The Genetics of Childhood Temperament

  • Jeffrey R. Gagne
  • Matthew K. Vendlinski
  • H. Hill Goldsmith

The field of temperament research stands at the intersection of various disciplines of biobehavioral research. Temperament links personality to psychological development. Temperament links normative variation to psychopathology. Temperament links human and animal research traditions in behavior genetics. Temperament, as we now understand it, was one of the earliest areas of behavior genetic research. For example, temperament in dogs was one focus of research by Scott and Fuller (1965).


Twin Pair Behavioral Inhibition Effortful Control Temperament Dimension Childhood Temperament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the Teacher’s Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Anastasi, A. (1958). Heredity, environment, and the question “how?” Psychological Review, 65, 197–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anokhin, A. P., Heath, A. C., & Myers, E. (2006). Genetic and environmental influences on frontal EEG asymmetry: A twin study. Biological Psychology, 71, 289–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakshi, V. P., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and animal models of anxiety: Gene-environment interactions. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1175–1198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartels, M., de Geus, E. J., Kirschbaum, C., Sluyter, F., & Boomsma, D. I. (2003). Heritability of daytime cortisol levels in children. Behavior Genetics, 33, 421–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bates, J. E. (1989). Concepts and measures of temperament. In G. A. Kohnstramm, J. E. Bates, & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 3–26). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley Scales of Mental Development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin, L., Li, L., Patterson, C., Greenberg, B. D., Murphy, D. L., & Hamer D. H. (1996). Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Herot, C., Friedman, D., Snidman, et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Billman, J., & McDevitt, S. C. (1980). Convergence of parent and observer ratings of temperament with observations of peer interaction in nursery school. Child Development, 51, 395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bouchard, T. J. Jr., & Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Genes, evolution, and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31, 243–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bramlett, R. K., Scott, P., & Lowell, R. K. (2000). A comparison of temperament and social skills in predicting academic performance in first grade. Special Services in the Schools, 16, 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Braungart, J. M., Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1992). Genetic influence on tester-rated temperament as assessed by Bayley’s Infant Behavior Record; Nonadoptive and adoptive siblings and twins. Developmental Psychology, 28, 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, T. (2007). Temporal course and structural relationships among dimensions of temperament and DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorder constructs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 313–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burgess, K. B., Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C. S. L., & Nelson, L. J. (2005). Behavioral inhibition, social withdrawal, and parenting. In W. R. Crozier & L. E. Alden (Eds.), The essential handbook of social anxiety for clinicians (pp. 99–120), New York, Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development. Oxford, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Button, T. M., Scourfield, J., Martin, N., Purcell, S., & McGuffin, P. (2005). Family dysfunction interacts with genes in the causation of antisocial symptoms. Behavior Genetics, 35, 115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell, S. B., & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Follow-up of hard-to-manage preschoolers: Adjustment at age 9 and predictors of continuing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 871–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cardon, L. R. (2006). Genetics: Delivering new disease genes. Science, 314, 1403–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caspi, A. (2000). The child is father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 158–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caspi, A., Snugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cherny, S. S., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R. P., & Plomin, R. (1994). Continuity and change in infant shyness from 14 to 20 months. Behavior Genetics, 24, 365–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cherny, S. S., Saudino, K. J., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R. P. Plomin, R., & DeFries, J. C. (2001). The development of observed shyness from 14 to 20 months: Shyness in context. In R. N. Emde & J. K. Hewitt (Eds.), Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change (pp. 73–88). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Chiappe, P., Hasher, L., & Siegel, L. S. (2000). Working memory, IC, and reading disability. Memory and Cognition, 28, 8–17.Google Scholar
  28. Clark, L. A., Watson, D., & Mineka, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, D J., Dibble, E., & Graw, J. M. (1977). Fathers’ and mothers’ perceptions of children’s personality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 480–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cole, P. M., Teti, L. O., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2003). Mutual emotion regulation and the stability of conduct problems between preschool and early school age. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Comings, D. E., Johnson, J. P., Gonzalez, N. S., Huss, M., Saucier, G., McGue, M., et al. (2000). Association between the adrenergic alpha 2A receptor gene (ADRA2A) and measures of irritability, hostility, impulsivity and memory in normal subjects. Psychiatric Genetics, 10, 39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Conway, M. A., Harries, K., Noyes, J., Racsma’ny, M., & Frankish, C. R. (2000). The disruption and dissolution of directed forgetting: IC of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 409–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Deater-Deckard, K., & O’Connor, T. G. (2000). Parent-child mutuality in early childhood: Two behavioral genetic studies. Developmental Psychology, 36, 561–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Deater-Deckard, K., & Petrill, S. A. (2004). Parent-child dyadic mutuality and child behavior problems: An investigation of gene-environment processes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1171–1179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deater-Deckard, K., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2007). Anger/frustration, task persistence, and conduct problems in childhood: A behavior genetic analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1985). Multiple regression analysis of twin data. Behavior Genetics, 15, 467–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1988). Multiple regression analysis of twin data: Etiology of deviant scores versus individual differences. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellolgiae, 37, 205–216.Google Scholar
  38. DiLalla, L. F., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. S. (1994). Genetic etiology of behavioral inhibition among 2-year-old children. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doyle, A. E., Faraone, S. V., Seidman, L. J., Willcutt, E. G., Nigg, J. T., Waldman, I. D., et al. (2005). Are endophenotypes based on measures of executive functions useful for molecular genetic studies of ADHD? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 774–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eaton, W. O. (1994). Activity level, development, and personality. In C. F. Halverston, G. A. Kohnstamm, & R. P. Martin (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood (pp. 173–187). New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., & Osher, Y. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 78–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Reiser, M., et al. (2001). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development, 72, 1112–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eisenberg, N., Shepard, S. A., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B. C., & Guthrie, I. K. (1998). Shyness and children’s emotionality, regulation, and coping: Contemporaneous, longitudinal, and across-context relations. Child Development, 69, 767–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eley, T. C., Bolton, D., O’Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Plomin, R. (2003). A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 945–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Emde, R. N., Robinson, J. L., Corley, R. P., Nikkari, D., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2001). Reactions to restraint and anger-related expressions during the second year. In R. N. Emde & J. K. Hewitt (Eds.), Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change (pp. 127–140). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Essex, M. J., Kraemer, H. C., Armstrong, J. M., Boyce, W. T., Goldsmith, H. H., Klein, M. H., et al. (2006). Exploring risk factors for the emergence of children’s mental health problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1246–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fan, J., Wu, Y., Fossella, J. A., & Posner, M. I. (2001). Assessing the heritability of attentional networks. BMC Neuroscience, 2, 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Federenko, I. S., Nagamine, M., Hellhammer, D. H., Wadhwa, P. D., & Wust, S. (2004). The heritability of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis responses to psychosocial stress is context dependent. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 6244–6250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fox, N. A. (2004). Temperament and early experience form social behavior. In S. G. Kaler & O. M. Rennert (Eds.), Understanding and optimizing human development: From cells to patients to populations (pp. 171–178), New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  50. Fox, N. A., Nichols, K. E., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K., Schmidt, L., Hamer, D., et al. (2005). Evidence for a gene-environment interaction in predicting behavioral inhibition in middle childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 921–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frye, D., Zelaso, P. D., & Palfai, T. (1995). Theory of mind and rule-based reasoning. Cognitive Development, 10, 483–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fullard, W., McDevitt, S. C., & Carey, W. B. (1984). Assessing temperament in one to three year old children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 9, 205–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fuller, J. L., & Thompson, W. R. (1960). Behavior genetics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Gagne, J. R. & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007, June). A twin analysis of inhibitory behavior from 12–36 months of age. Paper presented at the Behavior Genetics Association, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  55. Gagne, J. R., & Saudino, K. J. (2005). A behavioral genetic analysis of inhibitory control at 24 months of age. Behavior Genetics, 35, 801.Google Scholar
  56. Galejs, I., King, A., & Hegland, S. M. (1987). Antecedents of achievement motivation in preschool children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148, 333–348.Google Scholar
  57. Gallerani, D., O’Regan, M., & Reinherz, H. (1982). Prekindergarten screening: How well does it predict readiness for first grade? Psychology in the Schools, 19, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gelernter, J., Cubells, J. F., Kidd, J. R., Pakstis, A. J., & Kidd, K. K. (1999). Population studies of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter protein gene. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88, 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gest, S. D. (1997). Behavioral inhibition: Stability and associations with adaptation from childhood to early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 467–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Goldsmith, H. H. (1988). Human developmental behavioral genetics: Mapping the effects of genes and environments. Annals of Child Development, 5, 187–227.Google Scholar
  61. Goldsmith, H. H. (1996). Studying temperament via construction of the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire. Child Development, 67, 218–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, A. H., Plomin, R., Rothbart, M. K., Thomas, A., Chess, S., et al. (1987). Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approaches. Child Development, 58, 505–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, K. A., & Lemery, K. S. (1997). Toddler and childhood temperament: Expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 891–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldsmith, H. H., & Campos, J. J. (1982). Toward a theory of infant temperament. In R. N. Emde & R. J. Harmon (Eds.), The development of attachment and affiliative systems (pp. 161–193). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  65. Goldsmith, H. H., & Campos, J. J. (1986). Fundamental issues in the study of early temperament: The Denver Twin Temperament Study. In M. E. Lamb, A. L. Brown, & B. Rogoff (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (pp. 231–283). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  66. Goldsmith, H. H., & Gottesman, I. I. (1981). Origins of variation in behavioral style: A longitudinal study of temperament in young twins. Child Development, 52, 91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goldsmith, H. H., & Lemery, K. S. (2000). Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: A behavior-genetic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1199–1209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery, K. S., Buss, K. A., & Campos, J. (1999). Genetic analyses of focal aspects of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 35, 972–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery, K. S., & Essex, M. J. (2004). Temperament as a liability factor for childhood behavioral disorders: The concept of liability. In L. F. DiLalla (Ed.), Behavior genetics principles: Perspectives in development, personality, and psychopathology (pp. 19–39). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Goldsmith, H. H., Reilly, J., Lemery, K. S., Longley, S., & Prescott, A. (1995). The laboratory temperament assessment battery-preschool version: Description of procedures. Technical report, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Madison.Google Scholar
  71. Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1991). Contemporary instruments for assessing early temperament by questionnaire and in the laboratory. In J. Strelau & A. Angleitner (Eds.), Explorations in temperament: International perspectives on theory and measurement (pp. 249–272). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  72. Gottesman, I. I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gurlanick, M. J., & Groom, J. M. (1990). The correspondence between temperament and peer interactions for normally developing and mildly delayed preschool children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 16, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hall, S. J., Halperin, J. M., Schwartz, S. T., & Newcorn, J. H. (1997). Behavioral and executive functions in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and reading disability. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Halverson, C .F., & Waldrop, M. F. (1976). Relations between preschool activity and aspects of intellectual and social behavior at age 71/2. Developmental Psychology, 12, 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D., et al. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdale. Science, 297, 400–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Staying in school protects boys with poor self-regulation in childhood from later crime: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 1049–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hughes, C., White, A., Sharpen, J., & Dunn, J. (2000). Antisocial, angry, and unsympathetic: “Hard-to-manage” preschoolers’ peer problems and possible cognitive influences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 169–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Izard, C. E. (1972). Patterns of emotions. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Dodge, K. A., Rutter, M., Taylor, A. et al. (2005). Nature X nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 67–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kagan, J. (2001). Temperamental contributions to affective and behavioral profiles in childhood. In S. G. Hofmann & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), From social anxiety to social phobia: Multiple perspectives (pp. 216–234), Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  82. Kalin, N. H., & Shelton, S. E. (2003). Nonhuman primate models to study anxiety, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. In ,J. A. King, ,C. F. Ferris & I. I. Lederhendler (Eds.), Roots of mental illness in children (pp. 189–200). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  83. Kendler, K., Kessler, R. C., Walters, E. E., MacLean, C., Neale, M. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1995). Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 833–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kirschbaum, C., Wust, S., Faig, H. G., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1992). Heritability of cortisol responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone, ergometry, and psychological stress in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 75, 1526–1530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klein, H. A. (1980). Early childhood group care: Predicting adjustment from individual temperament. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 137, 125–131.Google Scholar
  86. Knafo, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Prosocial behavior from early to middle childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Developmental Psychology, 42, 771–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kochanska, G., DeVet, K., Goldman, M., Murray, K., & Putnam, S. P. (1994). Maternal reports of conscience development and temperament in young children. Child Development, 65, 852–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kohnstamm, J. A. Bates, & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 187–247). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kupper, N., de Geus, E. J., van den Berg, M., Kirschbaum, C., Boomsma, D. I., & Willemsen, G. (2005). Familial influences on basal salivary cortisol in an adult population. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(9), 857–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Langley, J., McGee, R., Silva, P. A., & Williams, S. (1983). Child behavior and accidents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8, 181–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lemery-Chalfant, K., Doelger, L., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2008). Genetic relations between effortful and attentional control and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood. Infant and Child Development, 17, 365–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lengua, L. J. (2003). Associations among emotionality, self-regulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in middle childhood. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 595–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lesch, K-P, Bengel, D., Heils, A., Sabol, S. Z., Greenberg, B. D., Petri, S., et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274, 1527–1531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Leve, L. D., Winebarger, A. A., Fagot, B. I., Reid, J. B., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1998). Environmental and genetic variance in children’s observed and reported maladaptive behavior. Child Development, 69, 1286–1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lytton, H. (1980). Parent-child interaction: The socialization process observed in twin and singleton families. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  97. Martin, R. P., Olejnik, S., & Gaddis, L. (1994). Is temperament an important contributor to schooling outcomes in elementary school? Modeling effects of temperament and scholastic ability on academic achievement. In W. B. Carey & S. C. McDevitt (Eds.), Prevention and early intervention: Individual differences as risk factors for the mental health of children: A festschrift for Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, (pp. 59–68). Philadelphia: Brunner/ Mazel.Google Scholar
  98. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1980). Bayley’s Infant Behavior Record: Behavioral components and twin analyses. Child Development, 51, 1157–1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1983). A longitudinal twin study of stability of components from Bayley’s Infant Behavior Record. Child Development, 54, 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1987). Psychological characteristics of childhood accidents. Journal of Social Issues, 43, 45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1989a). Temperament and cognition: Relations between temperament and mental test scores. In G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates, & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in Childhood (pp. 263–282). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  102. Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1989b). Children’s behavioral inhibition over age and across situations: Genetic similarity for a trait during change. Journal of Personality, 57, 215–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Munafo, M. R., Clark, T. G., Moore, L. R., Payne, E., Walton, R., & Flint, J. (2003). Genetic polymorphisms and personality in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 8, 471–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nakamura, C. Y., & Finck, D. (1973). Effect of social or task orientation and evaluative or nonevaluative situations on performance. Child Development, 44, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Neale, M. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1984). A bivariate path analysis of fear data on twins and their parents. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, 33, 273–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Nigg, J. T., Quamma, J. P., Greenberg, M. T., & Kusche, C. A. (1999). A two-year longitudinal study of neuropsychological and cognitive performance in relation to behavioral problems and competencies in elementary school children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 51–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Palisin, H. (1986). Preschool temperament and performance on achievement tests. Developmental Psychology, 22, 766–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pallodino, P., Mammarella, N., & Vecchi, T. (2003). Modality-specific effects in inhibitory mechanisms: The interaction of peripheral and central components in working memory. Brain and Cognition, 53, 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Passolunghi, M. C., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Short-term memory, working memory, and IC in children with difficulties in arithmetic problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 44–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Perner, J., Leekam, S. R., & Wimmer, H. (1987). Three-year-olds’ difficulty with false belief: The case of conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 125–137.Google Scholar
  112. Phillips, K, & Matheny, A. P., Jr. (1997). Evidence for genetic influence on both cross-situation and situation-specific components of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pliszka, S. R., Borcherding, S. H., Spratley, K., Leon, S., & Irick, S. (1997). Measuring IC in children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Plomin, R. & Bergeman, C. S. (1991). The nature of nurture: Genetic influence on ‘environmental’ measures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 373–427.Google Scholar
  115. Plomin, R., Coon, H., Carey, G., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1991). Parent-offspring and sibling adoption analyses of parental ratings of temperament in infancy and childhood. Journal of Personality, 59, 705–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1988). Nature and nurture during infancy and early childhood. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Plomin, R. Emde, R. N., Braungart, J. M., Campos, J., Corley, R., Fulker, D. W. et al. (1993). Genetic change and continuity from fourteen to twenty months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study. Child Development, 64, 1354–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (Eds.). (2003). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. New York: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  120. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Temperament and learning. In M. I. Posner, M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Educating the human brain (pp. 121–146). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Riese, M. L. (1990). Neonatal temperament in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Child Development, 61, 1230–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rose, R. J., & Ditto, W. B. (1983). A developmental-genetic analysis of common fears from early adolescence to early adulthood. Child Development, 54, 361–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothbart, M. K. (1989). Temperament in childhood: A framework. In G. A. Kohnstamm, J. E. Bates, & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 59–73). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  124. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at 3–7 years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 1394–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, & personality development (pp. 105–176). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  127. Rowe, D. C., & Plomin, R. (1977). Temperament in early childhood. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 150–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102, 14931–14936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The ‘windows tasks’ as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 331–349.Google Scholar
  130. Saudino, K. J., & Cherny, S. S. (2001). Parental ratings of temperament in twins. In R. N. Emde & J. K. Hewitt (Eds.), Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change (pp. 73–88). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Saudino, K. J., & Eaton, W. O. (1991). Infant temperament and genetics: An objective twin study of motor activity level. Child Development, 62, 1167–1174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Saudino, K. J., & Eaton, W. O. (1995). Continuity and change in objectively assessed temperament: A longitudinal twin study of activity level. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13, 81–95.Google Scholar
  133. Saudino, K. J., Plomin, R., & DeFries, J. C. (1996). Tester-rated temperament at 14, 20, and 24 months: Environmental change and genetic continuity. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 129–144.Google Scholar
  134. Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype greater than environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schachar, R., Tannock, R., Marriott, M., & Logan, G. (1995). Deficient IC in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 411–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmitz, S., Fulker, D. W., Plomin, R., Zahn-Waxler, C., Emde, R. N., & DeFries, J. C. (1999). Temperament and problem behavior during early childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 333–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Schmitz, S., Saudino, K. J., Plomin, R., Fulker, D. W., & DeFries, J. C. (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in middle childhood: Analyses of teacher and tester ratings. Child Development, 67, 409–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Schoen, M. J., & Nagle, R. J. (1994). Prediction of school readiness from kindergarten temperament scores. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2003). Dissociation between reactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system to repeated psychosocial stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 450–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schreiber, J. E., Goldsmith, H. H., & Gottesman, I. I. (2008). Translating the endophenotype concept for dimensional traits. Manuscript in preparation, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Madison.Google Scholar
  141. Schreiber, J. E., Krause, K. L., Schmidt, N. L., Lemery-Chalfant, K. S., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2008). The associations of temperament and emotion regulation with anxiety and depression in middle childhood. Under editorial review.Google Scholar
  142. Schreiber, J. E., Shirtcliff, E., Van Hulle, C. A., Lemery, K, Klein, M., Kalin, N., et al. (2006). Environmental influences on family similarity in afternoon cortisol levels: Twin and parent-offspring design. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 1131–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Scott, J. P., & Fuller, J. L. (1965). Genetics and the social behavior of the dog. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  144. Sethre-Hofstad, L., Stansbury, K., & Rice, M. A. (2002). Attunement of maternal and child adrenocortical response to child challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 731–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sham, P. (1998). Statistics in human genetics. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  146. Smoller, J. W., Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Kennedy, J., Dai, D., Racette, S. R., et al. (2003). Association of a genetic marker at the corticotropin-releasing hormone locus with behavioral inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 1376–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Smoller, J. W., Yamaki, L. H., Fagerness, J. A., Biederman, J., Racette, S., Laird, N. M., et al. (2005). The corticotropin-releasing hormone gene and behavioral inhibition in children at risk for panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1485–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stevenson, J., Batten, N., & Cherner, M. (1992). Fears and fearfulness in children and adolescents: A genetic analysis of twin data. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 977–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Strobel, A., Spinath, F. M., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., & Lesch, K. P. (2003). Lack of association between polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality. Neuropsychobiology, 47, 52–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Trouton, A., Spinath, F. M., & Plomin, R. (2002). Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A multivariate, longitudinal genetic investigation of language, cognition and behavior problems in childhood. Twin Research, 5, 444–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Turkheimer, E., D’Onofrio, B. M., Maes, H. M., & Eaves, L. J. (2005). Analysis and interpretation of twin studies including measures of the shared environment. Child Development, 76, 1217–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Wahlsten, D. (1999). Single-gene influences on brain and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 599–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Willis-Owen, S. A., Turri, M. G., Munafo, M. R., Surtees, P. G., Wainwright, N. W., Brixey, R. D., et al. (2005). The serotonin transporter length polymorphism, neuroticism, and depression: A comprehensive assessment of association. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 451–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wolfe, C. D., & Bell, M. A. (2003). Working memory and IC in early childhood: Contributions from physiology, temperament, and language. Developmental Psychobiology, 44, 68–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wood, A. C., Saudino, K. J., Rogers, H., Asherson, P., & Kuntsi, J. (2007). Genetic influences on mechanically-assessed activity level in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 695–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wust, S., Federenko, I., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2000). Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 707–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wust, S., Federenko, I. S., van Rossum, E. F., Koper, J. W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2005). Habituation of cortisol responses to repeated psychosocial stress—further characterization and impact of genetic factors. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 199–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yamagata, S., Takahashi, Y., Kijima, N., Maekawa, H., Ono, Y., & Ando, J. (2005). Genetic and environmental etiology of effortful control. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 8, 300–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey R. Gagne
    • 1
  • Matthew K. Vendlinski
    • 1
  • H. Hill Goldsmith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations