The Genetics of Offensive Aggression in Mice

  • Stephen C. Maxson

Male aggression was the first behavior studied in inbred strains of mice. Differences were found by Scott (1942) and by Ginsburg and Allee (1942) across the same three inbred strains. Here was the first evidence that genetic variants may have an effect on individual differences in male mouse aggression. These two studies also showed the first strain by environment interaction for a mouse behavior. When C57BL/10 mice were transferred from cage to cage by picking them up by forceps on the tail, they were more aggressive than when they were transferred from cage to cage in a small box or allowed to do so on their own. This treatment had no effect on the aggressive behaviors of the other strains (C3H and Bagg albino [BALB/c]). This finding was replicated (Ginsburg & Jummonville, 1967). Also, the study of Ginsburg and Allee showed for the first time that individual difference in aggression suspected to be due to genes could be modified by experience. Mice of the most pacific strain could be rendered aggressive by helping them to win fights, and mice of the most pugnacious strain could be rendered pacific by subjecting them to a series of defeats.


Inbred Strain Lactate Female Behavioural Brain Research Aggression Score Female Aggression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramov, U., Raud, S., Koks, S., Innos J., Kurrikoff, K., Matsui, T., et al. (2004). Targeted mutation of CCK(2) receptor gene antagonises behavioural changes induced by social isolation in female, but not in male mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 155, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, D. B. (1980). Motivational systems of agonistic behavior in muroid rodents: A comparative review and neural model. Aggressive Behavior, 4, 295–346.Google Scholar
  3. Barr, C. S., Newman, T. K., Becker, M. L., Parker, C. C., Champoux, M., Lesch, K. P., et al. (2003). The utility of the non-human primate model for studying gene by environment interactions in behavioral research. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 2, 336–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, A. J., Lesch, K. P., Heils, A., Long, J. C., Lorenz, J. G., Shoaf, S. E., et al. (2002). Early experience and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to influence primate CNS function. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benus, R. F. (2001). Coping in female mice from lines bidirectionally selected for male aggression. Behaviour, 138, 997–1008.Google Scholar
  6. Benzer, S. (1971). From gene to behavior. Journal of the American Medical Association, 218, 1015–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beitchman, J. H., Baldassarra, L., Mik., H., De Luca, V., King, N., Bender, D., et al. (2006). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1103–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchard, D. C., & Blanchard, R. J. (2006). Stress and aggressive behaviors. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of Aggression (pp. 275–291). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brunner, H. G. (1996). MAOA deficiency and abnormal behaviour: perspectives on an association. In: G. R. Bock & J. A. Goode (Eds.), Genetics of Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour (pp. 155–164) New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Cairns, R. B., MacCombie, D. J., & Hood, K. E. (1983). A developmental-genetic analysis of aggressive behavior in mice I: Behavioral outcomes. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 97, 69–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cases, O., Seif, I., Grimsby, J., Gaspar, P., Chen, K., Pournin, S., et al. (1995). Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA. Science, 268, 1763–1766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheh, M. A., Millonig, J. H., Roselli, L. M., Ming, X., Jacobsen, E., Kamdar, S., et al. (2006). En2 knockout mice display neurobehavioral and neurochemical alterations relevant to autism spectrum disorder. Brain Research, 1116, 166–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, K., & Shih, J. C. (2006) MAO A knock-out (KO), MAOA AB KO and forebrain specific MAOA knock-in transgenic mice as models for studying aggressive behavior. XVII World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression. Minneapolis, MN. July 26, 2006.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, K., Cases, O., Rebrin, I., Wu, W., Gallaher, T. K., Seif, I., et al. (2007). Forebrain-specific expression of monoamine oxidase A reduces neurotransmitter levels, restores the brain structure, and rescues aggressive behavior in monoamine oxidase A-deficient mice. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282, 115–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coste, S. C., Heard, A. D., Phillips. T. J., & Stenzel-Poore, M. P. (2006). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2-deficient mice display impaired coping behaviors during stress. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 5, 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Del Punta, K., Leinders-Zufall, T., Rodriguez, I., Jukam, D, Wysocki, C. J., Ogawa, S., et al. (2002). Deficient pheromone responses in mice lacking a cluster of vomeronasal receptor genes. Nature, 419, 70–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Delville, Y., De Vries, G. J., & Ferris, C. F. (2000). Neural connections of the anterior hypothalamus and agonistic behavior in golden hamsters. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, 55, 53–76.Google Scholar
  19. Dulac, C., & Wagner, S. (2006). Genetic analysis of brain circuits underlying pheromone signaling. Annual Review of Genetics, 40, 449–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duncan, G. E., Moy, S. S., Perez, A., Eddy, D. M., Zinzow, W. M., Lieberman, J. A., et al. (2004) Deficits in sensorimotor gating and tests of social behavior in a genetic model of reduced NMDA receptor function. Behavioural Brain Research, 53, 507–519.Google Scholar
  21. Ebert, P. D. (1976). Agonistic behavior in wild and inbred Mus musculus. Behavioral Biology, 18, 291–294.Google Scholar
  22. Ebert, P. D. (1983). Selection for aggression in a natural population. In E. C. Simmel, M. E. Hahn & J. K. Walters (Eds.), Aggressive behavior: Genetic and neural Approaches (pp. 103–127). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  23. Fredericson, E. (1950). The effect of food deprivation upon competitive and spontaneous combat in C57 black mice. Journal of Psychology, 29, 89–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fredericson, E., & Birnbaum, E. A. (1954). Competitive fighting between mice with different hereditary backgrounds. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 85, 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gammie, S. C. (2005). Current models and future directions for understanding the neural circuitries of maternal behaviors in rodents. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 4, 119–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gammie, S. C., & Lonstein, J. S. (2006). Maternal aggression. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of Aggression (pp. 250–274). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gammie, S. C., Hasen, N. S., Stevenson, S. A., Bale, T. L., & D’Anna, K. L. (2005). Elevated stress sensitivity in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice decreases maternal, but not intermale aggression. Behavioural Brain Research, 160, 169–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ginsburg, B. E. (1958). Genetics as a tool in the study of behavior. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 1, 397–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ginsburg, B. E., & Allee, W. C. (1942). Some effects of conditioning on social dominance and subordination in inbred strains of mice. Physiology and Zoology, 15, 485–506.Google Scholar
  30. Ginsburg, B. E., & Jummonville, J. E. (1967). Genetic variability in response to early stimulation viewed as an adaptive mechanism in population ecology. American Zoologist, 7, 795.Google Scholar
  31. Guillot, P. V., Roubertoux, P. L, & Crusio, W. E. (1994). Hippocampal mossy fiber distributions and intermale aggression in seven inbred mouse strains. Brain Research, 660, 167–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Haberstick, B. C., Smolen, A., & Hewitt, J. K.. (2006). Family-based association test of the 5HTTLPR and aggressive behavior in a general population sample of children. Biological Psychiatry, 9, 836–843.Google Scholar
  33. Haller, J., & Kruk, M. R. (2006). Normal and abnormal aggression: Human disorders and novel laboratory models. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 292–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Haller, J., Toth, M., Halasz, J., & De Boer, S. F. (2006). Patterns of violent aggression-induced brain c-fos expression in male mice selected for aggressiveness. Physiology and Behavior, 88, 173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Halasz, J., Liposits, Z., Meelis, W., Kruk, M. R., & Haller, J. (2002). Hypothalamic attack area-mediated activation of the forebrain in aggression. Neuroreport, 13, 1267–1270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Haug, M., Johnson, F. J., & Brain, P. F. (1992). Biological correlates of attack on lactating intruders by female mice: A topical review. In K. Bjorkqvist & P. Nielmela (Eds.), Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression (pp. 381–393). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hensbroek, R. A., Sluyter, F., Guillot, P. V., Van Oortmerssen, G. A., & Crusio, W. E. (1995). Y chromosomal effects on hippocampal mossy fiber distributions in mice selected for aggression. Brain Research, 682, 203–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Holmes, A., Murphy, D. L, & Crawley, J. N. (2002). Reduced aggression in mice lacking the serotonin transporter. Psychopharmacology, 161, 160–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hood, K. E., & Cairns, R. B. (1988). A developmental-genetic analysis of aggressive behavior in mice. II. Cross-sex inheritance. Behavior Genetics, 18, 605–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hrabovsky, E., Halasz, J., Meelis, W., Kruk, M. R., Liposits, Zs., & Haller, J. (2005). Neurochemical characterization of hypothalamic neurons involved in attack behavior: Glutamatergic dominance and co-expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in a subset of glutamatergic neurons. Neuroscience, 133, 657–666.Google Scholar
  41. Hyde, J. S., & Sawyer, T. F. (1979). Correlated response to selection for aggressiveness in female mice. II Maternal aggression. Behavior Genetics, 9, 571–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jamot, L., Bertholet, J.-Y., & Crusio, W. E. (1994). Neuroanatomical divergence between two substrains of C57BL/6J inbred mice entails differential radial-maze learning. Brain Research, 644, 352–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Jones, S. E., & Brain P. F. (1987). Performances of inbred and outbred laboratory mice in putative tests of aggression. Behavior Genetics, 17, 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Karl, T., Lin, S., Schwarzer, C., Sainsbury, A., Couzens, M., Wittmann, W., et al. (2004). Y1 receptors regulate aggressive behavior by modulating serotonin pathways. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 101, 12742–12747.Google Scholar
  45. Kessler, S., Harmatz, P., & Gerling, S. A. (1975). The genetics of pheromonally mediated aggression in mice. I. Strain difference in the capacity of male urinary odors to elicit aggression. Behavior Genetics, 5, 233–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Williams, B., Newcombe, R., Craig, I. W., et al. (2006). MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children’s mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 903–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kulikov, A. V., Osipova, D. V., Naumenko, V. S., & Popova, N. K. (2005). Association between Tph2 gene polymorphism, brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity and aggressiveness in mouse strains. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 4, 482–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1964). Studies on the aggressive behavior in mice. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fenniae, Series B, 131, 1–131.Google Scholar
  49. Ledent, C., Vaugeois. J. M., Schiffmann, S. N., Pedrazzini, T., El Yacoubi, M., Vanderhaeghen, J, J., et al. (1997). Aggressiveness, hypoalgesia and high blood pressure in mice lacking the adenosine A2a receptor. Nature, 388, 674–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. LeRoy, I., Mortaud, S., Tordjman, S., Donsez-Darcel, E., Carlier, M., Degrelle, H., et al. (1999). Genetic correlation between steroid sulfatase concentration and initiation of attack behavior in mice. Behavior Genetics, 29, 131–136.Google Scholar
  51. Leypold, B. G., Yu, C. R., Leinders-Zufall, T., Kim, M. M., Zufal, F., & Axel, R. (2002). Altered sexual and social behaviors in trp2 mutant mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 99, 6376–6381.Google Scholar
  52. Mandiyan, V. S., Coats, J. K., & Shah, N. M. (2005). Deficits in sexual and aggressive behaviors in Cnga2 mutant mice. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1660–1662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Marino, M. D., Bourdelat-Parks, B. N., Cameron Liles, L., & Weinshenker, D. (2005). Genetic reduction of noradrenergic function alters social memory and reduces aggression in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 161, 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Martin, M., Ledent, C., Parmentier, M., Maldonado, R., & Valverde, O. (2002). Involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in emotional behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 159, 379–387.Google Scholar
  55. Maxson, S. C. (1992a). Methodological issues in genetic analyses of an agonistic behavior (offense) in male mice. In D. Goldowitz, D. Wahlsten, & R. E. Wimer (Eds.), Techniques for the genetic analysis of brain and behavior: Focus on the mouse. (pp. 349–373). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  56. Maxson, S. C. (1992b). MHC genes, chemosignals, and genetic analyses of murine social behaviors. In R. L. Doty & D. Muller-Schwarze (Eds.), Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 6 (pp. 197–203). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  57. Maxson, S. C. (1998) Homologous genes, aggression and animal models. Developmental Neuropsychology, 14, 143–156.Google Scholar
  58. Maxson, S. C., & Canastar, A. (2003). Conceptual and methodological issues in the genetics of mouse agonistic behavior. Hormones & Behavior, 44, 258–262.Google Scholar
  59. Maxson, S. C., & Canastar, A. (2006). Aggression: Concepts and methods relevant to genetic analyses in mice and humans. In B. Jones & P. Mormede (Eds.), Neurobehavioral Genetics: Methods and Applications, Second Edition. (pp. 281–289) Boca Ratan: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  60. Maxson, S. C., & Canastar, A. (2007). The genetics of aggression in mice. In D. J. Flannery, A. Vazsony, & I. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior (pp. 91–110). New York: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  61. Maxson, S. C., Roubertoux, P. L., Guillot, P., & Goldman, D. (2001). The genetics of aggression: From mice to humans. In M. Martinez (Ed.), Prevention and Control of Aggression and the Impact on its Victims, (pp. 71–81), New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  62. Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Buckholtz, J. W., Kolachana, B. R., Hariri, A., Pezawas, L., Blasi, G., et al. (2006). Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proceedings of the Naional Academy of Science USA, 103, 6269–6274Google Scholar
  63. Miczek, K. A., Maxson, S. C., Fish, E. W., & Faccidomo, S. (2001). Aggressive behavioral phenotypes in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 125, 167–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mickek, K. A., & Fish, E. W. (2006). Monoamines, GABA, glutamate and aggression. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of Aggression (pp 114–149). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Moechars, D., Gilis, M., Kuipéri, C., Laenen, I., & Van Leuven, F. (1999). Aggressive behaviour in transgenic mice expressing APP is alleviated by serotonergic drugs. Neuroreport, 9, 3561–3564.Google Scholar
  66. Monahan, E. J., & Maxson, S. C. (1998). Y chromosome, urinary chemosignals, and an agonistic behavior (offense) of mice. Physiology and Behavior, 64, 123–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Morgan, C., & Cone, R. D. (2006). Melanocortin-5 receptor deficiency in mice blocks a novel pathway influencing pheromone-induced aggression. Behavior Genetics, 36, 291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mossner, R., Albert, D., Persico, A. M., Hennig, T., Bengel, D., Holtman, B., et al. (2000). Differential regulation of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors in serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 10, 489–493.Google Scholar
  69. Newman, T. K., Syagailo, Y. V., Barr, C. S., Wendland, J. R., Champoux, M., Graessle, M, et al. (2005). Monoamine oxidase A gene promoter variation and rearing experience influences aggressive behavior in rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nicot, A., Otto, T., Brabet, P., & Dicicco-Bloom, E. M.. (2004). Altered social behavior in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor-deficient mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 8786–8795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Norlin, E. M., Gussing, F., & Berghard, A. (2003). Vomeronasal phenotype and behavioral alterations in Gαi2 mutant mice Current Biology, 13, 1214–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ogawa, S., & Makino, J. (1981). Maternal aggression in inbred strains of mice: Effects of reproductive state. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 52, 78–84.Google Scholar
  73. Ogawa, S., & Makino, J. (1984). Aggressive behavior in inbred strains of mice during pregnancy. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 40, 195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ogawa, S., Eng, V., Taylor, J., Lubahn, D. B., Korach, K. S., & Pfaff, D. W. (1998). Roles of estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in reproduction-related behaviors in female mice. Endocrinology, 139, 5070–5081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Parmigiani, S., Brain, P. F., Mainardi, D., & Brunoni, V. (1988) Different patterns of biting attack employed by lactating female mice (Mus domesticus) in encounters with male and female conspecific intruders. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 102, 287–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Parmiginai, S., Palanza, P. S., Rodgers, J., & Ferrari, P. F. (1999). Selection, evolution of behavior and animal models in behavioral neuroscience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 957–969.Google Scholar
  77. Pezawas, L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Drabant, E. M., Verchinski, B. A., Munoz, K. E., Kolachana, B. S., et al. (2005). 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 828–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Prom, E. C., Eaves, L. J., Foley, D. L., Gardner, C. O., Wormley, B. K., Riley, B. P., et al. (2006, July 26). Gender differences in the interaction of monoamine oxidase-A and childhood adversity as risk factor in conduct disorders. XVII World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression. Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  79. Ragnauth, A. K., Devidze, N., Moy, V., Finley, K., Goodwillie, A., Kow, L. M., et al. (2005). Female oxytocin gene-knockout mice, in a semi-natural environment, display exaggerated aggressive behavior. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 4, 229–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Robinson, G. E., Grozinger, C. M., & Whitfield, C. W. (2005), Sociogenomics: social life in molecular terms. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6, 257–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Roubertoux, P. L., & Carlier, M. (2003). Y chromosome and antisocial behavior. In M. P. Mattson (Ed.), Neurobiology of Aggression: Understanding and Preventing Violence (pp. 119–134). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  82. Roubertoux, P. L., Le Roy, I., Mortaud, S., Perez-Diaz, F., & Tordjman, S. (1999) Measuring aggression in the mouse. In W. E. Crusio & R. T. Gerlai (Eds.), Handbook of Molecular-Genetic Techniques for Brain and Behavior Research (pp. 696–709). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  83. Roubertoux, P. L., Guillot, P. V., Mortaud, S., Pratte, M., Jamon, M., Cohen-Salmon, C., et al. (2005). Attack behaviors in mice: From factorial structure to quantitative trait loci mapping. European Journal of Pharmacology, 526, 172–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sandnabba, N. K. (1992). Aggressive behavior in female mice as a correlated characteristic in selection for aggressiveness in male mice. In K. Bjorkqvist & P. Niemela (Eds.), Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression. (pp. 367–379). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. St John, R. D., & Corning, P. A. (1973). Maternal aggression in mice. Behavioral Biology, 9, 635–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Schellinck, H. M., Monahan, E., Brown, R. E., & Maxson, S. C. (1993). A comparison of the contribution of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and Y chromosomes to the discriminability of individual urine odors of mice by Long-Evans rats. Behavior Genetics, 23, 257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Scott, J. P. (1942). Genetic differences in the social behavior of inbred strains of mice. Journal of Heredity, 33, 11–15.Google Scholar
  88. Scott, J. P. (1984). The dog as a model for human aggression. In K. J. Flannelly, R. J. Blanchard, & D. C. Blanchard (Eds.), Biological Perspectives on Aggression (pp. 97–107). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, J. P. (1989). The Evolution of Social Systems. New York: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  90. Shelbourne, P. F., Killeen, N., Hevner, R. F., Johnston, H. M., Tecott, L., Lewandoski, M., et al. (2006). A Huntington’s disease CAG expansion at the murine Hdh locus is unstable and associated with behavioural abnormalities in mice. Human Molecular Genetics, 8, 763–774Google Scholar
  91. Shimshek, D. R., Bus, T., Grinevich, V., Single, F. N., Mack, V., Sprengel, R., et al. (2006). Impaired reproductive behavior by lack of GluR-B containing AMPA receptors but not of NMDA receptors in hypothalamic and septal neurons. Molecular Endocrinology, 20, 219–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Simon, N. G., & Lu, S.-F. (2006). Androgens and aggression. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of Aggression (pp. 211–230). New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  93. Sluyter, F., Jamot, L., van Oortmerssen, G. A., & Crusio, W. E. (1994). Hippocampal mossy fiber distributions in mice selected for aggression. Brain Research, 16, 145–148.Google Scholar
  94. Sluyter, F., Marican, C. C., & Crusio, W. E. (1999). Further phenotypical characterization of two substrains of C57BL/6J inbred mice differing by a spontaneous single-gene mutation. Behavioural Brain Research, 98, 39–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sorensen, D. B., Johnsen, P. F., Bibby, B. M., Bottner A., Bornstein, S. R., Eisenhofer, G., et al. (2005). PNMT transgenic mice have an aggressive phenotype Hormones and Metabolic Research, 37, 159–163.Google Scholar
  96. Svare, B. (1989). Recent advances in the study of female aggressive behavior in mice. In P. F. Brain, D. Mainardi, & S. Parmigiani (Eds.) House Mouse Aggression (pp. 135–159). New York: Harwood Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. Takayanagi, Y., Yoshida, M., Bielsky, I. F., Ross, H. E., Kawamata, M., Onaka, T., et al. (2005). Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice. Proceedings of the National Academy Science USA, 102, 16096–16110Google Scholar
  98. van Oortmerssen, G. A., & Bakker, Th. C. M. (1981). Artificial selection for short and long attack latencies in wild Mus musculus domesticus. Behavior Genetics, 11, 115–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Vekovischeva, O. Y., Aitta-Aho, T., Echenko, O., Kankaanpaa, A., Seppala, T., Honkanen, A., et al. (2004). Reduced aggression in AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR-A subunit-deficient mice. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 3, 253–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Verona, E., Joiner, T. E., Johnson, F., & Bender, T. W. (2006). Gender specific gene-environment interactions on laboratory-assessed aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 33–41.Google Scholar
  101. Vukhac, K.-L., Sankoorikal, E.-B., & Wang, Y. (2001). Dopamine D2L receptor- and age-related reduction in offensive aggression. Neuroreport, 12, 1035–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, Z., Balet Sindreu, C., Li, V., Nudelman, A., Chan, G. C.-K., & Storm, D. R. (2006). Pheromone detection in male mice depends on signaling through the type 3 adenylyl cyclase in the main olfactory epithelium. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 7375–7379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wendland, J. R., Lesch, K. P., Newman, T. K., Timme, A., Gachot-Neveu, H., Thierry, B., et al. (2006). Differential functional variability of serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase a genes in macaque species displaying contrasting levels of aggression-related behavior. Behavior Genetics, 36, 163–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wersinger, S. R., Caldwell, H. K., Christiansen, M., & Young, W. S., III. (2007). Disruption of the vasopressin 1b receptor gene impairs the attack component of aggressive behavior in mice. Genes Brain & Behavior, 6, 653–660.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations