Sex and Gender Differences in the Assessment, Treatment, and Management of Epilepsy

  • Elaine Fletcher-Janzen
Part of the Issues of Diversity in Clinical Neuropsychology book series (ISSUESDIV)


Epilepsy was reported as far back as 4000 years ago in Babylonia, and until the 19th century, it was shrouded in mystery and stigma (Reynolds, 2001). The development of scientific inquiry into the causes and conditions associated with epilepsy emerged with the fields of neurology and neuropsychology, and it has enjoyed a sustained inquiry ever since. However, it has only been in recent times that the unique interaction between ictal activity and female central nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems has come to light in the recent times (Mead & Hampson, 1996).

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 1–3% of females (Jette & Morrell, 2005) and more than one million women and girls in the US (Epilepsy Foundation, 2007a). Prior to 1963, most states in the USt had legislation prohibiting marriage for individuals with epilepsy therefore preventing many women in this population from having children and reproductive choice. In the past few years, it is...


Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Seizure Frequency Seizure Control Seizure Threshold Epilepsy Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Fletcher-Janzen
    • 1
  1. 1.Private PracticeCleveland

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