Critical Issues in Chronic Illnesses of Women
It is well known that gender is one of the most important determinants of physical health. This is for several reasons. First, the sex chromosomes (X, Y) may malfunction, causing a multitude of problems. For example, some disorders occur almost exclusively in males because of a faulty gene carried on the X chromosome (e.g., hemophilia, Lesch–Nyhan, Lowe syndrome). In order for a female to be affected by X-linked illnesses, she must inherit the faulty gene from both parents, which rarely happens. Likewise, some anomalies occur because of the complete absence (e.g., Turner syndrome, genetic designation XO) or extra copies of the X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome, XXY, or XXXY).
Second, some disorders occur far more commonly in one gender than the other, but these syndromes are not related directly to the X or Y chromosome. For example, externalizing disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are far more...
KeywordsMultiple Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Turner Syndrome Oppositional Defiant Disorder Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
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