Advertisement

Behavior-Genetic and Molecular Studies of Disorders of Speech and Language: An Overview

  • Elena L. Grigorenko

As of September 2, 2007 when this chapter was written, there were an estimated 994,638 words in the English language (http://www.languagemonitor.com/). Everyone agrees that we are not born with the knowledge of these words and the rules by which they are strung together. A newborn child does not know or use any words. However, a child entering school has a lexicon of ~ 13,000 words which, by the end of schooling, expands to ~ 60,000 words and during adulthood reaches ~ 120,000 words (Pinker 1999).

Keywords

Language Acquisition Language Impairment Developmental Dyslexia Language Disorder Hearing Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alcock, K. J., Passingham, R. E., Watkins, K. E., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2000a). Oral dyspraxia in inherited speech and language impairment and acquired dysphasia. Brain & Language, 75, 17–33.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock, K. J., Passingham, R. E., Watkins, K. E., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2000b). Pitch and timing abilities in inherited speech and language impairment. Brain & Language, 75, 34–46.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrose, N., Yairi, E., & Cox, N. J. (1993). Genetic aspects of early childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 36, 701–706.Google Scholar
  4. Ardila, A., Bateman, J. R., Nino, C. R., Pulido, E., Rivera, D. B., & Vanegas, C. J. (1994). An epidemiologic study of stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders, 27, 37–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barry, J. G., Yasin, I., & Bishop, D. V. (2006). Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 6, 66–76.Google Scholar
  6. Bartlett, C. W., Flax, J. F., Logue, M. W., Smith, B. J., Vieland, V. J., Tallal, P., et al. (2004). Examination of potential overlap in autism and language loci on chromosomes 2, 7, and 13 in two independent samples ascertained for specific language impairment. Human Heredity, 57, 10–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett, C. W., Flax, J. F., Logue, M. W., Vieland, V. J., Bassett, A. S., Tallal, P., et al. (2002). A major susceptibility locus for specific language impairment is located on 13q21. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 45–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates, E. A. (2004). Explaining and interpreting deficits in language development across clinical groups: where do we go from here? Brain & Language, 88, 248–253.Google Scholar
  9. Belton, E., Salmond, C. H., Watkins, K. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Gadian, D. G. (2003). Bilateral brain abnormalities associated with dominantly inherited verbal and orofacial dyspraxia. Human Brain Mapping, 18, 194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishop, D. V. (1994a). Grammatical errors in specific language impairment: Competence or performance limitations? Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 507–550.Google Scholar
  11. Bishop, D. V. (1994b). Is specific language impairment a valid diagnostic category? Genetic and psycholinguistic evidence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London – Series B: Biological Sciences, 346, 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bishop, D. V. (2005). Developmental cognitive genetics: how psychology can inform genetics and vice versa. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1153–1168.Google Scholar
  13. Bishop, D. V., Adams, C. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2006). Distinct genetic influences on grammar and phonological short-term memory deficits: Evidence from 6-year-old twins. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 5, 158–169.Google Scholar
  14. Bishop, D. V., & Edmundson, A. (1986). Is otitis media a major cause of specific developmental language disorders? British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 21, 321–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bishop, D. V., Laws, G., Adams, C., & Norbury, C. F. (2006). High heritability of speech and language impairments in 6-year-old twins demonstrated using parent and teacher report. Behavior Genetics, 36, 173–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bishop, D. V., North, T., & Donlan, C. (1995). Genetic basis of specific language impairment: evidence from a twin study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 37, 56–71.Google Scholar
  17. Bishop, D. V., North, T., & Donlan, C. (1996). Nonword repetition as a behavioural marker for inherited language impairment: evidence from a twin study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 37, 391–403.Google Scholar
  18. Bloodstein, O. (1995). A handbook on stuttering. Chicago, IL: National Easter Seal Society.Google Scholar
  19. Choudhury, N., & Benasich, A. A. (2003). A family aggregation study: the influence of family history and other risk factors on language development. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 46, 261–272.Google Scholar
  20. Cleave, P. L., & Rice, M. L. (1997). An examination of the morpheme BE in children with specific language impairment: the role of contractibility and grammatical form class. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 40, 480–492.Google Scholar
  21. Cole, K. N., Schwartz, I. S., Notari, A. R., Dale, P. S., & Mills, P. E. (1995). Examination of the stability of two methods of defining specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 103–123.Google Scholar
  22. Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589–608.Google Scholar
  23. Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cox, N. J., Kramer, P., & Kidd, K. (1984). Segregation analyses of stuttering. Genetic Epidemiology, 1, 245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DeThorne, L. S., Hart, S. A., Petrill, S. A., Deater-Deckard, K., Thompson, L. A., Schatschneider, C., et al. (2006). Children’s history of speech-language difficulties: genetic influences and associations with reading-related measures. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 49, 1280–1293.Google Scholar
  26. Felsenfeld, S. (2002). Finding susceptibility genes for developmental disorders of speech: the long and winding road. Journal of Communication Disorders, 35, 329–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Felsenfeld, S., Kirk, K., Zhu, G., Statham, M., Neale, M., & Martin, N. (2000). A study of the genetic and environmental etiology of stuttering in a selected twin sample. Behavior Genetics, 30, 359–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Felsenfeld, S., & Plomin, R. (1997). Epidemiological and offspring analyses of developmental speech disorders using data from the Colorado Adoption Project. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 778–791.Google Scholar
  29. Fisher, S. E., Lai, C. S., & Monaco, A. P. (2003). Deciphering the genetic basis of speech and language disorders. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 26, 57–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisher, S. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K. E., Monaco, A. P., & Pembrey, M. E. (1998). Localisation of a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature Genetics, 18, 168–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. French, C. A., Groszer, M., Preece, C., Coupe, A. M., Rajewsky, K., & Fisher, S. E. (2007). Generation of mice with a conditional Foxp2 null allele. Genesis: the Journal of Genetics & Development, 45, 440–446.Google Scholar
  32. Gopnik, M., & Crago, M. B. (1991). Familial aggregation of a developmental language disorder. Cognition, 39, 1–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gopnik, M., & Goad, H. (1997). What underlies inflectional error patterns in genetic dysphasia? Journal of Neurolinguistics, 10, 109–137.Google Scholar
  34. Grigorenko, E. L. (in press). Speaking genes or genes for speaking? Deciphering the genetics of speech and language. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  35. Haines, J., & Camarata, S. (2004). Examination of candidate genes in language disorder: a model of genetic association for treatment studies. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 208–217.Google Scholar
  36. Haskell, T. R., MacDonald, M. C., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2003). Language learning and innateness: Some implications of Compounds Research. Cognitive Psychology, 47, 119–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Howie, P. M. (1981). Concordance for stuttering in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 24, 317–321.Google Scholar
  38. Hurst, J. A., Baraitser, M., Auger, E., Graham, F., & Norell, S. (1990). An extended family with a dominantly inherited speech disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 352–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Joanisse, M. F. (2004). Specific Language Impairments in children phonology, semantics, and the English past tense. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 156–160.Google Scholar
  40. Kaufmann, E., & Knöchel, W. (1996). Five years on the wings of fork head. Mechanisms of Development, 57, 3–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kidd, K. K. (1984). Stuttering as a genetic disorder. In R. Curlee & W. Perkins (Eds.), Nature and treatment of stuttering (pp. 149–169). San Diego, CA: College Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Grigorenko, E. L. (in press). Speaking genes or genes for speaking? Deciphering the genetics of speech and language. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  43. Kidd, K. K., Heimbuch, R. C., Records, M. A., Oehlert, G., & Webster, R. L. (1980). Familial stuttering patterns are not related to one measure of severity. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 23, 539–545.Google Scholar
  44. Kovas, Y., Hayiou-Thomas, M. E., Oliver, B., Dale, P. S., Bishop, D. V., & Plomin, R. (2005). Genetic influences in different aspects of language development: The etiology of language skills in 4.5-year-old twins. Child Development, 76, 632–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lahey, M., & Edwards, J. (1995). Specific language impairment: Preliminary investigation of factors associated with family history and with patterns of language performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 643–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lai, C. S., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Levy, E. R., Hodgson, S., Fox, M., et al. (2000). The SPCH1 region on human 7q31: genomic characterization of the critical interval and localization of translocations associated with speech and language disorder. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 357–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lai, C. S., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Monaco, A. P. (2001). A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature, 413, 519–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Leonard, L. B. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. Levis, B., Ricci, D., Lukong, J., & Drayna, D. (2004). Genetic linkage studies in a large West African kindred. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75, S2026.Google Scholar
  50. Lewis, B. A., Cox, N. J., & Byard, P. J. (1993). Segregation analysis of speech and language disorders. Behavior Genetics, 23, 291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lewis, B. A., Ekelman, B. L., & Aram, D. M. (1989). A familial study of severe phonological disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 32, 713–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewis, B. A., & Thompson, L. A. (1992). A study of developmental speech and language disorders in twins. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1086–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Liègeois, F., Baldeweg, T., Connelly, A., Gadian, D. G., Mishkin, M., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2003). Language fMRI abnormalities associated with FOXP2 gene mutation. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 1230–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. MacDermot, K. D., Bonora, E., Sykes, N., Coupe, A. M., Lai, C. S., Vernes, S. C., et al. (2005). Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76, 1074–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall, C. R., & van der Lely, H. K. (2006). A challenge to current models of past tense inflection: the impact of phonotactics. Cognition, 100, 302–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McClelland, J. L., & Patterson, K. (2002). Rules or connections in past-tense inflections: What does the evidence rule out? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Meaburn, E., Dale, P. S., Craig, I. W., & Plomin, R. (2002). Language-impaired children: No sign of the FOXP2 mutation. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 13, 1075–1077.Google Scholar
  58. Miscimarra, L. E., Stein, C. M., Millard, C., Kluge, A., Cartier, K. C., Freebairn, L. A., et al. (2007). Further evidence of pleiotropy influencing speech and language: Analysis of the DYX8 region. Human Heredity, 63, 47–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Neils, J., & Aram, D. M. (1986). Family history of children with developmental language disorders. Perceptual Motor Skills, 63, 655–658.Google Scholar
  60. Newbury, D. F., Bonora, E., Lamb, J. A., Fisher, S. E., Lai, C. S. L., Baird, G., et al. (2002). FOXP2 is not a major susceptibility gene for autism or specific language impairment. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 1318–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Brien, E. K., Zhang, X., Nishimura, C., Tomblin, J. B., & Murray, J. C. (2003). Association of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 1536–1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pinker, S. (1991). Rules of language. In P. Bloom (Ed.), Language acquisition: Core readings. New York, NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  63. Pinker, S. (1999). Words and rules: The ingredients of language. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  64. Pinker, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2002). The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 456–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Plaut, D. C. (1996). Relearning after damage in connectionist networks: Toward a theory of rehabilitation. Brain and Language, 52, 25–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Redmond, S. M., & Rice, M. L. (2001). Detection of irregular verb violations by children with and without SLI. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 44, 655–669.Google Scholar
  67. Riaz, N., Steinberg, S., Ahmad, J., Pluzhnikov, A., Riazuddin, S., Cox, N. J., et al. (2005). Genomewide significant linkage to stuttering on chromosome 12. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76, 647–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rice, M. L., Cleave, P. L., & Oetting, J. B. (2000). The use of syntactic cues in lexical acquisition by children with SLI. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 43, 582–594.Google Scholar
  69. Rice, M. L., Haney, K. R., & Wexler, K. (1998). Family histories of children with SLI who show extended optional infinitives. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 41, 419–432.Google Scholar
  70. Rice, M. L., Tomblin, J. B., Hoffman, L., Richman, W. A., & Marquis, J. (2004). Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: relationships with nonverbal IQ over time. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 47, 816–834.Google Scholar
  71. Rice, M. L., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. L. (1995). Specific language impairment as a period of extended optional infinitive. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 38, 850–863.Google Scholar
  72. Rice, M. L., Wexler, K., Marquis, J., & Hershberger, S. (2000). Acquisition of irregular past tense by children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 43, 1126–1145.Google Scholar
  73. Rice, M. L., Wexler, K., & Redmond, S. M. (1999). Grammaticality judgments of an extended optional infinitive grammar: evidence from English-speaking children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research, 42, 943–961.Google Scholar
  74. Rumelhart, D. E., & McClelland, J. L. (1987). On learning the past tenses of English verbs. In J. L. McClelland, D. E. Rumelhart, & t. P. R. Group (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition (Vol. 2). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  75. Seidenberg, M. S. (2005). Connectionist models of word reading. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 238–242.Google Scholar
  76. Seidenberg, M. S., & McClelland, J. L. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Shriberg, L. D. (2002, November 22–24). Classification and misclassification of child speech sound disorders. Paper presented at The Annual Conference of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  78. Shugart, Y. Y., Mundorff, J., Kilshaw, J., Doheny, K., Doan, B., Wanyee, J., et al. (2004). Results of a genome-wide linkage scan for stuttering. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 124, 133–135.Google Scholar
  79. Smith, S. D. (2007). Genes, language development, and language disorders. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 96–105.Google Scholar
  80. Smith, S. D., Pennington, B. F., Boada, R., & Shriberg, L. D. (2005). Linkage of speech sound disorder to reading disability loci. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1057–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Somerville, M. J., Mervis, C. B., Young, E. J., Seo, E. J., del Campo, M., Bamforth, S., et al. (2005). Severe expressive-language delay related to duplication of the Williams-Beuren locus. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 1694–1701.Google Scholar
  82. Stein, C. M., Millard, C., Kluge, A., Miscimarra, L. E., Cartier, K. C., Freebairn, L. A., et al. (2006). Speech sound disorder influenced by a locus in 15q14 region. Behavior Genetics, 36, 858–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Stein, C. M., Schick, J. H., Taylor, G. H., Shriberg, L. D., Millard, C., Kundtz-Kluge, A., et al. (2004). Pleiotropic effects of a chromosome 3 locus on speech-sound disorder and reading. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 283–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Stromswold, K. (1998). Genetics of spoken language disorders. Human Biology, 70, 297, 291–212.Google Scholar
  85. Stromswold, K. (2001). The heritability of language: A review and meta-analysis of twin, adoption, and linkage studies. Language, 77, 647–723.Google Scholar
  86. Suresh, R., Ambrose, N., Roe, C., Pluzhnikov, A., Wittke-Thompson, J. K., Ng, M. C.-Y., et al. (2006). New complexities in the genetics of stuttering: Significant sex-specific linkage signals. American Journal of Human Genetics, 78, 554–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Tager-Flusberg, H., & Joseph, R. M. (2003). Identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London – Series B: Biological Sciences, 358, 303–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Tallal, P., Hirsch, L. S., Realpe-Bonilla, T., Miller, S., Brzustowicz, L. M., Bartlett, C. W., et al. (2001). Familial aggregation in Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 44, 1172–1182.Google Scholar
  89. Tallal, P., Ross, R., & Curtiss, S. (1989). Familial aggregation in specific language impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. The SLI Consortium. (2002). A genomewide scan identifies two novel loci involved in SLI. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 384–398.Google Scholar
  91. The SLI Consortium. (2004). Highly significant linkage to the SLI1 locus in an expanded sample of individuals affected by SLI. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 1225–1238.Google Scholar
  92. Tomblin, J. B. (1989). Familial concentration of developmental language impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Tomblin, J. B., & Buckwalter, P. R. (1998). Heritability of poor language achievement among twins. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 41, 188–199.Google Scholar
  94. Tyson, C., McGillivray, B., Chijiwa, C., & Rajcan-Separovic, E. (2004). Elucidation of a cryptic interstitial 7q31.3 deletion in a patient with a language disorder and mild mental retardation by array-CGH. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A., 129, 254–260.Google Scholar
  95. Ullman, M. T., Corkin, S., Coppola, M., Hickok, G., Growdon, J. H., Koroshetz, W. J., et al. (1997). A neural dissociation within language: Evidence that the mental dictionary is part of declarative memory, and that grammatical rules are processed by the procedural system. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 266–276.Google Scholar
  96. van der Lely, H. K. (2005). Domain-specific cognitive systems: insight from Grammatical-SLI. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 53–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. van der Lely, H. K., Rosen, S., & Adlard, A. (2004). Grammatical language impairment and the specificity of cognitive domains: Relations between auditory and language abilities. Cognition, 94, 167–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. van der Lely, H. K., & Stollwerck, L. (1996). A grammatical specific language impairment in children: an autosomal dominant inheritance? Brain and Language, 52, 484–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. van der Lely, H. K., & Stollwerck, L. (1997). Binding theory and grammatical specific language impairment in children. Cognition, 62, 245–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K., Alcock, K. J., Fletcher, P., & Passingham, R. E. (1995). Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 930–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K. E., Price, C. J., Ashburner, J., Alcock, K. J., Connelly, A., et al. (1998). Neural basis of an inherited speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 12695–12700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Verhoeven, L., & van Balkom, H. (Eds.). (2004). Classification of developmental language disorders. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  103. Vernes, S. C., Newbury, D. F. Abrahsms., B. S., Winchester, L., Nicod, J., Groszer, M., et al. (2008). A functional genetic link between distinct developmental language disorders. The New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 2337–2345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Viswanath, N., Lee, H. S., & Chakraborty, R. (2004). Evidence for a major gene influence on persistent developmental stuttering. Human Biology, 76, 401–412.Google Scholar
  105. Watkins, K. E., Dronkers, N. F., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2002). Behavioural analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: comparison with acquired aphasia. Brain, 125, 452-464.Google Scholar
  106. Watkins, K. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R. E., Connelly, A., Friston, K. J., et al. (2002). MRI analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: structural brain abnormalities. Brain, 125, 465–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. White, S. A., Fisher, S. E., Geschwind, D. H., Scharff, C., & Holy, T. E. (2006). Singing mice, songbirds, and more: models for FOXP2 function and dysfunction in human speech and language. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 10376–10379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wittke-Thompson, J. K., Ambrose, N., Yairi, E., Roec, C., Cook, E. H., Ober, C., et al. (2007). Genetic studies of stuttering in a founder population. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 32, 33–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. G. (1999). Early childhood stuttering I: Persistency and recovery rates. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1097–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. G. (2005). Early childhood stuttering. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  111. Zevin, J. D., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2006). Simulating consistency effects and individual differences in nonword naming: A comparison of current models. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 145–160.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child Study Center, Department of Psychology, Department of Epidemiology & Public HealthYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations