Kieffer-Renaux, V., Viguier, D., Raquin, M. A., Laurent-Vannier, A., Habrand, J. L., Dellatolas, G., et al. (2005). Therapeutic schedules influence the pattern of intellectual decline after irradiation of posterior fossa tumors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 45(6), 814–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Klein, M., Taphoorn, M. J., Heimans, J. J., van der Ploeg, H. M., Vandertop, W. P., Smit, E. F., et al. (2001). Neurobehavioral status and health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 19(20), 4037–4047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Klener, P. (1999). Chemotherapy side effects and their management. In J. Klastersky, S. Scimpff, & S. Hans-Jarg (Eds.), Supportive care in cancer a handbook for oncologists (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  47. Kulkarni, A. V., & McDonald, P. (2006). Meningiomas. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 485–490). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Langer, T., Martus, P., Ottensmeier, H., Hertzberg, H., Beck, J. D., & Meier, W. (2002). CNS late-effects after ALL therapy in childhood. Part III: Neuropsychological performance in long-term survivors of childhood ALL: Impairments of concentration, attention, and memory. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 38(5), 320–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Larson, D. A., & Wara, W. M. (1998). Radiotherapy of primary malignant brain tumors. Seminars in Surgical Oncology, 14(1), 34–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lassman, A. B., & DeAngelis, L. M. (2003). Brain metastases. Neurologic Clinics, 21(1), 1–23. vii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D., Cavenee, W. K., Burger, P. C., Jouvet, A., et al. (2007). The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathologica, 114(2), 97–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mabbott, D. J., Penkman, L., Witol, A., Strother, D., & Bouffet, E. (2008). Core neurocognitive functions in children treated for posterior fossa tumors. Neuropsychology, 22(2), 159–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mantani, A., & Israel, M. A. (2001). Brain tumors. In M. Schwab (Ed.), Encyclopedic reference of cancer (pp. 131–134). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mehta, M. P., Rodrigus, P., Terhaard, C. H., Rao, A., Suh, J., Roa, W., et al. (2003). Survival and neurologic outcomes in a randomized trial of motexafin gadolinium and whole-brain radiation therapy in brain metastases. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21(13), 2529–2536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meyers, C. A. (2002). Cancer patients, cognitive function. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the human brain (pp. 587–593). New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meyers, C. A., Hess, K. R., Yung, W. K., & Levin, V. A. (2000). Cognitive function as a predictor of survival in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18(3), 646–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Meyers, C. A., Smith, J. A., Bezjak, A., Mehta, M. P., Liebmann, J., Illidge, T., et al. (2004). Neurocognitive function and progression in patients with brain metastases treated with whole-brain radiation and motexafin gadolinium: Results of a randomized phase III trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(1), 157–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mulhern, R. K., Merchant, T. E., Gajjar, A., Reddick, W. E., & Kun, L. E. (2004). Late neurocognitive sequelae in survivors of brain tumours in childhood. The Lancet Oncology, 5(7), 399–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Cancer Institute (2007a). Adult brain tumors treatment. From Retrieved 8 Jan 2008.
  61. National Cancer Institute (2007b). Brain cancer. From Retrieved 20 Nov 2007.
  62. Nitta, T., & Sato, K. (1995). Prognostic implications of the extent of surgical resection in patients with intracranial malignant gliomas. Cancer, 75(11), 2727–2731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nolte, J. (2002). The human brain: An introduction to its function anatomy (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  64. Packer, R. J., Cogen, P., Vezina, G., & Rorke, L. B. (1999). Medulloblastoma: Clinical and biologic aspects. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 1(3), 232–250.Google Scholar
  65. Packer, R. J., Sutton, L. N., Atkins, T. E., Radcliffe, J., Bunin, G. R., D’Angio, G., et al. (1989). A prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-Year results. Journal of Neurosurgery, 70(5), 707–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pollack, I. F. (1999). Pediatric brain tumors. Seminars in Surgical Oncology, 16(2), 73–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Raizer, J. (2006). Radiosurgery and whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases: Either or both as the optimal treatment. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(21), 2535–2536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reifenberger, G., Blumcke, I., Pietsch, T., & Paulus, W. (2006). Pathology and classification of tumors of the nervous system. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 3–72). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). Reynolds intellectual assessment scales and Reynolds intellectual screening test professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  70. Ries, L. A. G., Melbert, D., Krapcho, M., Stinchcomb, D. G., Howlader, N., Horner, M. J., et al. (2007). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2005. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. From Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  71. Rohkamm, R. (2004). Color atlas of neurology. NY: Thieme Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  72. Rohlman, D. S., Gimenes, L. S., Eckerman, D. A., Kang, S. K., Farahat, F. M., & Anger, W. K. (2003). Development of the behavioral assessment and research system (BARS) to detect and characterize neurotoxicity in humans. Neurotoxicology, 24(4–5), 523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ropper, A. H., & Brown, R. H. (2005). Adams and Victor’s principles of neurology (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  74. Ruddon, R. W. (2007). Cancer biology (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Sawrie, S. M. (2006). The neuropsychology of adult neuro-onchology. In P. J. Snyder, P. D. Nussenbaum, & D. L. Robins (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 415–435). Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  76. Sawrie, S. M., Chelune, G. J., Naugle, R. I., & Luders, H. O. (1996). Empirical methods for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change following epilepsy surgery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2(6), 556–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schiffer, D. (2006). Brain tumor pathology: Current diagnostic hotspots and pitfalls. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. Sheetz, M. (2009). Physical presence during gamma stereotactic radiosurgery. Health Physics, 96(2 Suppl), S11–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sin, A. H., Cardenas, R. J., Vannemreddy, P., & Nanda, A. (2009). Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases from conventionally radioresistant primary cancers: Outcome analysis of survival and control of brain disease. Southern Medical Journal, 102(1), 42–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steering Committee of the National Cancer Institute of Canada and the Canadian Cancer Society (2005). Canadian cancer statistics 2005. From Retrieved 20 Nov 2004.
  81. Stern, R. A., & White, T. (2003). Neuropsychological assessment battery. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  82. Stuschke, M., Eberhardt, W., Pottgen, C., Stamatis, G., Wilke, H., Stuben, G., et al. (1999). Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after multimodality treatment: Long-term follow-up and investigations of late neuropsychologic effects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 17(9), 2700–2709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Surma-aho, O., Niemela, M., Vilkki, J., Kouri, M., Brander, A., Salonen, O., et al. (2001). Adverse long-term effects of brain radiotherapy in adult low-grade glioma patients. Neurology, 56(10), 1285–1290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taillibert, S., Voillery, D., & Bernard-Marty, C. (2007). Chemobrain: Is systemic chemotherapy neurotoxic? Current Opinion in Oncology, 19(6), 623–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Taphoorn, M. J., & Klein, M. (2004). Cognitive deficits in adult patients with brain tumours. Lancet Neurology, 3(3), 159–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Taylor, M. D. (2006). Medulloblastoma. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 461–469). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Torpy, J. M., Lynm, C., & Glass, R. M. (2005). JAMA patient page. Brain tumors. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(5), 644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Torres, I. J., Mundt, A. J., Sweeney, P. J., Llanes-Macy, S., Dunaway, L., Castillo, M., et al. (2003). A longitudinal neuropsychological study of partial brain radiation in adults with brain tumors. Neurology, 60(7), 1113–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. van Effenterre, R., & Boch, A.-L. (2006). Craniopharyngiomas. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 505–515). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Victor, M., & Ropper, A. H. (2002). Adams and Victor’s manual of neurology (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  91. Weber, J. T. (2007). Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries. Progress in Brain Research, 161, 253–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wefel, J. S., Kayl, A. E., & Meyers, C. A. (2004). Neuropsychological dysfunction associated with cancer and cancer therapies: A conceptual review of an emerging target. British Journal of Cancer, 90(9), 1691–1696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Weingart, J. D., McGirt, M. J., & Brem, H. (2006). High-Grade astrocytoma/glioblastoma. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 127–138). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weiss, B. (2008). Chemobrain: A translational challenge for neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicology, 29(5), 891–8. Available online 9 April 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weller, M. (2006). Oligodendroglioma. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 139–144). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wen, P. Y. (1997). Diagnosis and management of brain tumors. In P. Black & J. S. Loeffler (Eds.), Cancer of the nervous system (pp. 106–127). Cambridge: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  97. Wen, P. Y., Teoh, S. K., & Black, P. M. (2001). Clinical, imaging, and laboratory diagnosis of brain tumors. In A. H. Kaye & E. R. Laws (Eds.), Brain tumors: An encylopedic approach (2nd ed., pp. 217–248). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  98. Westphal, M. (2006). Ependymomas and ventricular tumors. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS tumor (pp. 145–157). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Westphal, M., Lamszus, K., & Tonn, J.-C. (2006). Meningiomas and meningeal tumors. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS Tumor (pp. 81–101). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wetjen, N., & Raffel, C. (2006). Ependymomas. In J. C. Tonn, M. Wetphal, J. T. Rutka, & S. A. Grossman (Eds.), Neuro-oncology of CNS Tumor (pp. 453–460). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilne, S., Collier, J., Kennedy, C., Koller, K., Grundy, R., & Walker, D. (2007). Presentation of childhood CNS tumours: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Oncology, 8(8), 685–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yang, L., Parkin, D. M., Ferlay, J., Li, L., & Chen, Y. (2005). Estimates of cancer incidence in China for 2000 and projections for 2005. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 14(1), 243–250.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyle E. Ferguson
  • Grant L. Iverson
    • 1
  • Mike R. Schoenberg
  1. 1.University of British Columbia & British Columbia Mental Health & Addiction ServicesVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations