Advertisement

Scoring of Immunological Vigor: Trial Assessment of Immunological Status as a Whole for Elderly People and Cancer Patients

  • Katsuiku Hirokawa
  • Masanori Utsuyama
  • Yuko Kikuchi
  • Masanobu Kitagawa
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)

Abstract

The three leading causes of death in industrialized countries are cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease, whereas infections are more prevalent in developing countries. Nonetheless, infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection rank 4th and 5th even in Japan. These data are mainly based on death certificates from medical doctors without autopsy. However, infection is found to be a major cause of death in the elderly where autopsy is performed. Also in cancer patients, autopsy reveals that the proximal cause of death is commonly infection. These findings indicate that an immune deficient state is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality in many elderly people and cancer patients. Thus, developing methods to properly assess immune function as a whole on an individual subject basis is urgently required. The assessment of immune functions should be then followed by immunological restoration, if necessary. This chapter presents one possible method for the proper assessment of global immunological function using comprehensive assessment of various immunological indices, mainly of T-cells. This algorithm is designation “scoring of immunological vigor” (SIV); its usefulness is presented for cancer patients in the first instance in humans. We have also conducted several trials of different immunological interventions in aging animal models. The most recent effective intervention is infusion of activated T-cells from syngeneic young or old mice into old mice. The infusion of autologous activated T-cells has already been applied clinically in humans, mainly for the treatment of cancer and is feasible also in old people. Thus, this approach could be useful for immunological restoration in the elderly, in analogy to the mouse models.

Keywords

Elderly People Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Immune Status Antibody Formation Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hirokawa K, Utsuyama M, Makinodan K. Immunity and aging. In: Pathy MSJ, Sinclair AJ, Morley JE, eds. Principles and Practice of Geriatric Medicine. 4th ed. 2006:19–36.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirokawa K: Aging and immunity. Jpn J Geriat 2003; 40:543–552.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    MacGee W. Cause of death in a hospitalized geriatric population: an autopsy study of 3000 autopsy patients. Virchow Arch A 1993; 423:343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ershler WB, Longo DL. Aging and cancer: issues of basic and clinical science. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89:1489–1497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castle SC, Uyemura K, Fulop T et al. A need study the immune status of frail older adults. Immun Ageing Published online 2006; 3:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirokawa K, Utsuyama M. Animal models and possible human application of immunological restoration in the elderly. Mech Ageing Develop 2002; 123:1055–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tsunemi A, Utsuyama M, Seidler BKH et al. Age-related decline of brain monoamines in mice is reversed to young level by Japanese herbal medicine. Neurochem Res 2005; 30:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosenberg SA. Progress in human tumour immunology and immunotherapy. Nature 2001; 411:380–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamaguchi T, Bamba K, Kitayama A et al. Long-term intravenous administration of activated autologous lymphocytes for cancer patients does not induce anti-nuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor. Anticancer Res 2004; 24:2423–2429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morio T. Adoptive immunotherapy by activated T-cells. Tokyo Pediatrician Conference Report 2001; 20:22–25 (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Utsuyama M, Hirokawa K. Unpublished data.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuiku Hirokawa
    • 1
    • 3
  • Masanori Utsuyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuko Kikuchi
    • 1
  • Masanobu Kitagawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Comprehensive PathologyTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Sanritsu Medical LaboratoryChina
  3. 3.Institute for Health and Life ScienceTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations