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Parkinson’s Disease and Other Movement Disorders

  • Steven A. Gunzler
  • Mike R. Schoenberg
  • David E. Riley
  • Benjamin Walter
  • Robert J. Maciunas
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the anatomy, physiology, treatment and cognitive/neuropsychological aspects of movement disorders, of which Parkinson’s disease (PD) and parkinsonism are common manifestations. The neurologic, cognitive and behavioral aspects of movement disorders are covered in detail as are contemporary treatments and treatment outcomes. This chapter starts with an overview of the functional neuroanatomy of movement and discusses normal motor movement and disordered motor movement. We review the role of the basal ganglia and other anatomical areas implicated in movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism and the role of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in disorders of movement. The next section reviews the clinical presentation of the movement disorders, inclusive of a description of each ­disorders cardinal symptoms and the differentiating characteristics among movement disorders. The cognitive and emotional symptoms associated with movement disorders are also discussed in detail. The later part of this chapter discusses the available treatment for movement disorders such as pharmacotherapy and surgical options and the motor and cognitive outcomes from such treatments. Next, the chapter provides a detailed analysis for the pre-surgical evaluation of patients being considered for surgical treatment, including a review of the pre- and post-operative neuropsychological assessment of patients with movement disorders. We discuss the changes in neuropsychological function that may be predicted post-surgically. Finally, we propose directions for future research in the course and treatment outcomes in motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms associated with movement disorders.

Keywords

Deep Brain Stimulation Multiple System Atrophy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Essential Tremor Tourette Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven A. Gunzler
    • 1
  • Mike R. Schoenberg
  • David E. Riley
  • Benjamin Walter
  • Robert J. Maciunas
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, The Neurological InstituteUniversity Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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