Advertisement

Aphasia Syndromes

  • Mike R. Schoenberg
  • James G. Scott
Chapter

Abstract

The assessment of language is an essential component to neuropsychological evaluations. One that is often quickly summarized as “speech was fluent and articulate, with normal rate, rhythm, intonation, and prosody.” While this may describe some aspects of speech, it by no means offers clinicians enough information to determine if language functions are impaired.

This chapter will approach the assessment of language from more of a diagnostic perspective. That is, we will approach language disorders based on well-described aphasia syndromes which are familiar to many. While this can be helpful, some readers uncertain of aphasia syndromes, but observing some disruption of language, are encouraged to review  Chap. 7, which explores diagnosis of language disorders from a symptomatic (behavioral observation) perspective.

Aphasia syndromes denote an acquired language dysfunction due to neurological injury or disease. Aphasia syndromes are generally described by three language domains first detailed by Bensen and Geschwind: (1) fluent or nonfluent, (2) language comprehension, and (3) repetition. Additional components for assessing aphasia have been added, including naming, reading, and writing. Maintaining consistency with  Chap. 7, reference to “dominant hemisphere” will refer to left hemisphere, since greater than 90% of people are left hemisphere dominant for language. Approximately 90–95% of the general population is right-handed.

Rule of thumb: Left hemisphere dominance for language

Right handed – 90–95%

Left handed – 60–70%

The clinical features of each aphasia syndrome are reviewed below along with neuroanatomical correlates. For rapid review, please see Tables 12.1 and 12.2 and Appendix. For more detailed discussion, please see Heilman and Valenstein (Clinical neuropsychology, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004), Kolb and Whishaw (Fundamentals of human neuropsychology, 6th edn, Worth, New York, 2008), Goodglass et al. (The assessment of aphasia and related disorders, 3rd edn, Pro-Ed, Austin, 2001), Lezak et al. (Neuropsychological assessment, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004), Mesulam (Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000), and/or Victor and Ropper (Adams and Victor’s principals of neurology, 7th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001) for reviews.

Keywords

Speech Content Fluent Aphasia Neuroanatomical Correlate Global Aphasia Conduction Aphasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton, A. L., Hamsher, K., & de, S. (1989). Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates.Google Scholar
  3. Benton, A. L., De Hamsher, S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1994). Multilingual aplasia examination (3rd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Damasio, H., Grabowski, T. J., Tranel, D., Hichwa, R. D., & Damasio, A. R. (1996). A neural basis for lexical retrieval. Nature, 380, 499–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S. (2001). The Boston naming test. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  6. Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E., & Barresi, B. (2000). The Boston diagnostic aphasia examination (BDAE-3) (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  7. Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E., & Barresi, B. (2001). The assessment of aphasia and related disorders (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  8. Hamberger, M., & Seidel, W. T. (2003). Auditory and visual naming tests: normative and patient data for accuracy, response time and tip-of-the-tongue. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 479–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heilman, K. M., & Valenstein, E. (2003). Clinical neuropsychology (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kertexz, A. (1982). Western Aphasia Battery. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  11. Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. Q. (2008). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology (6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  12. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Markwardt, F. C., Jr. (1989, 1998). The peabody individual achievement test-revised. Minneaplois, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Mesulam, M. M. (2000). Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Risse, G. L., Rubens, A. B., & Jordan, L. S. (1984). Disturbances in long-term memory in aphasic patients: A comparison of anterior and posterior lesions. Brain, 107, 605–617.Google Scholar
  16. Ross, E. D. (1997). The aprosodies. In T. E. Feinberg & M. J. Farah (Eds.), Behavioral neurology and neuropsychology (pp. 699–717). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  17. Ross, E. D. (2000). Affective prosody and the aprosodias. In M. M. Mesulam (Ed.), Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology (2nd ed., pp. 316–331). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Spreen, O. & Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. (2nd ed.). NY. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Stern, R. A., & White, T. (2003). Neuropsychological assessment battery (NAB). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  20. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Victor, M., & Ropper, A. H. (2001). Adams and Victor’s principals of neurology (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  22. Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler individual achievement test – 2nd Ed (WIAT-II). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  23. Wiederholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2001). Gray oral reading test-fourth edition (GORT-4). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  24. Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide range achievement test-fourth edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  25. Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. W., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson III. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Neurology, and NeurosurgeryUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations